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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 129-137, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347476

ABSTRACT

During the clinical care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diminished QRS amplitude on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was observed to precede clinical decompensation, culminating in death. This prompted investigation into the prognostic utility and specificity of low QRS complex amplitude (LoQRS) in COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adults admitted to a telemetry service with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 140) or influenza (n = 281) infection with a final disposition-death or discharge. LoQRS was defined as a composite of QRS amplitude <5 mm or <10 mm in the limb or precordial leads, respectively, or a ≥50% decrease in QRS amplitude on follow-up ECG during hospitalization. LoQRS was more prevalent in patients with COVID-19 than influenza (24.3% vs 11.7%, p = 0.001), and in patients who died than survived with either COVID-19 (48.1% vs 10.2%, p <0.001) or influenza (38.9% vs 9.9%, p <0.001). LoQRS was independently associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 when adjusted for baseline clinical variables (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 33.8, p <0.001), presenting and peak troponin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, albumin, intubation, and vasopressor requirement (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 145.5, p = 0.029). The median time to death in COVID-19 from the first ECG with LoQRS was 52 hours (interquartile range 18 to 130). Dynamic QRS amplitude diminution is a strong independent predictor of death over not only the course of COVID-19 infection, but also influenza infection. In conclusion, this finding may serve as a pragmatic prognostication tool reflecting evolving clinical changes during hospitalization, over a potentially actionable time interval for clinical reassessment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml; p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%; p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(4): e0397, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the devastating effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, several vaccine prototypes have been developed, with the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) platform being the first to receive emergency use authorization. Although taken to market on an unprecedented timeline, the safety profile of the drug during clinical trials was shown to be favorable. Shortly after release, reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated a higher-than-average rate of anaphylaxis to the vaccine that has been the cause for concern for safety officials and the general public alike. Here, we present a unique case of protracted anaphylaxis in a recipient of the BNT162b2. CASE SUMMARY: The patient is a 55-year-old female with a history of multiple allergic reactions who presented with respiratory distress and hives after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2, despite premedication with IV steroids and diphenhydramine. The refractory nature of her reaction was demonstrated by edema of her tongue (visualized on nasolaryngoscopy), requiring an epinephrine infusion for nearly 3 days. She was discharged from the hospital with instructions not to receive the second dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Although the exact etiology of anaphylaxis secondary to this messenger RNA-based vaccine is not completely clear, our literature search and review of the patient's course support either polyethylene glycol versus other excipient-related allergy as a possible cause. Based on the protracted nature to our patient's anaphylaxis, critical care management for patients with a true anaphylactic reaction to BNT162b2 may require monitoring for an extended period of time.

4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0254, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether increasing time between admission and intubation was associated with mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who were admitted between January 30, 2020, and April 30, 2020, and underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation prior to May 1, 2020. Patients were followed up through August 15, 2020. SETTING: Five hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, NY. PATIENTS: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A hospital-stratified time-varying Cox model was used to evaluate the effect of time from admission to intubation on in-hospital death. A total of 755 adult patients out of 5,843 admitted with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection underwent tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during the study period. The median age of patients was 65 years (interquartile range, 56-72 yr) and 64% were male. As of the time of follow-up, 121 patients (16%) who were intubated and mechanically ventilated had been discharged home, 512 (68%) had died, 113 (15%) had been discharged to a skilled nursing facility, and 9 (1%) remained in the hospital. The median time from admission to intubation was 2.3 days (interquartile range, 0.6-6.3 d). Each additional day between hospital admission and intubation was significantly associated with higher in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who were intubated and mechanically ventilated, intubation earlier in the course of hospital admission may be associated with improved survival.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(18): 2043-2055, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is frequent among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the mechanisms of myocardial injury remain unclear and prior studies have not reported cardiovascular imaging data. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the echocardiographic abnormalities associated with myocardial injury and their prognostic impact in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter cohort study including 7 hospitals in New York City and Milan of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had undergone transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) and electrocardiographic evaluation during their index hospitalization. Myocardial injury was defined as any elevation in cardiac troponin at the time of clinical presentation or during the hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 305 patients were included. Mean age was 63 years and 205 patients (67.2%) were male. Overall, myocardial injury was observed in 190 patients (62.3%). Compared with patients without myocardial injury, those with myocardial injury had more electrocardiographic abnormalities, higher inflammatory biomarkers and an increased prevalence of major echocardiographic abnormalities that included left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade II or III, right ventricular dysfunction and pericardial effusions. Rates of in-hospital mortality were 5.2%, 18.6%, and 31.7% in patients without myocardial injury, with myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities, and with myocardial injury and TTE abnormalities. Following multivariable adjustment, myocardial injury with TTE abnormalities was associated with higher risk of death but not myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 who underwent TTE, cardiac structural abnormalities were present in nearly two-thirds of patients with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was associated with increased in-hospital mortality particularly if echocardiographic abnormalities were present.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronary Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1708-1713, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772953

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a new human disease with few effective treatments1. Convalescent plasma, donated by persons who have recovered from COVID-19, is the acellular component of blood that contains antibodies, including those that specifically recognize SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies, when transfused into patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, are thought to exert an antiviral effect, suppressing virus replication before patients have mounted their own humoral immune responses2,3. Virus-specific antibodies from recovered persons are often the first available therapy for an emerging infectious disease, a stopgap treatment while new antivirals and vaccines are being developed1,2. This retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study assessed the effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in 39 patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Oxygen requirements on day 14 after transfusion worsened in 17.9% of plasma recipients versus 28.2% of propensity score-matched controls who were hospitalized with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.98; chi-square test P value = 0.025). Survival also improved in plasma recipients (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; chi-square test P = 0.027). Convalescent plasma is potentially effective against COVID-19, but adequately powered, randomized controlled trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0190, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To respond to the new recommendations for delaying tracheostomy for coronavirus disease 2019 patients to day 21 post-intubation to ensure viral clearance. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, with 60 days follow-up. SETTING: Academic medical center with nine adult ICUs dedicated to caring for coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia requiring tracheostomy for prolonged ventilatory support. INTERVENTIONS: Adherence to the standard of care for timing of tracheostomy as deemed necessary by the intensivist without delay and utilizing the existing tracheostomy team in performing the needed procedures within 1 day of the request. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred eleven patients with coronavirus disease 2019 received tracheostomy in the month of April 2020. Median time to tracheostomy was 11 days. All procedures were performed percutaneously at bedside under bronchoscopic guidance. Sixty-three percent of patients who received tracheostomy either weaned or discharged alive within 60 days of the procedure. Performing tracheostomy on these patients without delay did not lead to coronavirus disease 2019 viral transmission to the tracheostomy team as evident by lack of symptoms and negative antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to standard of care in timing of tracheostomy is safe. Recommending delaying the procedure may lead to harmful consequences from prolonging mechanical ventilation and sedation without apparent benefit.

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