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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337927


Although the antimicrobial potential of nitric oxide (NO) is widely published, it is little used clinically. NO is a key signalling molecule modulating vascular, neuronal, inflammatory and immune responses. Endogenous antimicrobial activity is largely mediated by high local NO concentrations produced by cellular inducible nitric oxide synthase, and by derivative reactive nitrogen oxide species including peroxynitrite and S-nitrosothiols. NO may be taken as dietary substrate (inorganic nitrate, L-arginine), and therapeutically as gaseous NO, and transdermal, sublingual, oral, intranasal and intravenous nitrite or nitrate. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that NO has generic static and cidal activities against viruses (including β-coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, protozoa and fungi/yeasts  in vitro. Therapeutic effects have been seen in animal models  in vivo, and phase II trials have demonstrated that NO donors can reduce microbial infection. Nevertheless, excess NO, as occurs in septic shock, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In view of the dose-dependent positive and negative effects of NO, safety and efficacy trials of NO and its donors are needed for assessing their role in the prevention and treatment of infections. Trials should test dietary inorganic nitrate for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis and gaseous NO or oral, topical or intravenous nitrite and nitrate for treatment of mild-to-severe infections, including due to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). This review summarises the evidence base from  in vitro, in vivo and early phase clinical studies of NO activity in viral, bacterial, protozoal and fungal infections.

Age Ageing ; 51(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692262


The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in catastrophic levels of morbidity and mortality for care home residents. Despite this, research platforms for COVID-19 in care homes arrived late in the pandemic compared with other care settings. The Prophylactic Therapy in Care Homes Trial (PROTECT-CH) was established to provide a platform to deliver multi-centre cluster-randomized clinical trials of investigational medicinal products for COVID-19 prophylaxis in UK care homes. Commencing set-up in January 2021, this involved the design and development of novel infrastructure for contracting and recruitment, remote consent, staff training, research insurance, eligibility screening, prescribing, dispensing and adverse event reporting; such infrastructure being previously absent. By the time this infrastructure was in place, the widespread uptake of vaccination in care homes had changed the epidemiology of COVID-19 rendering the trial unfeasible. While some of the resources developed through PROTECT-CH will enable the future establishment of care home platform research, the near absence of care home trial infrastructure and nationally linked databases involving the care home sector will continue to significantly hamper progress. These issues are replicated in most other countries. Beyond COVID-19, there are many other research questions that require addressing to provide better care to people living in care homes. PROTECT-CH has exposed a clear need for research funders to invest in, and legislate for, an effective care home research infrastructure as part of national pandemic preparedness planning. Doing so would also invigorate care home research in the interim, leading to improved healthcare delivery specific to those living in this sector.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(11): 1571-1581, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713873


We have provided an overview on the profound impact of COVID-19 upon older people with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias and the challenges encountered in our management of dementia in different health-care settings, including hospital, out-patient, care homes, and the community during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have also proposed a conceptual framework and practical suggestions for health-care providers in tackling these challenges, which can also apply to the care of older people in general, with or without other neurological diseases, such as stroke or parkinsonism. We believe this review will provide strategic directions and set standards for health-care leaders in dementia, including governmental bodies around the world in coordinating emergency response plans for protecting and caring for older people with dementia amid the COIVD-19 outbreak, which is likely to continue at varying severity in different regions around the world in the medium term.

Alzheimer Disease/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dementia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2