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1.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26936, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy and vaccine confidence in the adult population, and the intention for vaccination of their children. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis reports the ancillary results of a population-based SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey conducted in Delhi, India, from September 24 to October 14, 2021. Data were collected from 20312 adult participants through a multistage sampling method from all the 274 wards in the 11 districts of the national capital territory region. RESULTS:  We enrolled 12093 (59.3%) females and 8219 (40.5%) male participants with mean (SD) age of 40.3 (14.6) years. The vaccine acceptance rate in the participants was 67.7% (95% CI 67.1, 68.4), with 6031 (43.8%) having received one dose and 7727 (56.2%) having received two vaccine doses. On adjusted analysis, lack of vaccine acceptance was independently associated with female gender aOR 1.15 (95% CI 1.1, 1.23), younger age-group (18-49 years) aOR 1.85 (95% CI 1.71, 2.0), low educational status aOR 1.88 (95% CI 1.77, 2.0), in those with no history of COVID-19 aOR 1.81 (95% CI 1.69, 1.95), non-healthcare workers aOR 2.1 (95% CI 1.7, 2.53), and in the absence of hypertension comorbidity aOR 1.22 (1.1, 1.38). Lack of awareness of COVID-19 vaccines, including doubts on vaccine efficacy and long-term safety, were primary drivers of vaccine hesitancy in the unvaccinated subgroup. Only 35.6% participants reported a positive intention to vaccinate their children. CONCLUSIONS: One in three adults lacked vaccine acceptance. High prevalence of delay in second dose vaccination was also observed.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to restrictions in social gatherings imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, physical and other daily activities were limited among the older adults. The present study aimed to estimate the change in osteoarthritis prevalence among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone interviews among older adults aged 60 years and above on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The prevalence of osteoarthritis was measured by asking the participants if they had osteoarthritis or joint pain problems. RESULTS: A total of 2077 participants (1032 in 2020-survey and 1045 in 2021-survey) participated in the study. The prevalence of self-reported joint pains or osteoarthritis significantly increased from 45.3% in 2020 to 54.7% in 2021 (P = 0.006), with an increasing odd in the adjusted analysis (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.54). We also found that osteoarthritis prevalence significantly increased among the participants from the Chattogram and Mymensingh divisions, aged 60-69 years, males, married, rural residents, and living with a family. A significant increase was also documented among those who received formal schooling, had a family income of 5000-10000 BDT, resided with a large family, were unemployed or retired, and lived away from a health facility. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a significant increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among older adults from 2020 to 2021 during this pandemic in Bangladesh. This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of initiatives for the screening and management of osteoarthritis through a primary health care approach during any public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report
3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 585-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036080

ABSTRACT

This study (August-September 2021) estimated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in the general population of Delhi and correlated it with their anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Samples were selected by simple random sampling method. The neutralizing capacity was estimated by performing a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) (GenScript), Piscataway, NJ, USA. A total of 2233 (87.1%, 95% C.I. 85.7, 88.3) of the 2564 SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In samples with S/CO â€‹≥ â€‹4.00, the neutralizing antibodies ranged from 94.5% to 100%. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody seroprevalence strongly correlated with the S/CO range of IgG SARS-CoV-2 (r â€‹= â€‹0.62, p â€‹= â€‹0.002).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Dialogues in Health ; : 100044, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031235

ABSTRACT

Objectives Adult immunisation has recently emerged as an area of emphasis in research and policy. Increasing life expectancy, outbreaks like COVID-19, and the endemic nature of diseases like dengue, malaria have underscored its importance. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess hesitancy and the factors influencing the uptake of vaccines in adults. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the medical students and doctors affiliated to a medical college and tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India and their immediate family members in January 2021. Online data collection was done using the Google Form platforms. Data on awareness and perceptions regarding adult vaccination and immunisation status of participants was collected. The dataset was exported in the Microsoft Excel format and analysed with IBM SPSS Version 25 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results A total of 461 adults responded to the survey. The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy were fear of side effects (51.41%), lack of awareness of vaccines (49.46%), and the lack of national guidelines on adult vaccination (32.97%). Hesitancy for vaccines among those who were informed by healthcare workers of vaccine availability was highest for zoster vaccine (97.80%) and least for tetanus toxoid (57.62%). Significant hesitancy was also observed for pneumococcal, human papillomavirus, influenza and varicella vaccines. Conclusions Reduced vaccine uptake due to vaccine hesitancy in adulthood is a major health concern. Framing national guidelines for adult vaccination in India and awareness generation to create a public demand for adult vaccination warrants prioritization.

5.
Cureus ; 14(7): e27428, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025388

ABSTRACT

Background A previous community-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurvey in Delhi in January 2021 reported a seroprevalence of 50.52%. We conducted a repeat serosurvey to obtain a recent estimate of the seroprevalence of IgG SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of Delhi, India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 24 to October 14, 2021, in 274 wards of Delhi among 27,811 participants through a multistage sampling technique. Results The crude seroprevalence was 89.5% (95% CI 89.1, 89.8), weight for age and sex was 88% (95% CI 87.6, 88.4), and after adjustment for assay performance was estimated as 97.5% (95% CI 97.0, 98.0). On adjusted analysis, the odds of seroconversion in the participants vaccinated with at least one dose of either COVID-19 vaccine (Covishield/Covaxin) was more than four times compared to the unvaccinated ones (aOR 4.2 (3.8, 4.6)). 86.8% of the seropositive individuals had a SARS-CoV-2 signal/cut-off ≥4.0 although it was significantly lower in the pediatric age group. Post-second wave (August to October 2021), on average there were daily 39 new COVID-19 cases and 0.44 deaths which during Omicron driven the third wave in January to March 2022 increased to daily 4,267 cases and 11.6 deaths. Conclusion A high prevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 with likely higher antibody titres in the vaccinated compared to the unvaccinated groups with evidence of hybrid immunity in a majority of the population was protective against severe disease during transmission of subsequent omicron variants.

6.
Cureus ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999422

ABSTRACT

Objective: To ascertain the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy and vaccine confidence in the adult population, and the intention for vaccination of their children. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis reports the ancillary results of a population-based SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey conducted in Delhi, India, from September 24 to October 14, 2021. Data were collected from 20312 adult participants through a multistage sampling method from all the 274 wards in the 11 districts of the national capital territory region. Results: We enrolled 12093 (59.3%) females and 8219 (40.5%) male participants with mean (SD) age of 40.3 (14.6) years. The vaccine acceptance rate in the participants was 67.7% (95% CI 67.1, 68.4), with 6031 (43.8%) having received one dose and 7727 (56.2%) having received two vaccine doses. On adjusted analysis, lack of vaccine acceptance was independently associated with female gender aOR 1.15 (95% CI 1.1, 1.23), younger age-group (18-49 years) aOR 1.85 (95% CI 1.71, 2.0), low educational status aOR 1.88 (95% CI 1.77, 2.0), in those with no history of COVID-19 aOR 1.81 (95% CI 1.69, 1.95), non-healthcare workers aOR 2.1 (95% CI 1.7, 2.53), and in the absence of hypertension comorbidity aOR 1.22 (1.1, 1.38). Lack of awareness of COVID-19 vaccines, including doubts on vaccine efficacy and long-term safety, were primary drivers of vaccine hesitancy in the unvaccinated subgroup. Only 35.6% participants reported a positive intention to vaccinate their children. Conclusions: One in three adults lacked vaccine acceptance. High prevalence of delay in second dose vaccination was also observed.

7.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(3): 184-190, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence among children and adolescents in Delhi, India from January 2021 to October 2021. METHODS: This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 5 to 17 years from 2 SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Delhi, India during January 2021 and September to October 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by using the VITROS assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). RESULTS: The seroprevalence among 5- to 17-year-old school-age children and adolescents increased from 52.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%-54.3%) in January 2021 to 81.8% (95% CI, 80.9%-82.6%) in September to October 2021. The assay-adjusted seroprevalence was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.8%-91.7%). Seropositivity positively correlated with participants' age (p<0.001), but not sex (p=0.388). A signal to cut-off ratio ≥4.00, correlating with the presence of neutralization antibodies, was observed in 4,814 (57.9%) participants. CONCLUSION: The high percentage of seroconversion among children and adolescents indicates the presence of natural infection-induced immunity from past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the lack of hybrid immunity and the concomitant likelihood of lower levels of neutralization antibodies than in adults due to the absence of vaccination warrants careful monitoring and surveillance of infection risk and disease severity from newer and emergent variants.

8.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24404, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876131

ABSTRACT

This explorative qualitative study assesses the health-seeking behaviour for childhood ailments in caregivers of under-five children in a low-income neighbourhood in Delhi, India during July-September 2021. A total of 17 caregivers (mothers) of eight male and nine female under-five children were enrolled, with the mother being the caregiver in most (94%) cases. Caregivers consulted on common childhood ailments from multiple sources, including family, neighbours, healthcare providers (both licensed and unlicensed), frontline workers, and local pharmacists. The internet was often used as a source of child health information due to its ease of access but often "confused" caregivers due to the presence of too much information. Health-seeking behaviour of caregivers for childhood ailments could range from self-medication, local pharmacist dispensing, and private and public healthcare providers. Factors that influenced preference for the healthcare facility or provider were accessibility issues (waiting time, queuing), perceived physician competence, and associated out-of-pocket expenses. Caregivers reported dissatisfaction with government health facilities because of shorter operational hours, overcrowding, suboptimal sanitation, queuing with limited seating arrangements, and occasionally discourteous health staff. Self-medication and over-the-counter use of antibiotics was high due to a lack of awareness of the challenges of antibiotic resistance or any perceived side effects. Preference for unlicensed practitioners for medical treatment was low and based on long-term familial beliefs and acceptance. However, traditional practitioners enjoyed a high level of trust in the community from shared cultural values, enjoining attenuation of the perceived non-biological agents of childhood illnesses through non-medical supernatural interventions.

9.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24425, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856267

ABSTRACT

Adolescents constitute 16% of the global population and are susceptible to adverse health and illness from substance abuse, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and high-risk sexual behaviors. We conducted this study to assess the perceptions of good health, health-seeking behavior, and health service utilization among adolescents living in a low-income urban neighborhood after the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 23 adolescents, including 12 males and 11 females, were interviewed. Adolescents' perceived body image and size considerations apart from functioning at an optimum physical capacity as the principal attributes of good health, which was possible through the intake of a healthy diet and exercise. Adolescents were likely to be aware of the addiction potential and risk of cancer from using tobacco and alcohol, but attitudes towards eschewing their use were ambivalent. Adolescents perceived themselves as lacking access to reliable, adequate, and validated sources of sexual and reproductive health information. Knowledge and utilization of adolescent health services in this area were negligible, suggestive of the need to strengthen these services and improve the program outreach.

11.
Cureus ; 13(10): e19070, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513115

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study aimed to determine the breakthrough infection rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 {SARS-CoV-2}) infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with either BBV152 or AZD1222 (ChAdOx1-S) vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at a medical college and hospital complex in Delhi, India, through telephonic interviews among HCWs who had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine during January-March 2021. Breakthrough infections were operationally defined as the occurrence of COVID-19 infection ≥14 days after administration of two doses of either COVID-19 vaccine. Data were entered in Epidata 3.1 (Odense, Denmark: EpiData Association) (single entered) and analyzed with IBM SPSS version 25 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We enrolled 325 HCWs with a mean (SD) age of 29.1 (9.9) years including 211 (64.9%) males and 114 (35.1%) females. A total of 37 (13.3%, 95% CI 9.8, 17.7) COVID-19 breakthrough infections were observed in the HCWs. Additionally, 20 (6.1%) non-breakthrough infections were reported in the HCWs who were vaccinated with at least a single dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, or both doses, but prior to 14 days since the administration of the second dose. Most breakthrough infections were mild without needing supplemental oxygen for recovery. Conclusion Nearly one in seven HCWs experienced a COVID-19 breakthrough infection in the present study. A history of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection followed by at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination was associated with significant protection against breakthrough infections.

12.
Cureus ; 13(10): e19000, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504762

ABSTRACT

Background We report the findings of a large follow-up, community-based, cross-sectional serosurvey and correlate it with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) test-positivity rate and the caseload observed between the peaks of the first and the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Delhi, India. Methodology Individuals aged five and above were recruited from 274 wards of the state (population approximately 19.6 million) from January 11 to January 22, 2021. A total of 100 participants each were included from all wards for a net sample size of approximately 28,000. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select participants for the household serosurvey. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies were detected by using the VITROS® (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ, USA) assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results Antibody positivity was observed in 14,298 (50.76%) of 28,169 samples. The age, sex, and district population-weighted seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 50.52% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.94-51.10), and after adjustment for assay characteristics, it was 56.13% (95% CI = 55.49-56.77). On adjusted analysis, participants aged ≥50 years, of female gender, housewives, having ever lived in containment zones, urban slum dwellers, and diabetes or hypertensive patients had significantly higher odds of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity. The peak infection rate and the test-positivity rate since October 2020 were initially observed in mid-November 2020, with a subsequent steep declining trend, followed by a period of persistently low case burden lasting until the first week of March 2021. This was followed by a steady increase followed by an exponential surge in infections from April 2021 onward culminating in the second wave of the pandemic. Conclusions The presence of infection-induced immunity from SARS-CoV-2 even in more than one in two people can be ineffective in protecting the population. Despite such high seroprevalence, population susceptibility to COVID-19 can be accentuated by variants of concern having the ability for rapid transmission and depletion of antibody levels with the threat of recurrent infections, signifying the need for mass vaccination.

13.
Indian J Community Med ; 46(3): 363-366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478221
14.
International Journal of Epidemiology ; 50:1-1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1429225

ABSTRACT

Background Adult immunization has recently emerged as an area of emphasis in research and policy. Increasing life expectancy, outbreaks like COVID-19, and the endemic nature of diseases like dengue, malaria have underscored its importance. Therefore, this study was carried out with the aim to assess hesitancy and factors influencing the uptake of vaccines in adults. Methods An online cross-sectional study was conducted among adults (age more than 20 years). Data collection was done by convenience sampling in January 2021. Information on awareness and perceptions regarding adult vaccination and immunization status of participants was collected. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Results A total of 461 adults responded to the survey. Among those who had never received any vaccine in adulthood (n = 158), the reasons were lack of recommendation by healthcare providers (38.6%), lack of knowledge of vaccines (15.8%) and fear of adverse effects following vaccination (7.6%). Hesitancy for vaccines among those who were informed by healthcare workers was as follows: shingles (97.8%), human papillomavirus (92.1%), pneumococcal (91.1%), influenza (79.7%), varicella (79.4%) and tetanus (57.6%). Conclusions Reduced vaccine uptake due to vaccine hesitancy in adulthood is a major health concern. Hesitancy was highest for the shingles vaccine and least for the tetanus vaccine. Key messages Coverage of adult vaccination can be improved by formulating national guidelines and encouraging healthcare providers to raise awareness. In-depth qualitative studies are needed to understand the perception of adults towards vaccination. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Epidemiology is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

15.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(3): 242-251, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Three rounds of a repeated cross-sectional serosurvey to estimate the change in seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were conducted from August to October 2020 in the state of Delhi, India, in the general population ≥5 y of age. METHODS: The selection of participants was through a multistage sampling design from all 11 districts and 280 wards of the city-state, with multistage allocation proportional to population size. The blood samples were screened using immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: We observed a total of 4267 (N=150 46), 4311 (N=17 409) and 3829 (N=15 015) positive tests indicative of the presence of IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2 during the August, September and October 2020 serosurvey rounds, respectively. The adjusted seroprevalence declined from 28.39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27.65 to 29.14) in August to 24.08% (95% CI 23.43 to 24.74) in September and 24.71% (95% CI 24.01 to 25.42) in October. On adjusted analysis, participants with lower per capita income, living in slums or overcrowded households and those with diabetes comorbidity had significantly higher statistical odds of having antibody positivity (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four residents in Delhi, India ≥5 y of age had the SARS-CoV-2 infection during August-October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(3): 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319915

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused millions of cases and deaths worldwide and has caused a massive global economic contraction. Governments, policymakers, and medical professionals have been confronted with several complex bioethical dilemmas during these exceptional circumstances. In developing countries like India, having a large population base, inadequate preexisting public health infrastructure, and a multi-level government system with complex administrative mechanisms imposes enormous barriers and challenges in the effective and ethical management of the pandemic. Furthermore, endemic corruption, limited bureaucratic and organisational accountability, and weak oversight, especially among stakeholders in the vast private and non-government health and allied services sector, complicate the assessment of their adherence to ethical public health practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethical Analysis , Public Health/ethics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Government , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4553-4558, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263100

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require timely hospitalization to reduce the risk of complications and mortality. We describe the trends of the age and gender stratified outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe illness at the largest dedicated tertiary care COVID-19 government hospital in New Delhi, India. A retrospective cohort study through secondary data analysis from in-patient hospital data of patients admitted from April 1 to November 15, 2020 was conducted. The data of 10,314 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 was analyzed, of which 8899 (86.28%) were discharged after recovery, and 1415 (13.72%) died. The mean (SD) age of the hospitalized patients was 46.43 (18.74) years (n = 10,309) including 6031 (58.50%) male and 4278 (41.50%) female patients (n = 10,309). On bivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality in both gender (p < .001). The mortality rate in female patients was lower (11.92%) compared with male patients (15.75%) (p = .675). However, elderly women had the highest odds of mortality (p < .001), indicating the possible role of delayed health seeking behavior, secondary to familial, and social neglect. Mortality in the patients with COVID-19 also occurred early after admission suggesting rapid deterioration, delayed reporting by patients, or their late referral from other health facilities. However, the overall statewide recovery rate showed steady improvement since the onset of the pandemic. In contrast, the recovery rate among the moderate-severe cases that were hospitalized at this tertiary care center during the same period reflected a lower nonspecific zigzag pattern indicating limited effectiveness of the COVID-19 treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
18.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 12(2): 88-95, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to the increased likelihood of clinical exposure during patient management. The study objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its predictors among hospital employees. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching hospital from August 2020 to September 2020 among 1,401 employees, including 1,217 HCWs, in New Delhi, India. The serum samples were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the COVID Kavach-Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody Detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Data were collected electronically using the EpiCollect mobile platform. A p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 169 participants (12.1%) had detectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The highest seropositivity rate was observed in the administrative staff (20.1%), while it was lowest among medical doctors (5.5%, p < 0.001). Male sex and ever having lived in a containment zone were independently associated with past infection with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers may be lower than in the general population in New Delhi. However, nonpharmaceutical interventions were not associated with a reduction in the risk of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.

19.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 30(2): 262-271, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149667

ABSTRACT

Several digital contact tracing smartphone applications have been developed worldwide in the effort to combat COVID-19 that warn users of potential exposure to infectious patients and generate big data that helps in early identification of hotspots, complementing the manual tracing operations. In most democracies, concerns over a breach in data privacy have resulted in severe opposition toward their mandatory adoption. This paper examines India as a noticeable exception, where the compulsory installation of such a government-backed application, the "Aarogya Setu" has been deemed mandatory in certain situations. We argue that the mandatory app requirement constitutes a legitimate public health intervention during a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/ethics , Mobile Applications/ethics , Privacy , Bioethical Issues , Cell Phone , Ethical Analysis , Humans , India
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(12): e1465, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933567
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