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1.
2022 Annual Modeling and Simulation Conference, ANNSIM 2022 ; : 126-139, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056827

ABSTRACT

Organizations are struggling to ensure business continuity without compromising on delivery excellence in the face of Covid19 pandemic related uncertainties. The uncertainty exists along multiple dimensions such as virus mutations, infectivity and severity of new mutants, efficacy of vaccines against new mutants, waning of vaccine induced immunity over time, and lockdown / opening-up policies effected by city authorities. Moreover, this uncertainty plays out in a non-uniform manner across nations, states, cities, and even within the cities thus leading to highly heterogeneous evolution of pandemic. While Work From Home (WFH) strategy has served well to meet ever-increasing business demands without compromising on individual health safety, there has been an undeniable reduction in social capital. With Covid19 pandemic showing definite waning trends, organizations are considering the possibility of safe transition from WFH to Work From Office (WFO) or a hybrid mode of operation. An effective strategy needs to score equally well on possibly interfering dimensions such as risk of infection, project delivery, and employee wellness. As large organizations will typically have a large number of offices spread across a geography, the problem of arriving at office-specific strategies becomes non-trivial. Moreover, the strategies need to adapt over time to changes that cannot be deduced upfront. This calls for an approach that is amenable to quick and easy adaptation. Our contribution in this regard is constructing a Digital Twin by leveraging various modelling techniques to realistically represent the above mentioned aspects of interest that can be subjected to what-if scenario analysis. We further demonstrate its efficacy using a case study from a large organization. © 2022 SCS.

2.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109:vi24-vi25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2042533

ABSTRACT

Aim: Theatre cancellations are a major source of system inefficiency, placing an unnecessary financial burden on the NHS. The aim of this audit was to investigate the reasons for cancellations in elective surgery at a London hospital and to assess the general preoperative process. Method: We undertook a retrospective audit of all elective theatre cancellations from the day surgery unit over a three-month period in 2021. 78 cancellations were identified, and their cause was investigated. Furthermore, we reviewed theatre lists over one month to calculate the proportion of cancelled procedures per specialty. Also, to gain a further understanding of the present protocol, we reviewed the current preoperative process. Results: The main reason for cancellations was patients being physiologically unfit for surgery, accounting for 28.2% of all cases. The next biggest reason for cancellation, at 16.7%, was failure to comply with COVID protocol. The specialty with the largest proportion of cancellations was General Surgery, at 17.7%. Conclusions: We believe many reasons for cancellations were avoidable. Therefore, we propose a change to the preoperative process to target multiple reasons for cancellation. We suggest a more comprehensive pre-admission phone call five days prior to surgery which includes discussions around medication compliance and changes in condition. We also suggest a set of observations and routine bloods are taken when patients come in for their COVID swab. This allows any potential cause of cancellation to be identified and rectified, or the patient could be rescheduled. This should increase efficiency of the day surgery unit.

3.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 445:199-211, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930289

ABSTRACT

We consider the problem of estimating diversity measures for a stratified population and discuss a general formulation for the entropy based diversity measures which includes the previously used entropies as well as a newly proposed family of logarithmic norm entropy (LNE) measures. Our main focus in this work is the consideration of statistical properties (asymptotic efficiency and finite sample robustness) of the sample estimates of such entropy-based diversity measures for their validation and appropriate recommendations. Our proposed LNE based diversity is indeed seen to provide the best trade-offs at an appropriately chosen tuning parameter. Along the way, we also show that the second best candidates are the hypoentropy based diversities justifying their consideration by Leandro Pardo and his colleagues in 1993 over the other entropy families existing at that time. We finally apply the proposed LNE based measure to examine the demographic (age and gender based) diversities among Covid-19 deaths in USA. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ; 64(SUPPL 3):68-69, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916118

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Children and young people (CYP) with a neurodisability often have complex needs which can significantly impact their quality of life. Unmet non-medical needs negatively correlate with well-being. COVID-19 has amplified the pressure on this population, catalysing our proposal for a new support service, based on the social prescribing link worker (LW) model supported by NHS England. Our innovative scheme will identify eligible CYP and their families within a hospital setting: with their agreement, a LW will help find and embed solutions to their unmet non-medical needs. The aim of this study was to gather the views of parents of CYP with neurodisability on the proposed service. Patients and methods: Forty UK-based parents of CYP with neurodisability completed an online survey (Qualtrix), distributed through social media. 11/40 were parents of young adults with disability. 28/40 of the CYP had cerebral palsy and/or autism. Results: COVID-19 had exacerbated circumstances for 90% of respondents. All except one were in favour of LW support;though only 7.5% previously knew what a LW was. Supporting their child towards independence;mental health;and social networks were priority areas. Reservations included not wanting input if their child was seriously ill;distinguishing between LW and social worker;worrying about whether the LW would have adequate specialist knowledge;and funding (postcode lottery). Conclusion: Respondents were strongly in favour of the proposed service. Based on their feedback, we will provide detailed information about the LW role, and recruit and support LW staff to provide a high quality, sustainable service.

5.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(4): 515-518, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presence of either emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or lack of personal accomplishment define Burnout Syndrome which may lead to decreased workforce productivity, increased absenteeism, depression and medical errors as well as decreased patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of burnout syndrome among Diabetes Specialist Registrars across England, Scotland and Wales and to identify any self-reported factors which may be contributory to burnout. METHODS: Over 430 Diabetes Specialist Registrars were invited to anonymously participate in an electronic survey which used Maslach Burnout Inventory and selfreporting questionnaire to identify burnout and contributory factors. RESULTS: In this pre-pandemic times study, Burnout was identified in 61 (57.5%; n = 106) respondents using Maslach burnout cut-off scores. 45.2% (48/106) participants had scored high in Emotional Exhaustion, while lack of personal accomplishment and depersonalization was seen in 24.5% (26/106) and 21.6% (23/106) of the respondents respectively. The commonest self-reported stressors by participants were "General Internal Medicine workload" 60.4% (64/106) followed by "Lack of specialty training" 36.8% (39/106) and "Lack of audit/research/Continuing Professional Development time" 10.8% (11/106) CONCLUSION: Burnout syndrome is frequent among the participating Diabetes Specialist Registrars and urgent steps may be required address this problem nationally to ensure that these physicians remain physically and mentally healthy, especially after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Burnout, Professional/diagnosis , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological/diagnosis , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wales/epidemiology
6.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337391

ABSTRACT

The precise molecular mechanisms behind life-threatening lung abnormalities during severe SARS-CoV-2 infections are still unclear. To address this challenge, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing of lung autopsies from 31 patients suffering from severe COVID-19 related complications and 10 uninfected controls. Using a metatranscriptome analysis of lung tissue samples we identified the existence of two distinct molecular signatures of lethal COVID-19. The dominant “classical” signature (n=23) showed upregulation of unfolded protein response, steroid biosynthesis and complement activation supported by massive metabolic reprogramming leading to characteristic lung damage. The rarer signature (n=8) potentially representing “Cytokine Release Syndrome” (CRS) showed upregulation of cytokines such IL1 and CCL19 but absence of complement activation and muted inflammation. Further, dissecting expression of individual genes within enriched pathways for patient signature suggests heterogeneity in host response to the primary infection. We found that the majority of patients cleared the SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all suffered from acute dysbiosis with characteristic enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus cohnii in “classical” patients and Pasteurella multocida in CRS patients. Our results suggest two distinct models of lung pathology in severe COVID-19 patients that can be identified through the status of the complement activation, presence of specific cytokines and characteristic microbiome. This information can be used to design personalized therapy to treat COVID-19 related complications corresponding to patient signature such as using the identified drug molecules or mitigating specific secondary infections.

7.
12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752389

ABSTRACT

In the last year, the outbreak of COVID-19 has deployed computer vision and machine learning algorithms in various fields to enhance human life interactions. COVID-19 is a highly contaminated disease that affects mainly the respiratory organs of the human body. We must wear a mask in this situation as the virus can be contaminated through the air and a non-masked person can be affected. Our proposal deploys a computer vision and deep learning framework to recognize face masks from images or videos. We have implemented a Boundary dependent face cut recognition algorithm that can cut the face from the image using 27 landmarks and then the preprocessed image can further be sent to the deep learning ResNet50 model. The experimental result shows a significant advancement of 3.4 percent compared to the YOLOV3 mask recognition architecture in just 10 epochs. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1670429

ABSTRACT

The Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra River Basin (IGBRB) is a trans-boundary river basin flowing through four major countries in South Asia viz., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Contamination of surface water by untreated or inadequately treated wastewater has been a huge problem for pathogenic microorganisms in economies in transition. Recent studies have reported that sewage surveillance can provide prior information of the outbreak data, because faeces can contain the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) shed by infected humans. Hence, in this study we geo-spatially mapped the COVID-19 hotspots during the peak time in the first and second wave of pandemic to demonstrate the need and usefulness of wastewater surveillance strategy in IGBRB during ongoing pandemic. Further we discussed the status of sanitation, health and hand-hygiene in the IGBRB along with characterization of the challenges posed by the pandemic in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs). Monthly Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping of COVID-19 hotspots in the IGBRB showed an increase in the spread along the direct sewage discharge points. The social inequalities expose the vulnerabilities of the urban poor in terms of the burden, risks and access to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) needs. Such an evidence-based image of the actual SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the community along the IGBRB can provide valuable insights and recommendations to deal with the future waves of COVID-19 pandemic in this region that can go a long way in achieving the UN-SDGs. © 2021

9.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 37(6):1489-1510, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576306

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown since March 2020 necessitates higher education institutions to deliver education online. Although education institutions in high and higher middle-income countries could relatively easily transition face to face education to online delivery, most higher education institutions in low-income and lower middle-income countries were unable to do it. World-wide, more than half of the world's 1.5 billion students is out of online education activities especially in developing and emerging nations. Hence, the primary objective is to examine the difficulties and challenges experienced by some of those countries in their higher education institutions' transition to online education. The study focuses on internet infrastructure, accessibility, affordability, digital learning management system, academics and students' perspectives and digital knowledge gap related to online education. The study finds that poor or no internet infrastructures/connections, streaming devices, learning management system, inexperience in online education, and socioeconomic conditions are the main impedances for slow or no transition to online education in most emerging and developing countries. Some action plans (recommendations) to overcome these challenges are also compiled.

10.
The New Zealand medical journal ; 134(1544):183-184, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1573254
11.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-292755

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the Coronaviridae family and is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus originating from Wuhan, China, was declared a global public health emergency on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans is characterized by symptoms such as fever and dyspnea accompanied by infrequent incidence of lymphopenia, gastrointestinal complications such as elevated hepatic aminotransferases, and diarrhea. Originating in bats, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been transmitted to humans likely via an intermediate host that is yet to be discovered. Owing to the absence of any vaccines or definite anti-viral drugs alongside the greater mobility of people across the globe, international and national efforts in containing and treating SARS-CoV-2 infection are experiencing severe difficulties. In this review, we have provided a picture of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological characteristics, the clinical symptoms experienced by patients of varying age groups, the molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2, and the treatment regimens currently employed for fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as their outcomes.

12.
3rd International Conference on Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems, ICCACCS 2020 ; 786:355-366, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1499394

ABSTRACT

Human history is observing a very strange time fighting an invisible enemy;the novel COVID-19 is the greatest challenge to humankind since the Second World War. The current outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus infection among humans in Wuhan (China) and its spreading around the globe is heavily impacting global health and mental health. Novel coronavirus (n-CoV) is a generic name given to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARs-CoV-2). It has rapidly spread around the world posing enormous mental, social, economic, and environmental challenges to the entire human population. This paper evolved from an overview of the coronavirus and its effect on public health and economics. The main focus of this paper is to survey the various species and types of COVs. The overall statistics of the count around the world and an inclusive survey of its impact on society is being discussed in this paper. In this paper, the linear regression analysis of different vaccines commissioned around the world in COVID-19 and manifold updated information across India has been analyzed in a statistical approach. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 21(SUPPL 4):593, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1494486

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Pneumonia(PNA)-Acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma from an infection, is a frequent cause for hospitalization among Solid Organ Transplant Recipients (SOTRs), adversely effecting patient survival and healthcare costs. We assessed the healthcare impact associated with intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization amongst SOTRs with COVID19 PNA or other serious PNAs. Methods: We performed a single center retrospective analysis of SOTRs admitted to the ICU with any PNA during March 2019-October 2019 or with COVID19 PNA during March 2020-October 2020. Using t-tests and Chi Square tests we compared SOTRs with severe COVID19 PNA to those with other severe PNAs. Results: 53 SOTRs with severe PNAs were included: 26 with COVID19 PNA and 27 with other PNAs (Bacterial 56%, Fungal 30%, Viral 14%). Both the groups were similar in demographics, time since transplant, length of stay and acute dialysis needs (Table 1). Mortality was higher in SOTRs with COVID19 PNA compared to other PNAs (46% Vs 22%;p 0.07). Hospitalization costs was greater in those with other PNAs compared to COVID19 PNAs ($553,000 VS $196,000;p 0.006) with fungal PNAs being associated with greatest costs (Figure1). Conclusions: Critically ill SOTRs have substantially burdened the healthcare system with COVID19 associated mortality and healthcare expenses with other infections of equal severity. Every effort must be made to ensure timely assessment and diagnosis to minimize healthcare strains during this pandemic.

14.
New Zealand Medical Journal ; 134(1544):183-184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481500
15.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 119(3):31-35, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1471387

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS CoV-2 virus is a novel RNA virus, and many of its characters and behaviours are yet to be explored. During this COVID-19 pandemic, there are inundation of recommendations and guidelines. Most of the recommendations have advised postponement of non-essential elective surgery. We continued our emergency and elective surgical works as followed in certain countries, e.g. South Korea and Singapore. Methods: The records of our hospital were reviewed to retrieve the number of daily COVID-19 patients hospitalized, those requiring surgical management and those discharged home Results: During the period from March 25 to August 31, 2020, we have tested (RT-PCR) 892 admitted patients, out of them eighteen came positive (~ 2%): three patients were admitted in emergency basis, rest were for elective surgeries. Except one surgical resident, no HCW of our department was COVID positive during this period. Conclusion: From our experiences, during the said period, we came into conclusion that in no way elective surgeries should be avoided. It will ensure the best care for the non-COVID surgical patients, helps to ease future load and save many lives from denial death. If we maintain simple precautions,then elective surgical services can easily run without special equipment and theatre.

16.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(12A):2673-2678, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1368321

ABSTRACT

An impasse in the realm of public health has been undergoing since December due to outbreak of COVID-19. As a consequence of this impasse, different countries are tumbling into an even deeper recession. The life of economically backward people came to a grinding halt on account of the recurrent lockdown. To bear the cost for the treatment of COVID-19 is nearly to impossible for them. It is well known fact that the best preventive measure against COVID-19 should be vitamin-D supplementation for those who are vitamin-D insufficient or deficient. Nearly 1 billion people worldwide have low level of vitamin-D. We know vitamin-D plays a vital role to the function of immune system and vitamin-D supplements have previously been proven safe and effective to reduce the risk of viral respiratory tract infection. Recently, some study have shown a strong relation between severe vitamin-D deficiency and death rate in COVID-19. It has been recorded that patients with lower level of vitamin-D had higher risk of death than patients having no deficiency in vitamin-D. Mortality rate is quite high in 20 European countries and in USA because the people of this countries are vitamin-D deficient. Thus, vitamin-D supplementation can be a very good preventive treatment against COVID-19.

17.
Frontiers in Communication ; 5:8, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1339484

ABSTRACT

In this elucidative essay, we offer a broad outline of the culture-centered approach to health discourse analysis as a warrant for the relevance of critical health communication amid the global COVID-19 pandemic. While there is a proliferation of methods and approaches to health discourse analysis, we outline one broad approach, based on the theoretical tenets and political commitments of CCA. In particular, we emphasize (a) the heuristic value of the CCA's primary and theoretical components-the matrix of culture, structure, and agency, and (b) the importance of exploring discursive erasure as two central principles that guide analysis within this framework. Given the range and scale of existing and likely future transformations in social, political, and cultural understandings of health in the wake of the global COVID-19 pandemic, we offer, through this "how to" essay, a rationale for the continued relevance of critical health communication.

18.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 119(3):31-35, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1318552

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS CoV-2 virus is a novel RNA virus, and many of its characters and behaviours are yet to be explored. During this COVID-19 pandemic, there are inundation of recommendations and guidelines. Most of the recommendations have advised postponement of non-essential elective surgery. We continued our emergency and elective surgical works as followed in certain countries, e.g. South Korea and Singapore.

19.
Physics World ; 34(4):48-50, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1271218

ABSTRACT

Materials scientist Arnab Basu, head of radiation-detection technology developer Kromek, talks to Tushna Commissariat about founding a spin-off, the challenges of COVID-19 and looking to the future

20.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society ; 18(5):900-903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208491
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