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1.
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research ; 6(SpecialIssue1):9-16, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233020

ABSTRACT

Background: The new novel Coronavirus 2019 (nCOV-19 or COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented pandemic in humans. All nations have heightened their surveillances after the quick diagnosis of potential cases of the COVID-19. Objective(s): Recent statistics have mentioned that virus outbreak in tropical countries is relatively low compared to cold nations. To support this conclusion, we considered the six main tropical regions to investigate the pandemic distribution at the initial phase. Method(s): Chi-square test was applied to understand the correlation between outbreak and temperature changes. Significant probability P-value was set to P<0.01. P-values were calculated to both positive and death cases. Result(s): Out of 1211562 infected cases, 41776 cases (3.45%) were registered at hightemperature countries (P<0.0001) and 1161786 cases (96.55%) at other countries like European countries or the USA. Moreover, only 1433 mortality cases (2.2%) happened, and the remaining 97.8% of mortality happened among other nations. Conclusion(s): Similar to other respiratory viruses like flu and influenza, there is a low outbreak of COVID-19 in tropical nations compared to the other countries. Apart from weather conditions, it is also recommended to follow the serious preventive measures imposed by governments to survive this novel epidemic.Copyright © 2020

2.
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research ; 6(SpecialIssue1):9-16, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884822

ABSTRACT

Background: The new novel Coronavirus 2019 (nCOV-19 or COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented pandemic in humans. All nations have heightened their surveillances after the quick diagnosis of potential cases of the COVID-19. Objectives: Recent statistics have mentioned that virus outbreak in tropical countries is relatively low compared to cold nations. To support this conclusion, we considered the six main tropical regions to investigate the pandemic distribution at the initial phase. Methods: Chi-square test was applied to understand the correlation between outbreak and temperature changes. Significant probability P-value was set to P<0.01. P-values were calculated to both positive and death cases. Results: Out of 1211562 infected cases, 41776 cases (3.45%) were registered at hightemperature countries (P<0.0001) and 1161786 cases (96.55%) at other countries like European countries or the USA. Moreover, only 1433 mortality cases (2.2%) happened, and the remaining 97.8% of mortality happened among other nations. Conclusion: Similar to other respiratory viruses like flu and influenza, there is a low outbreak of COVID-19 in tropical nations compared to the other countries. Apart from weather conditions, it is also recommended to follow the serious preventive measures imposed by governments to survive this novel epidemic.

3.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 366:897-927, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1516837

ABSTRACT

After the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus in China, it has spread worldwide at a rapid pace. To control novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is no particular treatments/immunizations are available yet. However, to avoid the risk of immediate spreading between infected individuals, and healthcare workers, most organizations adopting virtual media devices in order asses the symptomatic behaviour of patient and these services are well known for telehealth services. On other hand, repositioning of drugs can offer a controlling strategy, and several drugs including remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and favipiravir were repurposed. The availability of an authenticated vaccine against COVID19 will be hard to produce in the coming days, therefore it is important to propose a pharmacological strategy to combat this disease. In this chapter, the authors present the investigation of controlling and preventing methods by telemedical services during a novel coronavirus outbreak. Besides, it can also report the current drug available information and future developments that need to present new strategies for developing pharmacy facilities. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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