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1.
Res Sq ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786449

ABSTRACT

Background People living with HIV (PLWH) may have a poorer prognosis with COVID-19 infection and are an important population for COVID-19 vaccination. We assessed the willingness and reasons for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance or hesitancy among PLWH in South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of telephone interviews with a randomly selected subset of participants enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study evaluating a decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery program in South Africa. Questions assessed willingness to accept a future COVID-19 vaccine, concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccination, and overall vaccine confidence. Interviews were conducted between September 2020 and January 2021. We evaluated participant demographics, sources of COVID-19 information, stigma and medical mistrust, uptake of non-pharmaceutical interventions, and socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic as potential covariates of willingness to accept vaccination. Results We completed interviews with 213 participants; 153 (72%) were female, median age 35y, and 100 (47%) had completed secondary school. Among the participants, 121 (57%) were willing to accept future vaccination, 46 (22%) were unsure, and 45 (21%) stated they did not intend to be vaccinated. Fear of side effects, reported by 42 (20%), was the most common concern about COVID-19 vaccination. Older age was associated with willingness to accept vaccination (aOR 1.75 for every 10-year increase in age, 95% CI 1.10-2.78, p=0.02), while higher medical mistrust related to COVID-19 (aOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.093-0.45, p<0.001) and use of social media for COVID-19 information (aOR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.84, p=0.02) were associated with lower willingness to accept vaccination. Conclusions In this cohort of PLWH in South Africa, over half were willing to accept COVID-19 vaccination, although a substantial proportion remained unsure or were not willing to be vaccinated. Public health messaging should emphasize the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination and address misinformation and medical mistrust among PLWH. Ongoing efforts to ensure access to COVID-19 vaccines for vulnerable populations are crucial.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 130, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient-level predictors of enrollment in pediatric biorepositories are poorly described. Especially in pandemic settings, understanding who is likely to enroll in a biorepository is critical to interpreting analyses conducted on biospecimens. We describe predictors of pediatric COVID-19 biorepository enrollment and biospecimen donation to identify gaps in COVID-19 research on pediatric biospecimens. METHODS: We compared data from enrollees and non-enrollees aged 0-25 years with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection who were approached for enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital pediatric COVID-19 biorepository between April 12, 2020, and May 28, 2020, from community or academic outpatient or inpatient settings. Demographic and clinical data at presentation to care were from automatic and manual chart extractions. Predictors of enrollment and biospecimen donation were assessed with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 457 individuals approached, 214 (47%) enrolled in the biorepository. A COVID-19 epidemiologic risk factor was recorded for 53%, and 15% lived in a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined COVID-19 hotspot. Individuals living in a COVID-19 hotspot (relative risk (RR) 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-3.2]), with symptoms at presentation (RR 1.8 [95% CI: 1.2-2.7]), or admitted to hospital (RR 1.8 [95% CI: 1.2-2.8]) were more likely to enroll. Seventy-nine percent of enrollees donated any biospecimen, including 97 nasopharyngeal swabs, 119 oropharyngeal swabs, and 105 blood, 16 urine, and 16 stool specimens, respectively. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status based on zip code did not predict enrollment or biospecimen donation. CONCLUSIONS: While fewer than half of individuals approached consented to participate in the pediatric biorepository, enrollment appeared to be representative of children affected by the pandemic. Living in a COVID-19 hotspot, symptoms at presentation to care and hospital admission predicted biorepository enrollment. Once enrolled, most individuals donated a biospecimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Massachusetts , Pandemics , Young Adult
4.
Int J Womens Dermatol ; 7(5): 653-659, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, there has been a surge in interest and funding for global health dermatology. Skin conditions are now recognized as the fourth leading cause of nonfatal disease burden worldwide in disability-adjusted life years. Dermatologists are uniquely positioned within global health because skin conditions are often the presenting sign of severe illnesses, such as neglected tropical diseases and COVID-19. METHODS: We review four major areas of work by dermatologists within global health: i) characterization of global burden of skin disease, ii) advocacy for dermatologic therapies on the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines, iii) advancements in global programming for skin-related tropical diseases, and iv) the role of dermatologists during the COVID-19 pandemic. For each area of work, the significance and impact on the health of women and girls is briefly highlighted. RESULTS: Dermatologists have led the efforts to quantify and evaluate the global burden of skin disease, the burden of which is disproportionately shared by women. The dermatology community has also championed global efforts to eliminate skin-related neglected tropical diseases, such as scabies. Through national and international policy advocacy, dermatologists have pushed for more dermatologic therapies in the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines, helping to secure better care for patients with skin disease throughout the world. Since 2020, the dermatology community has worked collaboratively in the fight against COVID-19, establishing a worldwide registry for cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 and pursuing research that has allowed colleagues in the house of medicine to better understand this landmark disease. CONCLUSION: Through the study and promotion of global health, dermatologists have an important role in the house of medicine.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e698-e707, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This hospital-based, observational study included 3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who were hospitalized February to May 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). We use mediation analysis to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6) are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n = 1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = [1.25, 2.41]; P = 0.001) and higher peak CRP (P < 0.001) compared with nonobese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (P < 0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients < 65 years (proportion mediated = 0.52 [P < 0.001] vs 0.44 [P = 0.180]). Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n = 2626). CONCLUSION: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients < 65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trial findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
6.
AIDS Behav ; 25(12): 3967-3977, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230260

ABSTRACT

We evaluated COVID-19 stigma and medical mistrust among people living with HIV in South Africa. We conducted telephone interviews with participants in a prospective study of a decentralized antiretroviral therapy program. Scales assessing medical mistrust, conspiracy beliefs, anticipated and internalized stigma, and stereotypes specific to COVID-19 were adapted primarily from the HIV literature, with higher scores indicating more stigma or mistrust. Among 303 participants, the median stigma summary score was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0-8; possible range 0-24] and 6 (IQR 2-9) for mistrust (possible range 0-28). A substantial proportion of participants agreed or strongly agreed with at least one item assessing stigma (54%) or mistrust (43%). Higher COVID-19 stigma was associated with female gender and antecedent HIV stigma, and lower stigma with reporting television as a source of information on COVID-19. Further efforts should focus on effects of stigma and mistrust on protective health behaviors and vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Trust
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men are at higher risk for serious complications related to COVID-19 infection than women. More robust immune activation in women has been proposed to contribute to decreased disease severity, although systemic inflammation has been associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 infection. Whether systemic inflammation contributes to sex differences in COVID-19 infection is not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined sex differences in inflammatory markers among 453 men (mean age 61) and 328 women (mean age 62) hospitalized with COVID-19 infection at the Massachusetts General Hospital from March 8 to April 27, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association of sex with initial and peak inflammatory markers. Exploratory analyses examined the association of sex and inflammatory markers with 28-day clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Initial and peak CRP were higher in men compared with women after adjustment for baseline differences (initial CRP: ß 0.29, SE 0.07, p = 0.0001; peak CRP: ß 0.31, SE 0.07, p<0.0001) with similar findings for IL-6, PCT, and ferritin (p<0.05 for all). Men had greater than 1.5-greater odds of dying compared with women (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.80, p = 0.03). Sex modified the association of peak CRP with both death and ICU admission, with stronger associations observed in men compared with women (death: OR 9.19, 95% CI 4.29-19.7, p <0.0001 in men vs OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.52-5.18, p = 0.009 in women, Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of 781 men and women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, men exhibited more robust inflammatory activation as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers, as well as worse clinical outcomes. Better understanding of sex differences in immune responses to COVID-19 infection may shed light on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Sex Factors , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 38-46, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to develop an automatable score to predict hospitalization, critical illness, or death for patients at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting for urgent care. METHODS: We developed the COVID-19 Acuity Score (CoVA) based on a single-center study of adult outpatients seen in respiratory illness clinics or the emergency department. Data were extracted from the Partners Enterprise Data Warehouse, and split into development (n = 9381, 7 March-2 May) and prospective (n = 2205, 3-14 May) cohorts. Outcomes were hospitalization, critical illness (intensive care unit or ventilation), or death within 7 days. Calibration was assessed using the expected-to-observed event ratio (E/O). Discrimination was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). RESULTS: In the prospective cohort, 26.1%, 6.3%, and 0.5% of patients experienced hospitalization, critical illness, or death, respectively. CoVA showed excellent performance in prospective validation for hospitalization (expected-to-observed ratio [E/O]: 1.01; AUC: 0.76), for critical illness (E/O: 1.03; AUC: 0.79), and for death (E/O: 1.63; AUC: 0.93). Among 30 predictors, the top 5 were age, diastolic blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, COVID-19 testing status, and respiratory rate. CONCLUSIONS: CoVA is a prospectively validated automatable score for the outpatient setting to predict adverse events related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Outpatients , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(1): 96-99, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988981

ABSTRACT

Obesity has emerged as a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 worldwide. Given both COVID-19 infection and obesity have been associated with increased systemic inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital. We hypothesized that obese patients would have a more exuberant inflammatory response as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers along with worse clinical outcomes. Of the 781 patients, 349 were obese (45%). Obese individuals had higher initial and peak levels of CRP and ESR as well as higher peak d-dimer (P < 0.01 for all) in comparison to non-obese individuals, while. IL-6 and ferritin were similar. In addition, obese individuals had a higher odds of requiring vasopressor use (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38, P = 0.05), developing hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03) and death (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.31-3.70, P = 0.003) within 28 days of presentation to care. Finally, higher baseline levels of CRP and D-dimer were associated with worse clinical outcomes even after adjustment for BMI. Our findings suggest greater disease severity in obese individuals is characterized by more exuberant inflammation.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Obesity/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244270, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences by race/ethnicity in clinical characteristics and outcomes among hospitalized patients with Covid-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). METHODS: The MGH Covid-19 Registry includes confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients hospitalized at MGH and is based on manual chart reviews and data extraction from electronic health records (EHRs). We evaluated differences between White/Non-Hispanic and Hispanic patients in demographics, complications and 14-day outcomes among the N = 866 patients hospitalized with Covid-19 from March 11, 2020-May 4, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 43% of patients hospitalized with Covid-19 were women, median age was 60.4 [IQR = (48.2, 75)], 11.3% were Black/non-Hispanic and 35.2% were Hispanic. Hispanic patients, representing 35.2% of patients, were younger than White/non-Hispanic patients [median age 51y; IQR = (40.6, 61.6) versus 72y; (58.0, 81.7) (p<0.001)]. Hispanic patients were symptomatic longer before presenting to care (median 5 vs 3d, p = 0.039) but were more likely to be sent home with self-quarantine than be admitted to hospital (29% vs 16%, p<0.001). Hispanic patients had fewer comorbidities yet comparable rates of ICU or death (34% vs 36%). Nonetheless, a greater proportion of Hispanic patients recovered by 14 days after presentation (62% vs 45%, p<0.001; OR = 1.99, p = 0.011 in multivariable adjusted model) and fewer died (2% versus 18%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized Hispanic patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared to White/non-Hispanic patients; despite comparable rates of ICU care or death, a greater proportion recovered. These results have implications for public health policy and the design and conduct of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , African Americans/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , /genetics
14.
J Pediatr ; 227: 45-52.e5, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As schools plan for re-opening, understanding the potential role children play in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the factors that drive severe illness in children is critical. STUDY DESIGN: Children ages 0-22 years with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presenting to urgent care clinics or being hospitalized for confirmed/suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at Massachusetts General Hospital were offered enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric COVID-19 Biorepository. Enrolled children provided nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and/or blood specimens. SARS-CoV-2 viral load, ACE2 RNA levels, and serology for SARS-CoV-2 were quantified. RESULTS: A total of 192 children (mean age, 10.2 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled. Forty-nine children (26%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; an additional 18 children (9%) met the criteria for MIS-C. Only 25 children (51%) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with fever; symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, if present, were nonspecific. Nasopharyngeal viral load was highest in children in the first 2 days of symptoms, significantly higher than hospitalized adults with severe disease (P = .002). Age did not impact viral load, but younger children had lower angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression (P = .004). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were increased in severe MIS-C (P < .001), with dysregulated humoral responses observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that children may be a potential source of contagion in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic despite having milder disease or a lack of symptoms; immune dysregulation is implicated in severe postinfectious MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
15.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 2938-2944, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and obesity are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about their contributions to early COVID-19 outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes is a risk factor for poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity, among a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) COVID-19 Data Registry of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between 11 March 2020 and 30 April 2020. Primary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, and death within 14 days of presentation to care. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, obesity, and relevant comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 450 patients, 178 (39.6%) had diabetes-mostly type 2 diabetes. Among patients with diabetes versus patients without diabetes, a higher proportion was admitted to the ICU (42.1% vs. 29.8%, respectively, P = 0.007), required mechanical ventilation (37.1% vs. 23.2%, P = 0.001), and died (15.9% vs. 7.9%, P = 0.009). In multivariable logistic regression models, diabetes was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (odds ratio 1.59 [95% CI 1.01-2.52]), mechanical ventilation (1.97 [1.21-3.20]), and death (2.02 [1.01-4.03]) at 14 days. Obesity was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (2.16 [1.20-3.88]) and mechanical ventilation (2.13 [1.14-4.00]) but not with death. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diabetes was associated with poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity. These findings can help inform patient-centered care decision making for people with diabetes at risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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