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1.
BMJ ; 377: e068723, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822063

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) compared with conventional mechanical ventilation on outcomes of patients with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 30 countries across five continents, 3 January 2020 to 29 August 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 7345 adults admitted to the intensive care unit with clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTIONS: ECMO in patients with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio <80 mm Hg compared with conventional mechanical ventilation without ECMO. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was hospital mortality within 60 days of admission to the intensive care unit. Adherence adjusted estimates were calculated using marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting, accounting for competing events and for baseline and time varying confounding. RESULTS: 844 of 7345 eligible patients (11.5%) received ECMO at any time point during follow-up. Adherence adjusted mortality was 26.0% (95% confidence interval 24.5% to 27.5%) for a treatment strategy that included ECMO if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio decreased <80 mm Hg compared with 33.2% (31.8% to 34.6%) had patients received conventional treatment without ECMO (risk difference -7.1%, 95% confidence interval -8.2% to -6.1%; risk ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.82). In secondary analyses, ECMO was most effective in patients aged <65 years and with a PaO2/FiO2 <80 mm Hg or with driving pressures >15 cmH2O during the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO was associated with a reduction in mortality in selected adults with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. Age, severity of hypoxaemia, and duration and intensity of mechanical ventilation were found to be modifiers of treatment effectiveness and should be considered when deciding to initiate ECMO in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 123, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 737 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 737 patients were included-538 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 199 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.2 days (95% CI 19.7-22.8 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9-7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1-18.6 days) and 6.4 days (5.1-7.9 days), respectively. When analysed separately, results for ACEi or ARB patient groups were similar for both death and discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay. Clinical trial registration The registration number: ACTRN12620000421932; The date of registration: 30, March 2020; The URL of the registration: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/anzctr/trial/ACTRN12620000421932 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
3.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690978

ABSTRACT

Due to the large number of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many were treated outside the traditional walls of the intensive care unit (ICU), and in many cases, by personnel who were not trained in critical care. The clinical characteristics and the relative impact of caring for severe COVID-19 patients outside the ICU is unknown. This was a multinational, multicentre, prospective cohort study embedded in the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium World Health Organization COVID-19 platform. Severe COVID-19 patients were identified as those admitted to an ICU and/or those treated with one of the following treatments: invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula, inotropes or vasopressors. A logistic generalised additive model was used to compare clinical outcomes among patients admitted or not to the ICU. A total of 40 440 patients from 43 countries and six continents were included in this analysis. Severe COVID-19 patients were frequently male (62.9%), older adults (median (interquartile range (IQR), 67 (55-78) years), and with at least one comorbidity (63.2%). The overall median (IQR) length of hospital stay was 10 (5-19) days and was longer in patients admitted to an ICU than in those who were cared for outside the ICU (12 (6-23) days versus 8 (4-15) days, p<0.0001). The 28-day fatality ratio was lower in ICU-admitted patients (30.7% (5797 out of 18 831) versus 39.0% (7532 out of 19 295), p<0.0001). Patients admitted to an ICU had a significantly lower probability of death than those who were not (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.75; p<0.0001). Patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an ICU had significantly lower 28-day fatality ratio than those cared for outside an ICU.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): 275-285, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the impact of prone positioning during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory failure on the patient outcome. DESIGN: An observational study of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. We used a multistate survival model to compare the outcomes of patients treated with or without prone positioning during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, which incorporates the dynamic nature of prone positioning and adjusts for potential confounders. SETTING: Seventy-two international institutions participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Critical Care Consortium international registry. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients who were supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 232 coronavirus disease 2019 patients at 72 participating institutions who were supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period from February 16, 2020, to October 31, 2020. Proning was used in 176 patients (76%) before initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and in 67 patients (29%) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Survival to hospital discharge was 33% in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prone group versus 22% in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation supine group. Prone positioning during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was associated with reduced mortality (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that prone positioning during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with reduced mortality. Given the observational nature of the study, a randomized controlled trial of prone positioning on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Probability , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306446

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk factors associated with mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mechanical ventilation are still not fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to identify patient-level factors, readily available at the bedside, associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality within 28 days from commencement of invasive mechanical ventilation (28-day IMV mortality) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Prospective observational cohort study in 148 intensive care units in the global COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium . Patients with clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from February 2 nd through December 29th, 2020, requiring IMV. No study-specific interventions were performed. Patient characteristics and clinical data were assessed upon ICU admission, the commencement of IMV and for 28 days thereafter. We primarily aimed to identify time-independent and time-dependent risk factors for 28-day IMV mortality. Results: : A total of 1713 patients were included in the survival analysis, 588 patients died in hospital within 28 days of commencing IMV (34.3%). Cox-regression analysis identified associations between the hazard of 28-day IMV mortality with age (HR 1.27 per 10-year increase in age, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37, P<0.001), PEEP upon commencement of IMV (HR 0.78 per 5-cmH 2 O increase, 95% CI 0.66-0.93, P=0.005). Time-dependent parameters associated with 28-day IMV mortality were serum creatinine (HR 1.30 per doubling, 95% CI 1.19-1.42, P<0.001), lactate (HR 1.16 per doubling, 95% CI 1.06-1.27 P=0.001), PaCO 2 (HR 1.31 per doubling, 95% CI 1.05-1.64, P=0.015), pH (HR 0.82 per 0.1 increase, 95% CI 0.74-0.91, P<0.001), PaO 2 /FiO 2 (HR 0.56 per doubling, 95% CI 0.50-0.62, P<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (HR 0.92 per 10 mmHg increase, 95% CI 0.88-0.97, P=0.002). Conclusions: : This international study establishes that in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, older age and clinically relevant variables monitored at the bedside are risk factors for 28-day IMV mortality. Further investigation is warranted to validate any causative roles these parameters might play in influencing clinical outcomes.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306445

ABSTRACT

Background: Heterogeneous respiratory system static compliance (C RS ) values and levels of hypoxemia in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation have been reported in previous small-case series or studies conducted at a national level. Methods We designed a retrospective observational cohort study with rapid data gathering from the international COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium study to comprehensively describe the impact of C RS on the ventilatory management and outcomes of COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. Results We enrolled 318 COVID-19 patients enrolled into the study from January 14th through September 31th, 2020 in 19 countries and stratified into two C RS groups. C RS was calculated as: tidal volume/[airway plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)] and available within 48 h from commencement of MV in 318 patients. Patients were mean ± SD of 58.0 ± 12.2, predominantly from Europe (54%) and males (68%). Median C RS (IQR) was 34.1 mL/cmH 2 O (26.5–45.5) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 was 119 mmHg (87.1–164) and was not correlated with C RS . Female sex presented lower C RS than in males (95% CI: -13.8 to -8.5 P < 0.001) and higher body mass index (34.7 ± 10.9 vs 29.1 ± 6.0, p < 0.001). Median (IQR) PEEP was 12 cmH 2 O (10–15), throughout the range of C RS , while median (IQR) driving pressure was 12.3 (10–15) cmH 2 O and significantly decreased as C RS improved (p < 0.001). No differences were found in comorbidities and clinical management between C RS strata. In addition, 28-day ICU mortality and hospital mortality did not differ between C RS groups. Conclusions This multicentre report provides a comprehensive account of C RS in COVID-19 patients on MV – predominantly males or overweight females, in their late 50 s – admitted to ICU during the first international outbreaks. Phenotypes associated with different C RS upon commencement of MV could not be identified. Trial documentation: Available at https://www.covid-critical.com/study. Trial registration ACTRN12620000421932.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295915

ABSTRACT

Background: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 746 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. Results: A total of 746 patients were included - 543 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 203 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.93). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.4 days (95% CI: 19.9 to 23.0 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9 to 7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1 to 18.5 days) and 6.3 days (5.0 to 7.7 days), respectively. When analysed separately, there was insufficient evidence of differential effects between ACEi and ARB use on the hazards of death and discharge. Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay.

11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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