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1.
Blood ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874988

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) includes a thromboinflammatory syndrome that may manifest with microvascular and macrovascular thrombosis. Patients with COVID-19 have a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism than other hospitalized patients. Three randomized control trials suggesting benefit of therapeutic heparin in hospitalized non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 have led to conditional guideline recommendations for this treatment. By contrast, prophylactic dose heparin is recommended for critically ill patients. Unprecedented collaboration and rapidly funded research has improved care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

2.
Transfusion ; 62(5): 982-999, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) is a new iteration of prior National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) REDS programs that focus on improving transfusion recipient outcomes across the lifespan as well as the safety and availability of the blood supply. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The US program includes blood centers and hospitals (22 including 6 free-standing Children's hospitals) in four geographic regions. The Brazilian program has 5 participating hemocenters. A Center for Transfusion Laboratory Studies (CTLS) and a Data Coordinating Center (DCC) support synergistic studies and activities over the 7-year REDS-IV-P program. RESULTS: The US is building a centralized, vein-to-vein (V2V) database, linking information collected from blood donors, their donations, the resulting manufactured components, and data extracts from hospital electronic medical records of transfused and non-transfused patients. Simultaneously, the Brazilian program is building a donor, donation, and component database. The databases will serve as the backbone for retrospective and prospective observational studies in transfusion epidemiology, transfusion recipient outcomes, blood component quality, and emerging blood safety issues. Special focus will be on preterm infants, patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia or cancer, and the effect of donor biologic variability and component manufacturing on recipient outcomes. A rapid response capability to emerging safety threats has resulted in timely studies related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). CONCLUSIONS: The REDS-IV-P program endeavors to improve donor-recipient-linked research with a focus on children and special populations while also maintaining the flexibility to address emerging blood safety issues.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Blood Safety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Longevity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States are effective in preventing illness and hospitalization yet concern over post-vaccination venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk has led to vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: The aim of this study was to compare VTE rates before and after COVID-19 vaccination. COVID-19 vaccinated patients ≥18 years between November 1, 2020 through November 1, 2021 were analyzed using electronic medical records across the Mayo Clinic enterprise. The primary outcome was imaging confirmed acute VTE (upper or lower deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) occurring 90 days before and after the date of first vaccine dose. RESULTS: A total of 792 010 patients with at least one COVID-19 vaccination were identified (Pfizer, n = 452 950, Moderna, n = 290 607, and Janssen [Johnson & Johnson], n = 48 453). A total of 1565 VTE events occurred in the 90 days before (n = 772) and after (n = 793) COVID-19 vaccination. VTE post-vaccination occurred in 326 patients receiving Moderna (0.11%, incidence rate [IR] 4.58 per 1000p-years), 425 patients receiving Pfizer (0.09%, IR 3.84 per 1000p-years), and 42 receiving Janssen (0.09%, IR 3.56 per 1000p-years). Compared to the pre-vaccination timeframe, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for VTE after the Janssen vaccination was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.50), aHR 1.02 (95% CI 0.87-1.19) for Moderna, and aHR 1.00 (95% CI 0.87-1.15) for Pfizer. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of COVID-19 vaccinated patients, no increased risk for acute VTE post-vaccination was identified for the authorized vaccines in the United States.

4.
JAMA ; 327(3): 227-236, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669289

ABSTRACT

Importance: Platelets represent a potential therapeutic target for improved clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the benefits and risks of adding a P2Y12 inhibitor to anticoagulant therapy among non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: An open-label, bayesian, adaptive randomized clinical trial including 562 non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was conducted between February 2021 and June 2021 at 60 hospitals in Brazil, Italy, Spain, and the US. The date of final 90-day follow-up was September 15, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized to a therapeutic dose of heparin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 293) or a therapeutic dose of heparin only (usual care) (n = 269) in a 1:1 ratio for 14 days or until hospital discharge, whichever was sooner. Ticagrelor was the preferred P2Y12 inhibitor. Main Outcomes and Measures: The composite primary outcome was organ support-free days evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and, for those who survived to hospital discharge, the number of days free of respiratory or cardiovascular organ support up to day 21 of the index hospitalization (range, -1 to 21 days; higher scores indicate less organ support and better outcomes). The primary safety outcome was major bleeding by 28 days as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis. Results: Enrollment of non-critically ill patients was discontinued when the prespecified criterion for futility was met. All 562 patients who were randomized (mean age, 52.7 [SD, 13.5] years; 41.5% women) completed the trial and 87% received a therapeutic dose of heparin by the end of study day 1. In the P2Y12 inhibitor group, ticagrelor was used in 63% of patients and clopidogrel in 37%. The median number of organ support-free days was 21 days (IQR, 20-21 days) among patients in the P2Y12 inhibitor group and was 21 days (IQR, 21-21 days) in the usual care group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.83 [95% credible interval, 0.55-1.25]; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 96%). Major bleeding occurred in 6 patients (2.0%) in the P2Y12 inhibitor group and in 2 patients (0.7%) in the usual care group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.31 [95% CI, 0.64-17.2]; P = .15). Conclusions and Relevance: Among non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a P2Y12 inhibitor in addition to a therapeutic dose of heparin, compared with a therapeutic dose of heparin only, did not result in an increased odds of improvement in organ support-free days within 21 days during hospitalization. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04505774.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Inpatients , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Medical Futility , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12 , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ticagrelor/administration & dosage , Ticagrelor/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(8): e12632, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher D-dimer is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism. In the general population, D-dimer and other thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers are higher among Black individuals, who also have higher risk of these conditions compared to White people. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether Black individuals have an exaggerated correlation between D-dimer and thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers characteristic of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Linear regression was used to assess correlations of 11 thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers with D-dimer in a cross-sectional study of 1068 participants of the biracial Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. RESULTS: Adverse levels of most biomarkers, especially fibrinogen, factor VIII, C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and interleukin (IL)-6, were associated with higher D-dimer. Several associations with D-dimer differed significantly by race. For example, the association of factor VIII with D-dimer was more than twice as large in Black compared to White participants. Specifically, D-dimer was 26% higher per standard deviation (SD) higher factor VIII in Black adults and was only 11% higher per SD higher factor VIII in White adults. In Black but not White adults, higher IL-10 and soluble CD14 were associated with higher D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that D-dimer might relate to Black/White differences in cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism because it is a marker of amplified thrombo-inflammatory response in Black people. Better understanding of contributors to higher D-dimer in the general population is needed.

6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(8): e12638, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial injury and microcirculatory thromboses likely contribute to hypoxemic respiratory failure, the most common cause of death, in patients with COVID-19. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest differences in the effect of therapeutic heparin between moderately and severely ill patients with COVID-19. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to determine the effects of therapeutic heparin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, medRxiv, and medical conference proceedings for RCTs comparing therapeutic heparin with usual care, excluding trials that used oral anticoagulation or intermediate doses of heparin in the experimental arm. Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to combine odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 3 RCTs that compared therapeutic heparin to lower doses of heparin in 2854 moderately ill ward patients, and 3 RCTs in 1191 severely ill patients receiving critical care. In moderately ill patients, there was a nonsignificant reduction in all-cause death (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-1.02), but significant reductions in the composite of death or invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 0.98), and death or any thrombotic event (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Organ support-free days alive (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.57) were significantly increased with therapeutic heparin. There was a nonsignificant increase in major bleeding. In severely ill patients, there was no evidence for benefit of therapeutic heparin, with significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions with illness severity for all-cause death (P = .034). In conclusion, therapeutic heparin is beneficial in moderately ill patients but not in severely ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 790-802, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS: In this open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and who were not critically ill (which was defined as an absence of critical care-level organ support at enrollment) to receive pragmatically defined regimens of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. This outcome was evaluated with the use of a Bayesian statistical model for all patients and according to the baseline d-dimer level. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when prespecified criteria for the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation were met. Among 2219 patients in the final analysis, the probability that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation increased organ support-free days as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 98.6% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% credible interval, 1.03 to 1.58). The adjusted absolute between-group difference in survival until hospital discharge without organ support favoring therapeutic-dose anticoagulation was 4.0 percentage points (95% credible interval, 0.5 to 7.2). The final probability of the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation over usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 97.3% in the high d-dimer cohort, 92.9% in the low d-dimer cohort, and 97.3% in the unknown d-dimer cohort. Major bleeding occurred in 1.9% of the patients receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 0.9% of those receiving thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In noncritically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis. (ATTACC, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT04372589, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT02735707.).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 777-789, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS: In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure
9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. METHODS: Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID-19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. RESULTS: 515 physicians responded from 41 countries. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with most recommending use of low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. 291 respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism (PE). Of the 44% of respondents that estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1 to 50%. 174 respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). CONCLUSION: Well-designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in COVID-19 patients. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

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