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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225411, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990376

ABSTRACT

Importance: The monoclonal antibody combination of casirivimab and imdevimab reduced viral load, hospitalization, or death when administered as a 1200-mg or greater intravenous (IV) dose in a phase 3 COVID-19 outpatient study. Subcutaneous (SC) and/or lower IV doses should increase accessibility and/or drug supplies for patients. Objective: To assess the virologic efficacy of casirivimab and imdevimab across different IV and SC doses compared with placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study included outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at 47 sites across the United States. Participants could be symptomatic or asymptomatic; symptomatic patients with risk factors for severe COVID-19 were excluded. Data were collected from December 15, 2020, to March 4, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized to a single IV dose (523 patients) of casirivimab and imdevimab at 300, 600, 1200, or 2400 mg or placebo; or a single SC dose (292 patients) of casirivimab and imdevimab at 600 or 1200 mg or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time-weighted average daily change from baseline (TWACB) in viral load from day 1 (baseline) through day 7 in patients seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. Results: Among 815 randomized participants, 507 (282 randomized to IV treatment, 148 randomized to SC treatment, and 77 randomized to placebo) were seronegative at baseline and included in the primary efficacy analysis. Participants randomized to IV had a mean (SD) age of 34.6 (9.6) years (160 [44.6%] men; 14 [3.9%] Black; 121 [33.7%] Hispanic or Latino; 309 [86.1%] White); those randomized to SC had a mean age of 34.1 (10.0) years (102 [45.3%] men; 75 [34.7%] Hispanic or Latino; 6 [2.7%] Black; 190 [84.4%] White). All casirivimab and imdevimab treatments showed significant virologic reduction through day 7. Least-squares mean differences in TWACB viral load for casirivimab and imdevimab vs placebo ranged from -0.56 (95% CI; -0.89 to -0.24) log10 copies/mL for the 1200-mg IV dose to -0.71 (95% CI, -1.05 to -0.38) log10 copies/mL for the 2400-mg IV dose. There were no adverse safety signals or dose-related safety findings, grade 2 or greater infusion-related or hypersensitivity reactions, grade 3 or greater injection-site reactions, or fatalities. Two serious adverse events not related to COVID-19 or the study drug were reported. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial including outpatients with asymptomatic and low-risk symptomatic SARS-CoV-2, all IV and SC doses of casirivimab and imdevimab comparably reduced viral load. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04666441.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for COVID-19 prevention in patient populations who have not mounted or are not expected to mount an adequate immune response to complete COVID-19 vaccination. We previously reported that a single subcutaneous 1200 mg dose of the monoclonal antibody combination casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS + IMD) prevented symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections by 81·4% in generally healthy household contacts of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals over a 1-month efficacy assessment period. Here we present additional results, including the 7-month follow-up period (months 2-8), providing additional insights about the potential for efficacy in pre-exposure prophylaxis settings. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in the USA, Romania, and Moldova in 2020-2021, before the emergence of omicron (B.1.1.529) and omicron-lineage variants. Uninfected and unvaccinated household contacts of infected individuals, judged by the investigator to be in good health, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1200 mg CAS + IMD or placebo by subcutaneous injection according to a central randomisation scheme provided by an interactive web response system; randomisation was stratified per site by the test results of a local diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 and age group at baseline. COVID-19 vaccines were prohibited before randomisation, but participants were allowed to receive COVID-19 vaccination during the follow-up period. Participants who developed COVID-19 symptoms during the follow-up period underwent RT-PCR testing. Prespecified endpoints included the proportion of previously uninfected and baseline-seronegative participants (seronegative-modified full analysis set) who had RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 in the follow-up period (post-hoc for the timepoints of months 2-5 and 6-8 only) and underwent seroconversion (ie, became seropositive, considered a proxy for any SARS-CoV-2 infections [symptomatic and asymptomatic]; prespecified up to day 57, post-hoc for all timepoints thereafter). We also assessed the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04452318. FINDINGS: From July 13, 2020, to Oct 4, 2021, 2317 participants who were RT-PCR-negative for SARS-CoV-2 were randomly assigned, of whom 1683 (841 assigned to CAS + IMD and 842 assigned to placebo) were seronegative at baseline. During the entirety of the 8-month study, CAS + IMD reduced the risk of COVID-19 by 81·2% (nominal p<0·0001) versus placebo (prespecified analysis). During the 7-month follow-up period, protection was greatest during months 2-5, with a 100% relative risk reduction in COVID-19 (nominal p<0·0001; post-hoc analysis). Efficacy waned during months 6-8 (post-hoc analysis). Seroconversion occurred in 38 (4·5%) of 841 participants in the CAS + IMD group and in 181 (21·5%) of 842 in the placebo group during the 8-month study (79·0% relative risk reduction vs placebo; nominal p<0·0001). Six participants in the placebo group were hospitalised due to COVID-19 versus none who received CAS + IMD. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events (including COVID-19) were reported in 24 (1·7%) of 1439 participants receiving CAS + IMD and in 23 (1·6%) of 1428 receiving placebo. Five deaths were reported, none of which were due to COVID-19 or related to the study drugs. INTERPRETATION: CAS + IMD is not authorised in any US region as of Jan 24, 2022, because data show that CAS + IMD is not active against omicron-lineage variants. In this study, done before the emergence of omicron-lineage variants, a single subcutaneous 1200 mg dose of CAS + IMD protected against COVID-19 for up to 5 months of community exposure to susceptible strains of SARS-CoV-2 in the pre-exposure prophylaxis setting, in addition to the post-exposure prophylaxis setting that was previously shown. FUNDING: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, F Hoffmann-La Roche, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(15): 2342-2351, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740250

ABSTRACT

An orally active vaccine capable of boosting SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in previously infected or vaccinated individuals would help efforts to achieve and sustain herd immunity. Unlike mRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles and recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses, replicating vesicular stomatitis viruses with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (VSV-SARS2) were poorly immunogenic after intramuscular administration in clinical trials. Here, by G protein trans-complementation, we generated VSV-SARS2(+G) virions with expanded target cell tropism. Compared to parental VSV-SARS2, G-supplemented viruses were orally active in virus-naive and vaccine-primed cynomolgus macaques, powerfully boosting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers. Clinical testing of this oral VSV-SARS2(+G) vaccine is planned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhabdoviridae , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
JAMA ; 327(5): 432-441, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694857

ABSTRACT

Importance: Easy-to-administer anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatments may be used to prevent progression from asymptomatic infection to symptomatic disease and to reduce viral carriage. Objective: To evaluate the effect of combination subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab on progression from early asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection to symptomatic COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of close household contacts of a SARS-CoV-2-infected index case at 112 sites in the US, Romania, and Moldova enrolled July 13, 2020-January 28, 2021; follow-up ended March 11, 2021. Asymptomatic individuals (aged ≥12 years) were eligible if identified within 96 hours of index case positive test collection. Results from 314 individuals positive on SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing are reported. Interventions: Individuals were randomized 1:1 to receive 1 dose of subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab, 1200 mg (600 mg of each; n = 158), or placebo (n = 156). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of seronegative participants who developed symptomatic COVID-19 during the 28-day efficacy assessment period. The key secondary efficacy end points were the number of weeks of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the number of weeks of high viral load (>4 log10 copies/mL). Results: Among 314 randomized participants (mean age, 41.0 years; 51.6% women), 310 (99.7%) completed the efficacy assessment period; 204 were asymptomatic and seronegative at baseline and included in the primary efficacy analysis. Subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab, 1200 mg, significantly prevented progression to symptomatic disease (29/100 [29.0%] vs 44/104 [42.3%] with placebo; odds ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.30-0.97]; P = .04; absolute risk difference, -13.3% [95% CI, -26.3% to -0.3%]). Casirivimab and imdevimab reduced the number of symptomatic weeks per 1000 participants (895.7 weeks vs 1637.4 weeks with placebo; P = .03), an approximately 5.6-day reduction in symptom duration per symptomatic participant. Treatment with casirivimab and imdevimab also reduced the number of high viral load weeks per 1000 participants (489.8 weeks vs 811.9 weeks with placebo; P = .001). The proportion of participants receiving casirivimab and imdevimab who had 1 or more treatment-emergent adverse event was 33.5% vs 48.1% for placebo, including events related (25.8% vs 39.7%) or not related (11.0% vs 16.0%) to COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: Among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-positive individuals living with an infected household contact, treatment with subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab antibody combination vs placebo significantly reduced the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 over 28 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04452318.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Viral Load
5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Importance Easy-to-administer antiviral treatments may be used to prevent progression from asymptomatic infection to COVID-19 and to reduce viral carriage. Objective Evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab antibody combination (REGEN-COV) to prevent progression from early asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection to COVID-19. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study that enrolled asymptomatic close contacts living with a SARS-CoV-2–infected household member (index case). Participants who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR–positive at baseline were included in the analysis reported here. Setting Multicenter trial conducted at 112 sites in the United States, Romania, and Moldova. Participants Asymptomatic individuals ≥12 years of age were eligible if identified within 96 hours of collection of the index case’s positive SARS-CoV-2 test sample. Interventions A total of 314 asymptomatic, SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR–positive individuals living with an infected household contact were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of subcutaneous REGEN-COV 1200mg (n=158) or placebo (n=156). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who developed symptomatic COVID-19 during the 28-day efficacy assessment period. The key secondary efficacy endpoints were the number of weeks of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the number of weeks of high viral load (>4 log 10 copies/mL). Safety was assessed in all treated participants. Results Subcutaneous REGEN-COV 1200mg significantly prevented progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic disease compared with placebo (31.5% relative risk reduction;29/100 [29.0%] vs 44/104 [42.3%], respectively;P =.0380). REGEN-COV reduced the overall population burden of high–viral load weeks (39.7% reduction vs placebo;48 vs 82 total weeks;P =.0010) and of symptomatic weeks (45.3% reduction vs placebo;89.6 vs 170.3 total weeks;P =.0273), the latter corresponding to an approximately 5.6-day reduction in symptom duration per symptomatic participant. Six placebo-treated participants had a COVID-19–related hospitalization or ER visit versus none for those receiving REGEN-COV. The proportion of participants receiving placebo who had ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse events was 48.1% compared with 33.5% for those receiving REGEN-COV, including events related (39.7% vs 25.8%, respectively) or not related (16.0% vs 11.0%, respectively) to COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance Subcutaneous REGEN-COV 1200mg prevented progression from asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection to COVID-19, reduced the duration of high viral load and symptoms, and was well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT04452318 KEY POINTS Question Can treatment with the anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibody combination REGEN-COV prevent COVID-19 and reduce viral load when given to recently exposed and asymptomatic individuals? Findings In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, subcutaneously administered REGEN-COV 1200 mg significantly reduced progression of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection to symptomatic infection (ie, COVID-19) by 31.5% compared with placebo. REGEN-COV also reduced the overall population burden of high viral load weeks (39.7% reduction vs placebo;48 vs 82 total weeks;P =.0010). Meaning In the current pandemic, utilization of subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevents progression of early asymptomatic infection to COVID-19 and reduces viral carriage.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294514

ABSTRACT

Summary Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are a clinically validated therapeutic option against COVID-19. As rapidly emerging virus mutants are becoming the next major concern in the fight against the global pandemic, it is imperative that these therapeutic treatments provide coverage against circulating variants and do not contribute to development of treatment emergent resistance. To this end, we investigated the sequence diversity of the spike protein and monitored emergence of minor virus variants in SARS-COV-2 isolates found in COVID-19 patients or identified from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. This study demonstrates that a combination of non-competing antibodies, REGEN-COV, not only provides full coverage against current variants of concern/interest but also protects against emergence of new such variants and their potential seeding into the population in a clinical setting.

7.
American Heart Journal ; 242:172-173, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487572

ABSTRACT

Background In a Phase 3 prevention trial, the monoclonal antibody combination casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COVTM) administered subcutaneously (SC) prevented symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic adults/adolescents living in the same household as a SARS-CoV-2-infected individual (index case). Individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes are at increased risk of moderate/severe COVID-19. Methods Uninfected individuals ≥12 years, identified ≤96 hours of index case being diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive, were randomized 1:1 to REGEN-COV 1200mg SC or placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who developed symptomatic infection (COVID-19) during the 28-day efficacy assessment period among those who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR negative and without evidence of immunity (seronegative) at baseline. A post-hoc analysis assessed efficacy in participants with CVD (including hypertension) and/or diabetes. Overall safety is reported. Results The study included SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR negative participants at baseline (n=2067). There was an 81.4% relative risk reduction (RRR) of symptomatic infection with REGEN-COV in the overall seronegative population (n=1505;Figure 1;Table 1). In participants with CVD (n=332) or diabetes (n=103), the RRRs of developing symptomatic infection with REGEN-COV versus placebo were 54.9% and 69.0%, respectively. Similar results were observed when analyses were performed regardless of baseline serology status. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurring at ≥2% included COVID-19, asymptomatic COVID-19, headache, and injection-site reaction (Table 2). Conclusions In study participants with CVD and/or diabetes, who are known to be at increased risk of severe disease if infected, treatment with REGEN-COV SC reduced the risk of developing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, consistent with the overall study results..

8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(23): e81, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the phase 1-2 portion of an adaptive trial, REGEN-COV, a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, reduced the viral load and number of medical visits in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). REGEN-COV has activity in vitro against current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern. METHODS: In the phase 3 portion of an adaptive trial, we randomly assigned outpatients with Covid-19 and risk factors for severe disease to receive various doses of intravenous REGEN-COV or placebo. Patients were followed through day 29. A prespecified hierarchical analysis was used to assess the end points of hospitalization or death and the time to resolution of symptoms. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 18 of 1355 patients in the REGEN-COV 2400-mg group (1.3%) and in 62 of 1341 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization concurrently (4.6%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk], 71.3%; P<0.001); these outcomes occurred in 7 of 736 patients in the REGEN-COV 1200-mg group (1.0%) and in 24 of 748 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization concurrently (3.2%) (relative risk reduction, 70.4%; P = 0.002). The median time to resolution of symptoms was 4 days shorter with each REGEN-COV dose than with placebo (10 days vs. 14 days; P<0.001 for both comparisons). REGEN-COV was efficacious across various subgroups, including patients who were SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody-positive at baseline. Both REGEN-COV doses reduced viral load faster than placebo; the least-squares mean difference in viral load from baseline through day 7 was -0.71 log10 copies per milliliter (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.90 to -0.53) in the 1200-mg group and -0.86 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, -1.00 to -0.72) in the 2400-mg group. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the placebo group (4.0%) than in the 1200-mg group (1.1%) and the 2400-mg group (1.3%); infusion-related reactions of grade 2 or higher occurred in less than 0.3% of the patients in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: REGEN-COV reduced the risk of Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause, and it resolved symptoms and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 viral load more rapidly than placebo. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04425629.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Proportional Hazards Models , Viral Load/drug effects , Young Adult
9.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387678

ABSTRACT

Christos Kyratsous, Vice President of Research, Infectious Diseases, and Viral Vector Technologies at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, and Alina Baum, Associate Director, Infectious Diseases Associate at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, discuss the development of antibody therapeutics targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive
11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(13): 1184-1195, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: REGEN-COV (previously known as REGN-COV2), a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, has been shown to markedly reduce the risk of hospitalization or death among high-risk persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whether subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevents severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent Covid-19 in persons at high risk for infection because of household exposure to a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, participants (≥12 years of age) who were enrolled within 96 hours after a household contact received a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to receive a total dose of 1200 mg of REGEN-COV or matching placebo administered by means of subcutaneous injection. At the time of randomization, participants were stratified according to the results of the local diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 and according to age. The primary efficacy end point was the development of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection through day 28 in participants who did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection (as measured by reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay) or previous immunity (seronegativity). RESULTS: Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection developed in 11 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (1.5%) and in 59 of 752 participants in the placebo group (7.8%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk], 81.4%; P<0.001). In weeks 2 to 4, a total of 2 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (0.3%) and 27 of 752 participants in the placebo group (3.6%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (relative risk reduction, 92.6%). REGEN-COV also prevented symptomatic and asymptomatic infections overall (relative risk reduction, 66.4%). Among symptomatic infected participants, the median time to resolution of symptoms was 2 weeks shorter with REGEN-COV than with placebo (1.2 weeks and 3.2 weeks, respectively), and the duration of a high viral load (>104 copies per milliliter) was shorter (0.4 weeks and 1.3 weeks, respectively). No dose-limiting toxic effects of REGEN-COV were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevented symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously uninfected household contacts of infected persons. Among the participants who became infected, REGEN-COV reduced the duration of symptomatic disease and the duration of a high viral load. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04452318.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Viral Load , Young Adult
12.
Cell ; 184(15): 3949-3961.e11, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252550

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are a clinically validated therapeutic option against COVID-19. Because rapidly emerging virus mutants are becoming the next major concern in the fight against the global pandemic, it is imperative that these therapeutic treatments provide coverage against circulating variants and do not contribute to development of treatment-induced emergent resistance. To this end, we investigated the sequence diversity of the spike protein and monitored emergence of virus variants in SARS-COV-2 isolates found in COVID-19 patients treated with the two-antibody combination REGEN-COV, as well as in preclinical in vitro studies using single, dual, or triple antibody combinations, and in hamster in vivo studies using REGEN-COV or single monoclonal antibody treatments. Our study demonstrates that the combination of non-competing antibodies in REGEN-COV provides protection against all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/interest and also protects against emergence of new variants and their potential seeding into the population in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Neutralization Tests , Vero Cells , Viral Load
13.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0017021, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255525

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies are key determinants of protection from future infection, yet well-validated high-throughput assays for measuring titers of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are not generally available. Here, we describe the development and validation of IMMUNO-COV v2.0, a scalable surrogate virus assay, which titrates antibodies that block infection of Vero-ACE2 cells by a luciferase-encoding vesicular stomatitis virus displaying SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (VSV-SARS2-Fluc). Antibody titers, calculated using a standard curve consisting of stepped concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibody, correlated closely (P < 0.0001) with titers obtained from a gold standard 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50%) performed using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. IMMUNO-COV v2.0 was comprehensively validated using data acquired from 242 assay runs performed over 7 days by five analysts, utilizing two separate virus lots, and 176 blood samples. Assay performance was acceptable for clinical use in human serum and plasma based on parameters including linearity, dynamic range, limit of blank and limit of detection, dilutional linearity and parallelism, precision, clinical agreement, matrix equivalence, clinical specificity and sensitivity, and robustness. Sufficient VSV-SARS2-Fluc virus reagent has been banked to test 5 million clinical samples. Notably, a significant drop in IMMUNO-COV v2.0 neutralizing antibody titers was observed over a 6-month period in people recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, our results demonstrate the feasibility and utility of IMMUNO-COV v2.0 for measuring SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated individuals and those recovering from natural infections. Such monitoring can be used to better understand what levels of neutralizing antibodies are required for protection from SARS-CoV-2 and what booster dosing schedules are needed to sustain vaccine-induced immunity. IMPORTANCE Since its emergence at the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused over 100 million infections and 2.4 million deaths worldwide. Recently, countries have begun administering approved COVID-19 vaccines, which elicit strong immune responses and prevent disease in most vaccinated individuals. A key component of the protective immune response is the production of neutralizing antibodies capable of preventing future SARS-CoV-2 infection. Yet, fundamental questions remain regarding the longevity of neutralizing antibody responses following infection or vaccination and the level of neutralizing antibodies required to confer protection. Our work is significant as it describes the development and validation of a scalable clinical assay that measures SARS-CoV-2-neutraling antibody titers. We have critical virus reagent to test over 5 million samples, making our assay well suited for widespread monitoring of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, which can in turn be used to inform vaccine dosing schedules and answer fundamental questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , Neutralization Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Vero Cells
14.
Nature ; 595(7868): 572-577, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246378

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2, a nucleoside-modified mRNA formulated in lipid nanoparticles that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) stabilized in its prefusion conformation, has demonstrated 95% efficacy in preventing COVID-191. Here we extend a previous phase-I/II trial report2 by presenting data on the immune response induced by BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination from an additional phase-I/II trial in healthy adults (18-55 years old). BNT162b2 elicited strong antibody responses: at one week after the boost, SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean 50% neutralizing titres were up to 3.3-fold above those observed in samples from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. Sera elicited by BNT162b2 neutralized 22 pseudoviruses bearing the S of different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Most participants had a strong response of IFNγ+ or IL-2+ CD8+ and CD4+ T helper type 1 cells, which was detectable throughout the full observation period of nine weeks following the boost. Using peptide-MHC multimer technology, we identified several BNT162b2-induced epitopes that were presented by frequent MHC alleles and conserved in mutant strains. One week after the boost, epitope-specific CD8+ T cells of the early-differentiated effector-memory phenotype comprised 0.02-2.92% of total circulating CD8+ T cells and were detectable (0.01-0.28%) eight weeks later. In summary, BNT162b2 elicits an adaptive humoral and poly-specific cellular immune response against epitopes that are conserved in a broad range of variants, at well-tolerated doses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Nature ; 586(7830): 594-599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091471

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is needed to halt the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Recently, we reported safety, tolerability and antibody response data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase I/II coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trial with BNT162b1, a lipid nanoparticle-formulated nucleoside-modified mRNA that encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein1. Here we present antibody and T cell responses after vaccination with BNT162b1 from a second, non-randomized open-label phase I/II trial in healthy adults, 18-55 years of age. Two doses of 1-50 µg of BNT162b1 elicited robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and strong antibody responses, with RBD-binding IgG concentrations clearly above those seen in serum from a cohort of individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. Geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 serum-neutralizing antibodies on day 43 were 0.7-fold (1-µg dose) to 3.5-fold (50-µg dose) those of the recovered individuals. Immune sera broadly neutralized pseudoviruses with diverse SARS-CoV-2 spike variants. Most participants had T helper type 1 (TH1)-skewed T cell immune responses with RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell expansion. Interferon-γ was produced by a large fraction of RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The robust RBD-specific antibody, T cell and favourable cytokine responses induced by the BNT162b1 mRNA vaccine suggest that it has the potential to protect against COVID-19 through multiple beneficial mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Th1 Cells/cytology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
17.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(1): 73-86, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989838

ABSTRACT

Non-human primate models will expedite therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to clinical trials. Here, we compare acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in young and old rhesus macaques, baboons and old marmosets. Macaques had clinical signs of viral infection, mild to moderate pneumonitis and extra-pulmonary pathologies, and both age groups recovered in two weeks. Baboons had prolonged viral RNA shedding and substantially more lung inflammation compared with macaques. Inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage was increased in old versus young baboons. Using techniques including computed tomography imaging, immunophenotyping, and alveolar/peripheral cytokine response and immunohistochemical analyses, we delineated cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaque and baboon lungs, including innate and adaptive immune cells and a prominent type-I interferon response. Macaques developed T-cell memory phenotypes/responses and bystander cytokine production. Old macaques had lower titres of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody levels compared with young macaques. Acute respiratory distress in macaques and baboons recapitulates the progression of COVID-19 in humans, making them suitable as models to test vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Callithrix/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Monkey Diseases/virology , Papio/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(3): 238-251, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that complications and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may be related to high viral loads. METHODS: In this ongoing, double-blind, phase 1-3 trial involving nonhospitalized patients with Covid-19, we investigated two fully human, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, used in a combined cocktail (REGN-COV2) to reduce the risk of the emergence of treatment-resistant mutant virus. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo, 2.4 g of REGN-COV2, or 8.0 g of REGN-COV2 and were prospectively characterized at baseline for endogenous immune response against SARS-CoV-2 (serum antibody-positive or serum antibody-negative). Key end points included the time-weighted average change in viral load from baseline (day 1) through day 7 and the percentage of patients with at least one Covid-19-related medically attended visit through day 29. Safety was assessed in all patients. RESULTS: Data from 275 patients are reported. The least-squares mean difference (combined REGN-COV2 dose groups vs. placebo group) in the time-weighted average change in viral load from day 1 through day 7 was -0.56 log10 copies per milliliter (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.02 to -0.11) among patients who were serum antibody-negative at baseline and -0.41 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, -0.71 to -0.10) in the overall trial population. In the overall trial population, 6% of the patients in the placebo group and 3% of the patients in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups reported at least one medically attended visit; among patients who were serum antibody-negative at baseline, the corresponding percentages were 15% and 6% (difference, -9 percentage points; 95% CI, -29 to 11). The percentages of patients with hypersensitivity reactions, infusion-related reactions, and other adverse events were similar in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups and the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In this interim analysis, the REGN-COV2 antibody cocktail reduced viral load, with a greater effect in patients whose immune response had not yet been initiated or who had a high viral load at baseline. Safety outcomes were similar in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups and the placebo group. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and the Biomedical and Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04425629.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Science ; 370(6520): 1110-1115, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840630

ABSTRACT

An urgent global quest for effective therapies to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. We previously described REGN-COV2, a cocktail of two potent neutralizing antibodies (REGN10987 and REGN10933) that targets nonoverlapping epitopes on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. In this report, we evaluate the in vivo efficacy of this antibody cocktail in both rhesus macaques, which may model mild disease, and golden hamsters, which may model more severe disease. We demonstrate that REGN-COV-2 can greatly reduce virus load in the lower and upper airways and decrease virus-induced pathological sequelae when administered prophylactically or therapeutically in rhesus macaques. Similarly, administration in hamsters limits weight loss and decreases lung titers and evidence of pneumonia in the lungs. Our results provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of this antibody cocktail.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus
20.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637849

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein variant D614G supplanted the ancestral virus worldwide in a matter of months. Here we show that D614G was more infectious than the ancestral form on human lung cells, colon cells, and cells rendered permissive by ectopic expression of various mammalian ACE2 orthologs. Nonetheless, D614G affinity for ACE2 was reduced due to a faster dissociation rate. Assessment of the S protein trimer by cryo-electron microscopy showed that D614G disrupts a critical interprotomer contact and that this dramatically shifts the S protein trimer conformation toward an ACE2-binding and fusion-competent state. Consistent with the more open conformation, neutralization potency of antibodies targeting the S protein receptor-binding domain was not attenuated. These results indicate that D614G adopts conformations that make virion membrane fusion with the target cell membrane more probable but that D614G retains susceptibility to therapies that disrupt interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein with the ACE2 receptor.

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