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J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(9): 1119-1132, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007153


Parkinsonism secondary to viral infections is not an uncommon occurrence and has been brought under the spotlight with the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A variety of viruses have been described with a potential of inducing or contributing to the occurrence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD), although the relationship between the two remains a matter of debate originating with the description of encephalitis lethargica in the aftermath of the Spanish flu in 1918. While some viral infections have been linked to an increased risk for the development of PD, others seem to have a causal link with the occurrence of parkinsonism. Here, we review the currently available evidence on viral-induced parkinsonism with a focus on potential pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical features. We also review the evidence on viral infections as a risk factor for developing PD and the link between SARS-CoV-2 and parkinsonism, which might have important implications for future research and treatments.

COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Virus Diseases , Viruses , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 165: 135-171, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866755


People with Parkinson's Disease (PwP) may be at higher risk for complications from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) due to older age and to the multi-faceted nature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) per se, presenting with a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Those on advanced therapies may be particularly vulnerable. Taking the above into consideration, along with the potential multi-systemic impact of Covid-19 on affected patients and the complications of hospitalization, we are providing an evidence-based guidance to ensure a high standard of care for PwP affected by Covid-19 with varying severity of the condition. Adherence to the dopaminergic medication of PwP, without abrupt modifications in dosage and frequency, is of utmost importance, while potential interactions with newly introduced drugs should always be considered. Treating physicians should be cautious to acknowledge and timely address any potential complications, while consultation by a neurologist, preferably with special knowledge on movement disorders, is advised for patients admitted in non-neurological wards. Non-pharmacological approaches, including the patient's mobilization, falls prevention, good sleep hygiene, emotional support, and adequate nutritional and fluid intake, are essential and the role of telemedicine services should be strengthened and encouraged.

COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy