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4.
Res Sq ; 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766249

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every five years of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-ß are found in ~20% of deceased patients across age groups. In the general population, they are found in ~1% of individuals aged 20-70 years and in >4% of those >70 years old. With a sample of 1,261 deceased patients and 34,159 uninfected individuals, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to non-carriers. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRD was 17.0[95% CI:11.7-24.7] for individuals under 70 years old and 5.8[4.5-7.4] for individuals aged 70 and over, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRD was 188.3[44.8-774.4] and 7.2[5.0-10.3], respectively. IFRs increased with age, from 0.17%[0.12-0.31] for individuals <40 years old to 26.7%[20.3-35.2] for those ≥80 years old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84%[0.31-8.28] to 40.5%[27.82-61.20] for the same two age groups, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, particularly those neutralizing both IFN-α2 and -ω. Remarkably, IFR increases with age, whereas RRD decreases with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs appears to be second only to age among common predictors of COVID-19 death.

5.
J Exp Med ; 219(4)2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758591

ABSTRACT

The vast interindividual clinical variability observed in any microbial infection-ranging from silent infection to lethal disease-is increasingly being explained by human genetic and immunological determinants. Autoantibodies neutralizing specific cytokines underlie the same infectious diseases as inborn errors of the corresponding cytokine or response pathway. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs underlie COVID-19 pneumonia and adverse reactions to the live attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine. Autoantibodies against type II IFN underlie severe disease caused by environmental or tuberculous mycobacteria, and other intra-macrophagic microbes. Autoantibodies against IL-17A/F and IL-6 are less common and underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis and staphylococcal diseases, respectively. Inborn errors of and autoantibodies against GM-CSF underlie pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; associated infections are less well characterized. In individual patients, autoantibodies against cytokines preexist infection with the pathogen concerned and underlie the infectious disease. Human antibody-driven autoimmunity can interfere with cytokines that are essential for protective immunity to specific infectious agents but that are otherwise redundant, thereby underlying specific infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous , Communicable Diseases , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis , Autoantibodies , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous/genetics , Humans
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310899

ABSTRACT

Background: In a recent study, autoantibodies neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) were present in at least 10% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. These autoantibodies neutralized most type I IFNs but rarely IFN-beta. Objectives: We aimed to define the prevalence of autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFN in a cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with IFN-beta-1b during hospitalization and to analyze their impact on various clinical variables and outcomes. Methods: We analyzed stored serum/plasma samples and clinical data of COVID-19 patients treated subcutaneously with IFN-beta-1b from March to May 2020, at the Infanta Leonor University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. Results: The cohort comprised 47 COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, 16 of whom (34%) had a critical progression requiring ICU admission. The median age was 71 years, with 28 men (58.6%). Type I IFN-alpha- and omega-neutralizing autoantibodies were found in 5 of 47 patients with severe pneumonia or critical disease (10.6%). The autoantibodies did not neutralize IFN-beta. No demographic, comorbidity, or clinical differences were seen between individuals with or without autoantibodies. We found a significant correlation between the presence of neutralizing autoantibodies and higher C-reactive protein levels (p=5.10e -03 ) and lower lymphocyte counts (p=1.80e -02 ). Survival analysis suggested that neutralizing autoantibodies may increase the risk of death (4/5, 80% vs 12/42, 28.5%). Conclusion: Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFN underlie severe/critical COVID-19 stages in at least 10% of cases, correlate with increased C-RP and lower lymphocyte counts, and confer a trend towards increased risk of death. Subcutaneous IFN-beta treatment of hospitalized patients did not seem to improve clinical outcome. Studies of earlier, ambulatory IFN-beta treatment are warranted.

7.
Nature ; 603(7902): 587-598, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655590

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is benign in most individuals but, in around 10% of cases, it triggers hypoxaemic COVID-19 pneumonia, which leads to critical illness in around 3% of cases. The ensuing risk of death (approximately 1% across age and gender) doubles every five years from childhood onwards and is around 1.5 times greater in men than in women. Here we review the molecular and cellular determinants of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Inborn errors of type I interferons (IFNs), including autosomal TLR3 and X-chromosome-linked TLR7 deficiencies, are found in around 1-5% of patients with critical pneumonia under 60 years old, and a lower proportion in older patients. Pre-existing auto-antibodies neutralizing IFNα, IFNß and/or IFNω, which are more common in men than in women, are found in approximately 15-20% of patients with critical pneumonia over 70 years old, and a lower proportion in younger patients. Thus, at least 15% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia can be explained. The TLR3- and TLR7-dependent production of type I IFNs by respiratory epithelial cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, respectively, is essential for host defence against SARS-CoV-2. In ways that can depend on age and sex, insufficient type I IFN immunity in the respiratory tract during the first few days of infection may account for the spread of the virus, leading to pulmonary and systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Age Distribution , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Sex Distribution , Toll-Like Receptor 3/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(3): 471-483, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and autoantibodies to type I interferons (IFNs) underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 15% of the patients, while the causes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: To detect causal genetic variants in very rare cases with concomitant critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impact of candidate gene variants was investigated. Plasma levels of cytokines, specific antibodies against the virus, and autoantibodies against type I IFNs were also measured. RESULTS: We report a 3-year-old child who died on day 56 of SARS-CoV-2 infection with an unusual clinical presentation, combining both critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. We identified a large, homozygous loss-of-function deletion in IFNAR1, underlying autosomal recessive IFNAR1 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that impaired type I IFN immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia, while suggesting that it can also unexpectedly underlie concomitant MIS-C. Our report further raises the possibility that inherited or acquired dysregulation of type I IFN immunity might contribute to MIS-C in other patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , Child, Preschool , Cytokines , Humans , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(3): 459-470, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653612

ABSTRACT

Recent studies reported the presence of pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) in at least 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia. In one study, these auto-Abs were found in almost 20% of deceased patients across all ages. We aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical impact of the auto-Abs to type I IFNs in the Seine-Saint-Denis district, which was one of the most affected areas by COVID-19 in France during the first wave. We tested for the presence of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in a cohort of patients admitted for critical COVID-19 pneumonia during the first wave in the spring of 2020 in the medicine departments at Robert Ballanger Hospital, Aulnay sous Bois. We found circulating auto-Abs that neutralized 100 pg/mL IFN-α2 and/or IFN-ω in the plasma (diluted 1/10) of 7.9% (11 of 139) of the patients hospitalized for critical COVID-19. The presence of neutralizing auto-Abs was associated with an increased risk of mortality, as these auto-Abs were detected in 21% of patients who died from COVID-19 pneumonia. Deceased patients with and without auto-Abs did not present overt clinical differences. These results confirm both the importance of type I IFN immunity in host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection and the usefulness of detection of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in the management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 74: 172-182, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650997

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFNs) have broad and potent antiviral activity. We review the interplay between type I IFNs and SARS-CoV-2. Human cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 in vitro produce low levels of type I IFNs, and SARS-CoV-2 proteins can inhibit various steps in type I IFN production and response. Exogenous type I IFNs inhibit viral growth in vitro. In various animal species infected in vivo, type I IFN deficiencies underlie higher viral loads and more severe disease than in control animals. The early administration of exogenous type I IFNs improves infection control. In humans, inborn errors of, and auto-antibodies against type I IFNs underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Overall, type I IFNs are essential for host defense against SARS-CoV-2 in individual cells and whole organisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Humans
11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S325-S326, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602651

ABSTRACT

Background Approximately 10-20% of patients with critical COVID-19 harbor neutralizing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) that target type I interferons (IFN), a family of cytokines that induce critical innate immune defense mechanisms upon viral infection. Studies to date indicate that these auto-Abs are mostly detected in men over age 65. Methods We screened for type I IFN serum auto-Abs in sera collected < 21 days post-symptom onset in a subset of 103 COVID-19 inpatients and 24 outpatients drawn from a large prospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients enrolled across U.S. Military Treatment Facilities. The mean age of this n = 127 subset of study participants was 55.2 years (SD = 15.2 years, range 7.7 – 86.2 years), and 86/127 (67.7%) were male. Results Among those hospitalized 49/103 (47.6%) had severe COVID-19 (required at least high flow oxygen), and nine subjects died. We detected neutralizing auto-Abs against IFN-α, IFN-ω, or both, in four inpatients (3.9%, 8.2% of severe cases), with no auto-Abs detected in outpatients. Three of these patients were white males over the age of 62, all with multiple comorbidities;two of whom died and the third requiring high flow oxygen therapy. The fourth patient was a 36-year-old Hispanic female with a history of obesity who required mechanical ventilation during her admission for COVID-19. Conclusion These findings support the association between type I IFN auto-antibody production and life-threatening COVID-19. With further validation, reliable high-throughput screening for type I IFN auto-Abs may inform diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment strategies for COVID-19, particularly in older males. Our finding of type I IFN auto-Ab production in a younger female prompts further study of this autoimmune phenotype in a broader population. Disclosures David A. Lindholm, MD, American Board of Internal Medicine (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Member of Auxiliary R&D Infectious Disease Item-Writer Task Force. No financial support received. No exam questions will be disclosed ., Other Financial or Material Support David Tribble, M.D., DrPH, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work)) Simon Pollett, MBBS, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work))

12.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594167

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(3): 103012, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561805

ABSTRACT

The relation between infections and autoimmune diseases has been extensively investigated. Multiple studies suggest a causal relation between these two entities with molecular mimicry, hyperstimulation and dysregulation of the immune system as plausible mechanisms. The recent pandemic with a new virus, i.e., SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in numerous studies addressing the potential of this virus to induce autoimmunity and, eventually, autoimmune disease. In addition, it has also revealed that pre-existing auto-immunity (auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs) could cause life-threatening disease. Therefore, the topic of the 15th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies was focused on autoimmunity in the SARS-CoV-2 era. This report is a collection and distillation of the topics presented at this meeting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295731

ABSTRACT

Inflammation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients suggests that inflammasomes, proinflammatory intracellular complexes, regulate various steps of infection. Lung epithelial cells express inflammasome-forming sensors and constitute the primary entry door of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe that the NLRP1 inflammasome detects SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial cells. Specifically, human NLRP1 is cleaved at the Q333 site by multiple coronavirus 3CL proteases, which triggers inflammasome assembly, cell death and limits the production of infectious viral particles. Analysis of NLRP1-associated pathways unveils that 3CL proteases also cleave and inactivate the pyroptosis executioner Gasdermin (GSDM)-D. Consequently, Caspase-3 and GSDM-E promote alternative cell pyroptosis, a process exacerbated in cells exhibiting imparied type I interferon production. Finally, analysis of pyroptosis markers in plasma from COVID-19 patients with characterized severe pneumonia due to Interferon alterations identify GSDM-E/Caspase-3 as biological markers of disease severity. Overall, our findings identify NLRP1 as a key sensor of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelia.<br><br>Funding Information: This project has been funded on lab own funds from unrelated grants from the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM) and ERC StG (INFLAME) to EM, from ERC StG (ANTIViR) to CG, by the French Ministry of Health with the participation of the Groupement Interrégional de Recherche Clinique et d’Innovation Sud-Ouest Outre-Mer (PHRCI 2020 IMMUNOMARK-COV) to G-M.B. The ASB3 structure is supported by LABEX, Investissement d’Avenir and foundation Bettencourt grants to ON. MP and RP were respectively funded by a CIFRE PhD fellowship and a research grant from Invivogen. SB is supported by a PhD fellowship from Mali ministry of education and from the FRM (FDT 12794). SALC is supported by a Vaincre La Mucoviscidose (VLM) PhD fellowship.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: Authors declare no conflict of interest. <br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: All donors had given written informed consent and the study was approved by the ethical review board “Comité de Protection des Personnes Est-III” (ID-RCB 2020-A01292-37).<br>

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(8): 1733-1744, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to predict which patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk of life-threatening COVID-19. Several studies suggest that neutralizing auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) against type I interferons (IFNs) are predictive of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for auto-Abs to type I IFN and describe the main characteristics of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care depending on whether or not these auto-Abs are present. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in whom samples were available, from March 2020 to March 2021, in Barcelona, Spain. RESULTS: A total of 275 (70.5%) out of 390 patients admitted to ICU were tested for type I IFNs auto-antibodies (α2 and/or ω) by ELISA, being positive in 49 (17.8%) of them. Blocking activity of plasma diluted 1/10 for high concentrations (10 ng/mL) of IFNs was proven in 26 (9.5%) patients. Almost all the patients with neutralizing auto-Abs were men (92.3%). ICU patients with positive results for neutralizing IFNs auto-Abs did not show relevant differences in demographic, comorbidities, clinical features, and mortality, when compared with those with negative results. Nevertheless, some laboratory tests (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, thrombocytosis) related with COVID-19 severity, as well as acute kidney injury (17 [65.4%] vs. 100 [40.2%]; p = 0.013) were significantly higher in patients with auto-Abs. CONCLUSION: Auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of type I IFNs were found in 9.5% of patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia in a hospital in Barcelona. These auto-Abs should be tested early upon diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as they account for a significant proportion of life-threatening cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493350

ABSTRACT

We describe an unvaccinated child at risk for life-threatening COVID-19 due to an inherited deficiency of IRF9, which governs ISGF-3-dependent responses to type I and III interferons (IFN). She was admitted, with a high nasal SARS-CoV-2 load on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection. She was viremic on day 2 and received casirivimab and imdevimab. Her clinical manifestations and viremia disappeared on days 3 and 4, respectively. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in leukocytes on day 1, whereas the secretion of blood type I IFNs, which peaked on day 4, did not. Antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 neutralization is, therefore, sufficient to overcome a deficiency of antiviral IFNs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/deficiency , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , Viral Load
18.
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique ; 28(4):S24-S24, 2021.
Article in French | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1492671

ABSTRACT

L'infection à SARS-CoV-2 conduit à une variabilité inter-individuelle importante. Nous avons identifié que des défauts génétiques de l'immunité lié aux interférons de type 1, TLR3 et IRF7-dépendants, peuvent être la cause de formes sévères de pneumopathie à COVID-19. Les patients déficients en AIRE, souffrent d'APS-1 et produisent de nombreux autoanticorps (auto-Ac), notamment les anti-IFNs de type I. Étonnamment, chez les patients avec des formes sévères de pneumopathie à COVID-19, nous avons trouvé qu'au moins 10 % d'entre eux avaient des auto-Ac IgG neutralisants 10 ng/mL d'IFN-w, d'IFN-a2. Ces auto-Ac neutralisent la capacité des IFNs de type I de bloquer l'infection à SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, et ont été retrouvé dans des plasmas de donneurs convalescents. Nous avons également trouvé des auto-Ac neutralisants des doses 100 fois moindres, donc plus physiologiques chez au moins 15 % des patients avec des formes sévères de pneumopathie à COVID-19, notamment chez 21 % des patients de plus de 80 ans. Enfin, dans un échantillon de 33 352 individus non infectés de la population générale, notamment des donneurs de sang de l'EFS, la prévalence des auto-Ac neutralisants les doses fortes d'IFNs de type I augmente avec l'âge. La proportion d'individus porteurs d'auto-Ac neutralisants des concentrations d'IFN 100 fois plus faibles étaient encore plus élevée. Le dépistage des donneurs de sang et de plasma convalescent pourrait avoir un impact thérapeutique. Les auto-Ac anti-IFNs de type I précèdent l'infection à SARS-CoV-2, augmentent de façon importante après 70 ans, et expliquent au moins 20 % des formes fatales et des formes sévères de COVID-19 chez les individus de plus de 80 ans. (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transfusion Clinique et Biologique is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

19.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(628): eabj7521, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483988

ABSTRACT

The drivers of critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. Given major confounding factors such as age and comorbidities, true mediators of this condition have remained elusive. We used a multi-omics analysis combined with artificial intelligence in a young patient cohort where major comorbidities were excluded at the onset. The cohort included 47 "critical" (in the intensive care unit under mechanical ventilation) and 25 "non-critical" (in a non-critical care ward) patients with COVID-19 and 22 healthy individuals. The analyses included whole-genome sequencing, whole-blood RNA sequencing, plasma and blood mononuclear cell proteomics, cytokine profiling, and high-throughput immunophenotyping. An ensemble of machine learning, deep learning, quantum annealing, and structural causal modeling were used. Patients with critical COVID-19 were characterized by exacerbated inflammation, perturbed lymphoid and myeloid compartments, increased coagulation, and viral cell biology. Among differentially expressed genes, we observed up-regulation of the metalloprotease ADAM9. This gene signature was validated in a second independent cohort of 81 critical and 73 recovered patients with COVID-19 and was further confirmed at the transcriptional and protein level and by proteolytic activity. Ex vivo ADAM9 inhibition decreased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uptake and replication in human lung epithelial cells. In conclusion, within a young, otherwise healthy, cohort of individuals with COVID-19, we provide the landscape of biological perturbations in vivo where a unique gene signature differentiated critical from non-critical patients. We further identified ADAM9 as a driver of disease severity and a candidate therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ADAM Proteins , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Membrane Proteins , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(1): 1-9, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to critical conditions. Understanding the mechanism underlying life-threatening COVID-19 is instrumental for disease prevention and treatment in individuals with a high risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the genetic cause for critical COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a preexisting inborn error of immunity (IEI). METHODS: Serum levels of specific antibodies against the virus and autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impacts of candidate gene variants were investigated. We also evaluated 247 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients in the Iranian IEI registry. RESULTS: We report a 7-year-old Iranian boy with a preexisting hyper IgM syndrome who developed critical COVID-19 pneumonia. IgM only specific COVID-19 immune response was detected but no autoantibodies against type I IFN were observed. A homozygous deleterious mutation in the ATM gene was identified, which together with his antibody deficiency, radiosensitivity, and neurological signs, established a diagnosis of A-T. Among the 247 A-T patients evaluated, 36 had SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic except the index patient. A hemizygous deleterious mutation in the TLR7 gene was subsequently identified in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique IEI patient with combined ATM and TLR7 deficiencies. The two genetic defects underlie A-T and critical COVID-19 in this patient, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ataxia Telangiectasia/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Child , Humans , Iran , Male
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