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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119178

ABSTRACT

RNA sequence data from SARS CoV2 patients helps to construct a gene network related to this disease. A detailed analysis of the human host response to SARS CoV2 with expression profiling by high throughput sequencing has been accomplished with primary human lung epithelial cell lines. Using this data, the clustered gene annotation and gene network construction are performed with the help of the String database. Among the four clusters identified, only one with 44 genes could be annotated. Interestingly, this corresponded to basal cells with p = 1.37e-05, which is relevant for respiratory tract infection. Functional enrichment analysis of genes present in the gene network has been completed using the String database and the Network Analyst tool. Among three types of cell-cell communication, only the anchoring junction between the basal cell membrane and the basal lamina in the host cell is involved in the virus transmission. In this junction point, hemidesmosome structure plays a vital role in virus spread from one cell to basal lamina in the respiratory tract. In this protein complex structure, different integrin protein molecules of the host cell are used to promote the spread of virus infection into the extracellular matrix. So, small molecular blockers of different anchoring junction proteins i.e., integrin alpha 3, integrin beta 1, can provide efficient protection against this deadly viral disease. ORF8 from SARS CoV2 virus can interact with both integrin proteins of human host. By using molecular docking technique, a ternary complex of these three proteins is modelled. Several oligopeptides are predicted as modulators for this ternary complex. In-silico analysis of these modulators is very important to develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of SARS CoV2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Challenges ; 13(2):29, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1917307

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic microorganism that causes aspergillosis due to the presence of its allergenic proteins. During the last two years, a few clinical cases have been reported where allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) has been detected in COVID-19 patients. The administration of antifungal medicine did not provide satisfactory results. It is a challenging job for medical scientists to protect mankind by designing an epitope-based vaccine against the rare disease aspergillosis. Other than twenty-three allergenic proteins, this microorganism contains an extra-cellular cellulase CelA expansin protein (Afu5g08030), which is allergenic. To design a peptide vaccine against aspergillosis, the identification of B cell and T cell epitopes is state-of-the-art technology. In our latest research, probable T cell and B cell epitopes are predicted. Molecular docking analysis of these predicted epitopes with their receptors is performed. Here, the primary sequence of the expansin protein is extracted and analyzed. Then, its secondary and tertiary structures are predicted using a homology modeling method and validated. Considering the physicochemical properties of this antigenic protein, two short stretches of peptides, namely 80KPQADEDPNASSSSSSS96 and 286DGGKTWQGTTRTS298, are predicted as linear B cell epitopes. Similarly, based on its contacts with the highest number of alleles, the peptide sequence 221LDLFQNAFTQLADVS235 is chosen as the most possible T cell epitope for the protein present in Aspergillus fumigatus with the highest binding energy for MHC II allele HLA-DRB1* 01: 01. Considering the binding energy of the B cell epitope with IgE, the second epitope 286DGGKTWQGTTRTS298 is designated as the most potential epitope of B cells for this protein. Docking studies were performed with the T cell epitope with the human ternary complex of T cell receptor, CD4 receptor, and peptide-MHC II molecule (PDB ID 3T0E) with a binding energy of −192 Kcal/mole. For peptide-based vaccines, the proposed B cell and T cell epitopes may be used against aspergillosis after further experimental analysis.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17699, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880703

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (EC:3.4.17.23) is a transmembrane protein which is considered as a receptor for spike protein binding of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Since no specific medication is available to treat COVID-19, designing of new drug is important and essential. In this regard, in silico method plays an important role, as it is rapid and cost effective compared to the trial and error methods using experimental studies. Natural products are safe and easily available to treat coronavirus affected patients, in the present alarming situation. In this paper five phytochemicals, which belong to flavonoid and anthraquinone subclass, have been selected as small molecules in molecular docking study of spike protein of SARS-CoV2 with its human receptor ACE2 molecule. Their molecular binding sites on spike protein bound structure with its receptor have been analyzed. From this analysis, hesperidin, emodin and chrysin are selected as competent natural products from both Indian and Chinese medicinal plants, to treat COVID-19. Among them, the phytochemical hesperidin can bind with ACE2 protein and bound structure of ACE2 protein and spike protein of SARS-CoV2 noncompetitively. The binding sites of ACE2 protein for spike protein and hesperidin, are located in different parts of ACE2 protein. Ligand spike protein causes conformational change in three-dimensional structure of protein ACE2, which is confirmed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies. This compound modulates the binding energy of bound structure of ACE2 and spike protein. This result indicates that due to presence of hesperidin, the bound structure of ACE2 and spike protein fragment becomes unstable. As a result, this natural product can impart antiviral activity in SARS CoV2 infection. The antiviral activity of these five natural compounds are further experimentally validated with QSAR study.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anthraquinones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
4.
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