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J Control Release ; 342: 388-399, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562303


The efficacy of RNA-based vaccines has been recently demonstrated, leading to the use of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. The application of self-amplifying mRNA within these formulations may offer further enhancement to these vaccines, as self-amplifying mRNA replicons enable longer expression kinetics and more potent immune responses compared to non-amplifying mRNAs. To investigate the impact of administration route on RNA-vaccine potency, we investigated the immunogenicity of a self-amplifying mRNA encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein encapsulated in different nanoparticle platforms (solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)). These were administered via three different routes: intramuscular, intradermal and intranasal. Our studies in a mouse model show that the immunogenicity of our 4 different saRNA vaccine formulations after intramuscular or intradermal administration was initially comparable; however, ionizable LNPs gave higher long-term IgG responses. The clearance of all 4 of the nanoparticle formulations from the intramuscular or intradermal administration site was similar. In contrast, immune responses generated after intranasal was low and coupled with rapid clearance for the administration site, irrespective of the formulation. These results demonstrate that both the administration route and delivery system format dictate self-amplifying RNA vaccine efficacy.

COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic
Pharmaceutics ; 13(2)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081806


Recent approval of mRNA vaccines to combat COVID-19 have highlighted the potential of this platform. Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) is the delivery vehicle of choice for mRNA as they prevent its enzymatic degradation by encapsulation. We have recently shown that surface exposition of mannose, incorporated in LNPs as stable cholesterol-amine conjugate, enhances the potency of self-amplifying RNA (SAM) replicon vaccines through augmented uptake by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Here, we generated a new set of LNPs whose surface was modified with mannans of different length (from mono to tetrasaccharide), in order to study the effect on antibody response of model SAM replicon encoding for the respiratory syncytial virus fusion F protein. Furthermore, the impact of the mannosylated liposomal delivery through intradermal as well as intramuscular routes was investigated. The vaccine priming response showed to improve consistently with increase in the chain length of mannoses; however, the booster dose response plateaued above the length of disaccharide. An increase in levels of IgG1 and IgG2a was observed for mannnosylated lipid nanoparticles (MLNPs) as compared to LNPs. This work confirms the potential of mannosylated SAM LNPs for both intramuscular and intradermal delivery, and highlights a disaccharide length as sufficient to ensure improved immunogenicity compared to the un-glycosylated delivery system.