Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Vaccine ; 40(14): 2123-2125, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783806
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine uptake rates have been historically low in correctional settings. To better understand vaccine hesitancy in these high-risk settings, we explored reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal among people in federal prisons. METHODS: Three maximum security all-male federal prisons in British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario (Canada) were chosen, representing prisons with the highest proportions of COVID-19 vaccine refusal. Using a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with incarcerated people who had previously refused at least one COVID-19 vaccine until data saturation was achieved. An inductive-deductive thematic analysis of audio-recorded interview transcripts was conducted using the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy. RESULTS: Between May 19-July 8, 2021, 14 participants were interviewed (median age: 30 years; n = 7 Indigenous, n = 4 visible minority, n = 3 White). Individual-, interpersonal-, and system-level factors were identified. Three were particularly relevant to the correctional setting: 1) Risk perception: participants perceived that they were at lower risk of COVID-19 due to restricted visits and interactions; 2) Health care services in prison: participants reported feeling "punished" and stigmatized due to strict COVID-19 restrictions, and failed to identify personal benefits of vaccination due to the lack of incentives; 3) Universal distrust: participants expressed distrust in prison employees, including health care providers. INTERPRETATION: Reasons for vaccine refusal among people in prison are multifaceted. Educational interventions could seek to address COVID-19 risk misconceptions in prison settings. However, impact may be limited if trust is not fostered and if incentives are not considered in vaccine promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisoners/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Alberta , Attitude , British Columbia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Norms , Social Responsibility , Young Adult
4.
Vaccine X ; 10: 100150, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693177

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Canadian correctional institutions have been prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination given the multiple outbreaks that have occurred since the start of the pandemic. Given historically low vaccine uptake, we aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination acceptability among people incarcerated in federal prisons. Methods: Three federal prisons in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia (Canada) were chosen based on previously low influenza vaccine uptake among those incarcerated. Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample (gender, age, and ethnicity) of incarcerated people. An inductive-deductive analysis of audio-recorded interview transcripts was conducted to identify and categorize barriers and facilitators within the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Results: From March 22-29, 2021, a total of 15 participants (n = 5 per site; n = 5 women; median age = 43 years) were interviewed, including five First Nations people and six people from other minority groups. Eleven (73%) expressed a desire to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, including two who previously refused influenza vaccination. We identified five thematic barriers across three TDF domains: social influences (receiving strict recommendations, believing in conspiracies to harm), beliefs about consequences (believing that infection control measures will not be fully lifted, concerns with vaccine-related side effects), and knowledge (lack of vaccine-specific information), and eight thematic facilitators across five TDF domains: environmental context and resources (perceiving correctional employees as sources of outbreaks, perceiving challenges to prevention measures), social influences (receiving recommendations from trusted individuals), beliefs about consequences (seeking individual and collective protection, believing in a collective "return to normal", believing in individual privileges), knowledge (reassurance about vaccine outcomes), and emotions (having experienced COVID-19-related stress). Conclusions: Lack of information and misinformation were important barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among people incarcerated in Canadian federal prisons. This suggests that educational interventions, delivered by trusted health care providers, may improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake going forward.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684510

ABSTRACT

Identifying those least willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine is critical for increasing uptake via targeted outreach. We conducted a survey of 23,819 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging participants from September 29 to December 29, 2020, to assess factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine willingness and reasons for willingness or lack thereof. Among adults aged 50-96 in Canada, 84.1% (95% CI: 83.7-84.6) were very or somewhat willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine; 15.9% (95% CI: 15.4-16.3) were uncertain or very or somewhat unwilling. Based on logistic regression, those who were younger, female, had lower education and income, non-white, and lived in a rural area were less willing. After controlling for these factors, recent receipt of influenza vaccine (aOR=14.3; 95% CI: 12.5-16.2) or plans to receive influenza vaccine (aOR=10.5; 95% CI: 9.5-11.6) compared to not planning to was most strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccine willingness. Willingness was also associated with believing one had never been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and experiencing negative pandemic consequences. Safety concerns were most common. Our comprehensive assessment of COVID-19 vaccine willingness among older adults in Canada, a prioritized group due to risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes, provides a roadmap for conducting outreach to increase uptake, which is urgently needed.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146168, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620079

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adults in Canada aged 50 years or older during the initial pandemic lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 study. This study was launched on April 15, 2020, and the exit questionnaires were completed between September and December 2020. Prepandemic data from the first CLSA follow-up (2015-2018) were also used. Respondents included middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants residing in Canadian provinces. Data were analyzed from February to May 2021. Exposures: The assessment for self-reported COVID-19 status was adapted from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition available at the time of data collection; cases were classified as confirmed or probable, suspected, or non-COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mobility since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using global rating of change in mobility scales at the COVID-19 exit questionnaire. Participant-reported new onset of difficulty in 3 physical function tasks was also examined. Results: Among 51 338 participants at baseline, 21 491 participants (41.9%) were 65 years or older and 26 155 participants (51.0%) were women and 25 183 (49.1%) were men. Of 2748 individuals with confirmed or probable or suspected COVID-19, 113 (94.2%) were not hospitalized. Individuals with confirmed or probable COVID-19 had higher odds of worsening mobility in terms of ability to engage in household activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22), physical activity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), and standing up after sitting in a chair (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) compared with adults without COVID-19 during the same pandemic time period. Similar results were found for suspected COVID-19 status (eg, household activity: OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.82-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among older adults in Canada found that receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis was significantly associated with worse mobility and functioning outcomes even in the absence of hospitalization. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 who do not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment , Independent Living , Mobility Limitation , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Canada , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
7.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 503-511, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how influenza vaccine uptake changed during the 2020/2021 influenza season compared to previous pre-pandemic seasons is a key priority, as is identifying the relationship between prior influenza vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine willingness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large, nationally representative cohort of Canadian residents aged 50 and older to assess influenza vaccination status three times between 2015 and 2020. We investigated: 1) changes in self-reported influenza vaccine uptake, 2) predictors of influenza vaccine uptake in 2020/2021, and 3) the association between influenza vaccination history and self-reported COVID-19 vaccine willingness using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 23,385 participants analyzed for aims 1-2, influenza vaccination increased over time: 14,114 (60.4%) in 2015-2018, 15,692 (67.1%) in 2019/2020, and 19,186 (82.0%; combining those already vaccinated and those planning to get a vaccine) in 2020/2021. After controlling for socio-demographics, history of influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with influenza vaccination in 2020/2021 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 147.9 [95% CI: 120.9-180.9]); this association remained after accounting for multiple health and pandemic-related factors (aOR 140.3 [95% CI: 114.5-171.8]). To a lesser degree, those more concerned about COVID-19 were also more likely to report influenza vaccination in fall 2020, whereas those reporting a very negative impact of the pandemic were less likely to get vaccinated. Among 23,819 participants with information on COVID-19 vaccine willingness during the last quarter of 2020 (aim 3), prior influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 15.1 [95% CI: 13.5-16.8] for those who had received influenza vaccine at all previous timepoints versus none). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the importance of previous vaccination in driving vaccination uptake and willingness. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage for influenza and COVID-19 should target individuals who do not routinely engage with immunization services regardless of demographic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We categorized levels of self-reported stress, anxiety, worry, and sleep among US college and university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous online survey between May 7 and June 21, 2020. RESULTS: Nearly all participants reported worry about the pandemic. Nearly half (95% CI: 43.3-51.3) reported moderate-to-severe anxiety, and 42.0% (95% CI: 38.0-45.9) reported experiencing poor sleep quality. Those with moderate-to-severe anxiety were more likely (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 2.4-4.7) to report poor sleep quality than those with less anxiety. Moderate or extreme worry about the pandemic was associated with poor sleep quality (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSIONS: Our survey found high levels of stress, worry, anxiety, and poor sleep among US college and university students during the early months of the pandemic. Universities should prioritize access to resources for healthy coping to help students manage anxiety and improve sleep quality as the pandemic continues.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(3): 326-334, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticipated success rates and timelines for COVID-19 vaccine development vary. Recent experience with developing and testing viral vaccine candidates can inform expectations regarding the development of safe and effective vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To estimate timelines and probabilities of success for recent vaccine candidates. DESIGN: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched to identify trials testing viral vaccines that had not advanced to phase 2 before 2005, and the progress of each vaccine from phase 1 through to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure was tracked. Trial characteristics were double-coded. (Registration: Open Science Framework [https://osf.io/dmuzx/]). SETTING: Trials launched between January 2005 and March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Preventive viral vaccine candidates for 23 emerging or reemerged viral infectious diseases. MEASUREMENTS: The primary end point was the probability of vaccines advancing from launch of phase 2 to FDA licensure within 10 years. RESULTS: In total, 606 clinical trials forming 220 distinct development trajectories (267 343 enrolled participants) were identified. The probability of vaccines progressing from phase 2 to licensure within 10 years was 10.0% (95% CI, 2.6% to 16.9%), with most approvals representing H1N1 or H5N1 vaccines. The average timeline from phase 2 to approval was 4.4 years (range, 6.4 weeks to 13.9 years). The probabilities of advancing from phase 1 to 2, phase 2 to 3, and phase 3 to licensure within the total available follow-up time were 38.2% (CI, 30.7% to 45.0%), 38.3% (CI, 23.1% to 50.5%), and 61.1% (CI, 3.7% to 84.3%), respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study did not account for preclinical development and relied primarily on ClinicalTrials.gov and FDA resources. Success probabilities do not capture the varied reasons why vaccines fail to advance to regulatory approval. CONCLUSION: Success probabilities and timelines varied widely across different vaccine types and diseases. If a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is licensed within 18 months of the start of the pandemic, it will mark an unprecedented achievement for noninfluenza viral vaccine development. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity (MI4) Emergency COVID-19 Research Funding program.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Drug Approval , Drug Development , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): 450-460, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937708

ABSTRACT

Accurate serologic tests to detect host antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will be critical for the public health response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Many use cases are envisaged, including complementing molecular methods for diagnosis of active disease and estimating immunity for individuals. At the population level, carefully designed seroepidemiologic studies will aid in the characterization of transmission dynamics and refinement of disease burden estimates and will provide insight into the kinetics of humoral immunity. Yet, despite an explosion in the number and availability of serologic assays to test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, most have undergone minimal external validation to date. This hinders assay selection and implementation, as well as interpretation of study results. In addition, critical knowledge gaps remain regarding serologic correlates of protection from infection or disease, and the degree to which these assays cross-react with antibodies against related coronaviruses. This article discusses key use cases for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection tests and their application to serologic studies, reviews currently available assays, highlights key areas of ongoing research, and proposes potential strategies for test implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL