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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 439: 120315, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms referable to central and peripheral nervous system involvement are often evident both during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection and during long-COVID. In this study, we evaluated a population of patients with prior COVID-19 infection who showed signs and symptoms consistent with neurological long-COVID. METHODS: We prospectively collected demographic and acute phase course data from patients with prior COVID-19 infection who showed symptoms related to neurological involvement in the long-COVID phase. Firstly, we performed a multivariate logistic linear regression analysis to investigate the impact of demographic and clinical data, the severity of the acute COVID-19 infection and hospitalization course, on the post-COVID neurological symptoms at three months follow-up. Secondly, we performed an unsupervised clustering analysis to investigate whether there was evidence of different subtypes of neurological long COVID-19. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients referred to the neurological post-COVID outpatient clinic. Clustering analysis on the most common neurological symptoms returned two well-separated and well-balanced clusters: long-COVID type 1 contains the subjects with memory disturbances, psychological impairment, headache, anosmia and ageusia, while long-COVID type 2 contains all the subjects with reported symptoms related to PNS involvement. The analysis of potential risk-factors among the demographic, clinical presentation, COVID 19 severity and hospitalization course variables showed that the number of comorbidities at onset, the BMI, the number of COVID-19 symptoms, the number of non-neurological complications and a more severe course of the acute infection were all, on average, higher for the cluster of subjects with reported symptoms related to PNS involvement. CONCLUSION: We analyzed the characteristics of neurological long-COVID and presented a method to identify well-defined patient groups with distinct symptoms and risk factors. The proposed method could potentially enable treatment deployment by identifying the optimal interventions and services for well-defined patient groups, so alleviating long-COVID and easing recovery.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the MOVe-OUT trial, molnupiravir showed a clinically meaningful reduction in the risk for hospitalization or death in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 and risk factors for progression to severe disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify other potential clinical benefits of molnupiravir versus placebo. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 component of MOVe-OUT. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04575597). SETTING: 107 sites globally. PARTICIPANTS: 1433 nonhospitalized adults aged 18 years or older with mild to moderate COVID-19. INTERVENTION: Molnupiravir, 800 mg, or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. MEASUREMENTS: Changes from baseline in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and oxygen saturation (Spo 2), need for respiratory interventions (including invasive mechanical ventilation), and need for medical services in all randomly assigned participants through day 29, and need for respiratory interventions and time to discharge in the subgroup of participants who were hospitalized after randomization. RESULTS: Participants receiving molnupiravir showed faster normalization of CRP and Spo 2, with improvements observed on day 3 of therapy, compared with placebo. Molnupiravir-treated participants had a decreased need for respiratory interventions versus placebo-treated participants (relative risk reduction [RRR], 34.3% [95% CI, 4.3% to 54.9%]), with similar findings in participants who were hospitalized after randomization (RRR, 21.3% [CI, 0.2% to 38.0%]). Hospitalized participants who received molnupiravir were discharged a median of 3 days before those who received placebo. Acute care visits (7.2% vs. 10.6%; RRR, 32.1% [CI, 4.4% to 51.7%]) and COVID-19-related acute care visits (6.6% vs. 10.0%; RRR, 33.8% [CI, 5.6% to 53.6%]) were less frequent in molnupiravir- versus placebo-treated participants. LIMITATIONS: Some analyses were performed post hoc. Longer-term benefits of molnupiravir therapy were not evaluated. Participants were not immunized against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest there are additional important clinical benefits of molnupiravir beyond reduction in hospitalization or death. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8650, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860396

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is strongly influenced by age and comorbidities. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent finding in COVID-19 patients and seems to be associated to mortality and severity. On the other hand, the role of kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 is still debated. We performed a retrospective study in a cohort of 174 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Italy from March 3rd to May 21st 2020, to investigate the role of kidney dysfunction on COVID-19 severity and mortality. Moreover, we examined in depth the relationship between kidney function, age, and progression of COVID-19, also using different equations to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We performed logistic regressions, while a predictive analysis was made through a machine learning approach. AKI and death occurred respectively in 10.2% and 19.5%, in our population. The major risk factors for mortality in our cohort were age [adjusted HR, 6.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-21.4] and AKI [3.36 (1.44-7.87)], while, in these relationships, GFR at baseline mitigated the role of age. The occurrence of AKI was influenced by baseline kidney function, D-dimer, procalcitonin and hypertension. Our predictive analysis for AKI and mortality reached an accuracy of ≥ 94% and ≥ 91%, respectively. Our study scales down the role of kidney function impairment on hospital admission , especially in elderly patients. BIS-1 formula demonstrated a worse performance to predict the outcomes in COVID-19 patients when compared with MDRD and CKD-EPI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337875

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection have an overwhelming inflammatory response characterized by remarkable organs monocyte infiltration. We performed an immunophenotypic analysis on circulating monocytes in 19 COVID-19 patients in comparison with 11 naïve HIV-1 patients and 10 healthy subjects. Reduced frequency of classical monocytes and increased frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized COVID-19 patients with respect to both HIV naïve patients and healthy subjects. Intensity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocyte expression highly correlated with parameters of kidney dysfunction. Our data indicate that highly activated monocytes of COVID-19 patients may be pathogenically associated to the development of renal disease.

5.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 9: 20499361221095732, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854735

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) infection is being one of the most significant challenges of health care systems worldwide. Bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but consumption of antibiotics and antifungals has increased dramatically during the ongoing pandemic resulting in increased selective pressure for global antimicrobial resistance. Nosocomial bacterial superinfections appear to be more frequent than community-acquired coinfections, particularly among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment. Fungal infections associated with COVID-19 might be missed or misdiagnosed. Existing and new antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes can be utilized directly in COVID-19 pandemic and are urgently needed to contain the high rates of misdiagnosis and antimicrobial prescription. The aim of this review is to describe the role of bacterial and fungal infections and possible strategies of AMS to use in daily practice for optimal management of COVID-19.

6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1149-1160, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and a sharp rise in cases of colonization and infection has been registered in intensive care units (ICUs) during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The unfavorable resistance profile of C. auris and the potential high mortality of C. auris infections represent an important challenge for physicians. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study including all patients admitted to ICUs with isolation of C. auris in any non-sterile body site between February 20, 2020, and May 31, 2021. The primary aim of the study was to assess the cumulative incidence of C. auris candidemia in colonized patients. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of C. auris candidemia in the study population. RESULTS: During the study period, 157 patients admitted to ICUs in our hospital became colonized with C. auris; 59% of them were affected by COVID-19. Overall, 27 patients (17%) developed C. auris candidemia. The cumulative risk of developing C. auris candidemia was > 25% at 60 days after first detection of C. auris colonization. Seven patients with C. auris candidemia (26%) also developed a late recurrent episode. All C. auris blood isolates during the first occurring episode were resistant to fluconazole and susceptible to echinocandins, while 15 (56%) were resistant to amphotericin B. During late recurrent episodes, emergent resistance to caspofungin and amphotericin B occurred in one case each. In the final multivariable model, only multisite colonization retained an independent association with the development of C. auris candidemia. CONCLUSION: Candida auris candidemia may occur in up to one fourth of colonized critically ill patients, and multisite colonization is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Implementing adequate infection control measures remains crucial to prevent colonization with C. auris and indirectly the subsequent development of infection.

7.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(4): 437-446, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia share complex pathophysiology, a high mortality rate, and an unmet need for efficient therapeutics. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current advances in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia, highlighting specific aspects of COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure that require attention. Two models have been proposed to describe the mechanisms of respiratory failure associated with typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia. EXPERT OPINION: ARDS is defined as a syndrome rather than a distinct pathologic entity. There is great heterogeneity regarding the pathophysiologic, clinical, radiologic, and biological phenotypes in patients with ARDS, challenging clinicians, and scientists to discover new therapies. COVID-19 has been described as a cause of pulmonary ARDS and has reopened many questions regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS itself. COVID-19 lung injury involves direct viral epithelial cell damage and thrombotic and inflammatory reactions. There are some differences between ARDS and COVID-19 lung injury in aspects of aeration distribution, perfusion, and pulmonary vascular responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 301: 103889, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the effects of timing of intubation in COVID-19 patients that fail helmet continuous positive airway pressure (h-CPAP) on progression and severity of disease. METHODS: COVID-19 patients that failed h-CPAP, required intubation, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) at two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 8 and 16 cmH2O) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided in two groups (early versus late) based on the duration of h-CPAP before intubation. Endpoints included percentage of non-aerated lung tissue at PEEP of 8 cmH2O, respiratory system compliance and oxygenation. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included and classified in early (h-CPAP for ≤2 days, N = 26) and late groups (h-CPAP for >2 days, N = 26). Patients in the late compared to early intubation group presented: 1) lower respiratory system compliance (median difference, MD -7 mL/cmH2O, p = 0.044) and PaO2/FiO2 (MD -29 mmHg, p = 0.047), 2) higher percentage of non-aerated lung tissue (MD 7.2%, p = 0.023) and 3) similar lung recruitment increasing PEEP from 8 to 16 cmH2O (MD 0.1%, p = 0.964). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients receiving h-CPAP, late intubation was associated with worse clinical presentation at ICU admission and more advanced disease. The possible detrimental effects of delaying intubation should be carefully considered in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
The New Microbiologica ; 44(4):245, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1696108

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study describes demographics and outcomes of adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to our ward during the first wave (from February 25 to May 30, 2020) and during the second wave (from August 5 to November 30, 2020). The primary study objective was to evaluate overall in-hospital mortality, which was 21.1% (60/285) vs 10.3% (27/261) (p=.0006). This study seems to corroborate and expand the concept that the second wave of COVID-19 was less deadly than the first. Despite some limitations, the clinical and managerial experience gained during the first wave trained us to handle and control the second one.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322195

ABSTRACT

Background: Some patients affected by COVID-19 present a life-threatening hyperinflammatory state known as cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) associated with a high mortality rate. Our hypothesis is that a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) may be a safe and efficacious treatment option to reduce CSS and consequently to reduce the need for CPAP, ICU admission and COVID-19 mortality.Aim of the study: The primary objective is to explore the effect of an EKD on mortality, admission to the ICU and the need for NIV in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in comparison to a eucaloric standard diet (ESD). The secondary objectives are to collect data about the safety and feasibility of an EKD during hospitalization and to evaluate the effect of the diet on biological and inflammatory parameters, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6).Patients and methods: The study is a retrospective explorative analysis of 34 patients fed with an EKD during hospitalization for COVID-19 in comparison to 68 patients fed an ESD selected and matched using propensity score one-to-two to avoid the confounding effect of interfering variables. Results: A trend of reduced 30-day mortality (HR 0.416, 95% CI 0.122 – 1.413, P = 0.160) and a trend regarding the need for ICU admission (HR 0.357, 95% CI 0.045 – 2.847, P = 0.331) were observed in subjects treated with the EKD compared to patients fed with the standard diet. No significantly different risks in the need for CPAP (HR 0.968, CI 0.289 – 3.242, P = 0.958 for EKD) or the composite endpoint (HR 0.674, CI 0.233 – 1.949, P = 0.446 for EKD) were detectable between the two groups of dietary patterns.Furthermore, IL-6 concentrations between t 0 and t 7 (seven days after the beginning of the diet) in the ketogenic nutrition group showed a median difference of -26.0 ȵg/mL and a mean difference of -164 ȵg/mL (data from 23 of the 34 pairs) compared to controls, with a trend toward significance (P = 0.062). EKD was safe and no adverse events were observed in patients fed an EKD.Discussion and conclusions: These preliminary data on the clinical results for mortality, need for ICU admission and the effect on the IL-6 concentration during EKD feeding, collected in a retrospective way during the most aggressive period of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest a favorable role of this dietary treatment in COVID-19 clinical management. The EKD was safe and well accepted by patients during hospitalization and seems to be an interesting tool in controlling COVID-19 CSS. The results of the prospective controlled randomized trial, currently underway with a large number of subjects, are necessary to confirm these preliminary data.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319259

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 severity and mortality are strongly influenced by age and comorbidities. Among comorbidities, kidney dysfunction seems to play a crucial role. Indeed, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent finding in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and seems to be associated to mortality and severity. On the other hand, the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in COVID-19 is more debated. Aims: and Methods We performed a retrospective study in a cohort of 174 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Italy from March 3 rd to May 21 st 2020, to investigate the role of kidney dysfunction on COVID-19 severity and mortality. Moreover, we examined in depth the relationship between kidney function, age, and progression of COVID-19, also using different equations to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) were obtained by logistic regression, while a predictive analysis was made through a machine learning approach. Results: AKI and death occurred in 10.2 % and 19.5% respectively, in our population. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, neutrophils, lymphocytes, c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly correlated to mortality and severity of the disease. The major risk factors for mortality in our cohort were age [adjusted HR, 6.2;95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-21.4] and AKI [3.36 (1.44-7.87)], while, in these relationships, GFR at the baseline mitigated the role of age. The occurrence of AKI was influenced by baseline kidney function, D-dimer and procalcitonin and hypertension. Our predictive analysis for AKI and mortality reached an accuracy ≥ of 94% and 91%, respectively. In patients ≥ 70 years, MDRD and CKD-EPI showed a better performance in the prediction of AKI and mortality, compared to BIS-1 formula. Discussion: Our study confirms the importance of AKI as a risk factor in COVID-19 disease, while it scales down the role of CKD, especially in elderly patients. BIS-1 formula demonstrated a worse performance to predict the outcomes in COVID-19 patients when compared to MDRD and CKD-EPI.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316572

ABSTRACT

Background: Increases in cardiac troponin (cTn) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been associated with worse prognosis. Nonetheless, data about the significance of cTn in elderly subjects with COVID-19 are lacking. Methods: : From a registry of consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to a hub hospital in Italy from 25/02/2020 to 03/07/2020, we selected those ≥60 year-old and with cTnI measured within 3 days from the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. When available, a second cTnI value within 48 hours was also extracted. The relationship between increased cTnI and all-cause in-hospital mortality was evaluated by a Cox regression model and restricted cubic spline functions with three knots. Results: : Of 343 included patients (median age 75.0 (68.0-83.0) years, 34.7% men), 88 (25.7%) had cTnI above the upper-reference limit (0.046 µg/L). Patients with increased cTnI had more comorbidities, greater impaired respiratory exchange and higher inflammatory markers on admission than those with normal cTnI. Furthermore, they died more (73.9% vs. 37.3%, p<0.001) over 15 (6-25) days of hospitalization. The association of elevated cTnI with mortality was confirmed by the adjusted Cox regression model (HR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.06-2.52, p=0.039) and was linear until 0.3 µg/L, with a subsequent plateau. Of 191 (55.7%) patients with a second cTnI measurement, 49 (25.7%) had an increasing trend, which was not associated with mortality (univariate HR 1.39, 95%CI 0.87-2.22, p=0.265). Conclusions: : In elderly COVID-19 patients, an initial increase in cTn is common and predicts a higher risk of death. Serial cTn testing may not confer additional prognostic information.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306491

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence and clinical presentation of neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. No data regarding the use of neuromonitoring tools in this group of patients are available. Methods: : This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. The primary aim was to assess the incidence and type of neurological complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients and their effect on survival, as well as on hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length-of-stay. The secondary aim was to describe cerebral hemodynamic changes detected by noninvasive neuromonitoring modalities such as transcranial doppler (TCD), optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and pupillometry. Results: : Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation and admitted to an ICU from February 28 to June 30, 2020, were included in this study. Fifty-three patients underwent noninvasive neuromonitoring. Neurological complications were detected in 47/94 patients (50%), with delirium as the most common manifestation. Patients with neurological complications, compared to those without, had longer hospital (36.8±25.1 vs. 19.4±16.9 days, p <0.001) and ICU (31.5±22.6 vs. 11.5±10.1 days, p <0.001) stay. The duration of mechanical ventilation was independently associated with risk of developing neurological complications (OR 1.100, 95%CI 1.046-1.175, p=0.001). Patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) measured by ONSD (19% of the overall population) had longer ICU stays. Conclusions: : In conclusion, neurological complications are common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and are associated with prolonged ICU length-of-stay. Multimodal noninvasive neuromonitoring systems are useful tools for early detection of cerebrovascular changes in COVID-19. Registration number: 163/2020

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309368

ABSTRACT

Background: To describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation;the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. Materials and Methods Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58–69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5–90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7–49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3 + 92% (IQR 82–95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014–1.759, p = 0.039). Conclusions In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.

18.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

20.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(1): 101-105, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674604

ABSTRACT

Infection of surgical wounds with acid-fast bacilli, including tubercle bacilli, is rare, and is poorly described in the literature. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who developed a sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, diagnosed post-mortem. SARS-CoV-2 infection contributed to worsened clinical conditions and surgical site infection. A high degree of suspicion to avoid unnecessary treatments and progression to severe disease with dismal prognosis is necessary in these types of infections.

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