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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239795

ABSTRACT

High rates of lung failure have been reported in haematological patients after SARS-CoV2 infection. An early administration of monoclonal antibodies or anti-virals may improve the prognosis. Oral anti-virals may have a wider use independently of the genetic variations of the virus. Prospective data on anti-virals in haematological malignancies (HMs) are still lacking. Outpatients diagnosed with HM and early COVID-19 infection were prospectively treated with the oral anti-virals nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir. Incidence of lung failure, deaths and adverse events was analysed. Long-term outcome at third month was evaluated. Eighty-two outpatients were evaluable for the study objectives. All patients had been treated for their HM within 12 months. COVID-19-related lung failure was 23.1%. Active HM (aOR = 4.42; p = 0.038) and prolonged viral shedding (aOR = 1.04; p = 0.022) resulted independent predictors of severe infection. The vaccination with three to four doses (aOR = 0.02; p = 0.001) and with two doses (aOR = 0.06; p = 0.006) resulted protective. COVID-19-related deaths at 28 days were 6.1%. All-cause mortality at 90-day follow-up was 13.4% (n. 11) and included opportunistic infections and cardiovascular events. In conclusion, this approach reduced the incidence of lung failure and specific mortality compared to previous cohorts, but patients remain at high risk of further complications.

2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233031

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (REM) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could alleviate severe COVID-19 in at-risk outpatients. However, data on their use in hospitalized patients, particularly in elderly or immunocompromised hosts, are lacking. METHODS: All consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at our unit from 1 July 2021 to 15 March 2022 were retrospectively enrolled. The primary outcome was the progression to severe COVID-19 (P/F < 200). Descriptive statistics, a Cox univariate-multivariate model, and an inverse probability treatment-weighted (IPTW) analysis were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 331 subjects were included; their median (q1-q3) age was 71 (51-80) years, and they were males in 52% of the cases. Of them, 78 (23%) developed severe COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 14%; it was higher in those with disease progression (36% vs. 7%, p < 0.001). REM and mAbs resulted in a 7% (95%CI = 3-11%) and 14% (95%CI = 3-25%) reduction in the risk of severe COVID-19, respectively, after adjusting the analysis with the IPTW. In addition, by evaluating only immunocompromised hosts, the combination of REM and mAbs was associated with a significantly lower incidence of severe COVID-19 (aHR = 0.06, 95%CI = 0.02-0.77) when compared with monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: REM and mAbs may reduce the risk of COVID-19 progression in hospitalized patients. Importantly, in immunocompromised hosts, the combination of mAbs and REM may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Male , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunocompromised Host , Disease Progression
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9035, 2023 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244246

ABSTRACT

In respiratory infections, anemia is both a consequence of acute inflammation and a predictor of poor clinical outcomes. There are few studies investigating the role of anemia in COVID-19, suggesting a potential role in predicting disease severity. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between the presence of anemia at admission and incidence of severe disease and death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Data from all adult patients admitted for COVID-19 in University Hospital "P. Giaccone" Palermo, and University Hospital of Bari, Italy, were retrospectively collected from 1st of September 2020 to 31 August 2022. The association between anemia (defined as Hb < 13 g/dl and < 12 g/dl in males and females, respectively), in-hospital mortality and severe COVID-19 was tested using a Cox's regression analysis. Severe COVID-19 forms were defined as admission to intensive or sub-intensive care unit or a qSOFAscore ≥ 2 or CURB65scores ≥ 3. p values were calculated using the Student's t test for continuous variables and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test for categorical ones. The association between anemia and the mortality was made using a Cox's regression analysis, adjusted, in two models, for the potential confounders and using a propensity score. Among the 1562 patients included in the analysis, prevalence of anemia was 45.1% (95% CI 43-48%). Patients with anemia were significantly older (p < 0.0001), reported more co-morbidities, and presented higher baseline levels of procalcitonin, CRP, ferritin and IL-6. Overall, the crude incidence of mortality was about four times higher in patients with anemia compared to those without. After adjusting for 17 potential confounders, the presence of anemia significantly increased the risk of death (HR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.59-4.52) and of risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.65-3.24). The propensity score analysis substantially confirmed these analyses. Our study provides evidence that, in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, anemia is both associated with a more pronounced baseline pro-inflammatory profile and higher incidence of in-hospital mortality and severe disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Anemia/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Disease Progression
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117709, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242625

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Worldwide, COVID-19 pandemic lead to a large fall in the number of newly reported TB cases. In sub-Saharan Africa, microbiological diagnosis of TB is generally based on smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF on sputum samples, but good quality sputum samples are often difficult to obtain, leading clinicians to rely on more invasive procedures for diagnosis. Aim of this study was to investigate pooled sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF on stool samples compared to respiratory microbiological reference standards in African countries. Methods: Four investigators independently searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science until 12th October 2022, then screened titles and abstracts of all potentially eligible articles. The authors applied the eligibility criteria, considered the full texts. All the studies reported the data regarding true positive (TP), true negative (TN), false positive (FP) and false negative (FN). Risk of bias and applicability concerns were assessed with the Quadas-2 tool. Results: overall, among 130 papers initially screened, we evaluated 47 works, finally including 13 papers for a total of 2,352 participants, mainly children. The mean percentage of females was 49.6%, whilst the mean percentage of patients reporting HIV was 27.7%. Pooled sensitivity for Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detecting pulmonary tuberculosis was 68.2% (95%CI: 61.1-74.7%) even if characterized by a high heterogeneity (I2=53.7%). Specificity was almost 100% (99%, 95%CI: 97-100%; I2 = 45.7%). When divided for reference standard, in the six studies using sputum and nasogastric aspirate the accuracy was optimal (AUC = 0.99, SE = 0.02), whilst in the studies using only sputum for tuberculosis detection the AUC was 0.85 (with a SE = 0.16). The most common source of bias was exclusion of enrolled patients in the analysis. Conclusions: Our study confirms that, in Africa, stool Xpert MTB/RIF may be a useful rule-in test for children above and below 5 years of age under evaluation for pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity increased substantially when using both sputum and nasogastric aspirate as reference samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Child , Female , Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19 Testing
5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(4)2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial and diagnostic stewardship (AS/DS) principles are crucial for the management of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) infections. We evaluated the impact of a pro-active Infectious Disease (ID) consultation on the mortality risk of patients during an MDROs outbreak in a COVID-19 hospital. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was performed in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, including patients with suspected/confirmed infection and/or colonization by MDROs, which were managed as follows: (i) according to the standard of care during the pre-phase and (ii) in collaboration with a dedicated ID team performing a pro-active bedside evaluation every 48-72 h in the post-phase. RESULTS: Overall, 112 patients were included (pre-phase = 89 and post-phase = 45). The AS interventions included the following: therapy optimization (33%), de-escalation to narrow the spectrum (24%) or to lessen toxic drugs (20%), and discontinuation of antimicrobials (64%). DS included the request of additional microbiologic tests (82%) and instrumental exams (16%). With the Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, COVID-19 severity, infection source, etiological agents, and post-phase attendance, only age predicted an increased risk of mortality, while attendance in the post-phase resulted in a decreased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of AS and DS intervention through a pro-active ID consultation may reduce the risk of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 patients with MDROs infections.

6.
Pathog Glob Health ; 117(5): 513-519, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269913

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to reduce disease progression in patients with underlying predisposing conditions. Unfortunately, there is no evidence on the use of Sotrovimab in pregnant women. Herein we present a case series of pregnant women who received mAbs with Sotrovimab following the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) indications. Since February 1, 2022 all pregnant women - regardless of gestational age - admitted to Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Policlinico University of Bari, with positive nasopharyngeal NAAT for SARS-CoV-2 were screened according to the AIFA indications for Sotrovimab and, if eligible, were proposed for treatment. Data on COVID-19, pregnancy, delivery, newborn outcomes, and adverse events were collected. From February 1 to May 15, 2022, 58 pregnant women were screened. Fifty (86%) patients were eligible, 19 of them (32.7%) denied their consent, in 18 cases (31%), the drug was temporarily unavailable, and the remaining 13 (22%) were treated with Sotrovimab. Out of these 13 patients, 6 (46%) were in the 3rd and 7 (54%) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. None of the 13 patients experienced adverse reactions due to Sotrovimab and all had a good clinical outcome. Furthermore, evaluating pre- and post-infusion clinical status and hematochemical profile, a reduction in D-dimers and an increase in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (p < 0.01) during the 72 h following the infusion were observed. Our data, the first on the use of Sotrovimab in pregnant women, showed the safety and efficacy drug profile and its potential crucial role in preventing COVID-19 disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Disease Progression
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217041

ABSTRACT

Since May 2022, the monkeypox (MPX) virus has represented an emerging issue due to outbreaks in non-endemic areas. This report presents the first case of paraphimosis caused by an MPX infection during the outbreak. The patient accessed the emergency department for a sudden onset of swelling of the penis and paraphimosis caused by MPX lesions that brought about stenosis of the foreskin. He therefore underwent a dorsal slit procedure with resolution. No antiviral therapy was required. A multidisciplinary approach should be preferred for the management of MPX, due to the possibility of uncommon and disseminated presentations.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200514

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: COVID-19 induces massive systemic inflammation. Researchers have spent much time and effort finding an excellent and rapid image tool to evaluate COVID-19 patients. Since the pandemic's beginning, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been identified for this purpose. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used to treat mild patients and prevent respiratory disease worsening. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 15 Caucasian patients with mild COVID-19 who did not require home oxygen, treated with Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (Group 1). A molecular nose-throat swab test confirmed the diagnosis. All were office patients, and nobody was affected by respiratory failure. They were admitted to receive the single-day infusion of mAb treatment in agreement with the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) rules for approval. LUS was performed before the drug administration (T0) and after three months (T1). We compared LUS at T1 in other outpatients who came for follow-up and were overlapping at the time of diagnosis for admittance criteria to receive mAb (Group 2). Results: Our COVID-19 outpatients reported no hospitalization in a follow-up visit after recovery. All patients became SARS-CoV-2 negative within one month since T0. LUS score at T0 was 8.23 ± 6.46. At T1 we found a significant decrease in Group 1 LUS score (5.18 ± 4.74; p < 0.05). We also found a significant decrease in the LUS score of Group 1 T1 compared to Group2 T1 (5.18 ± 4.74 vs 7.82 ± 5.21; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Early treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 virus effectively achieves a better recovery from disease and reduces lung involvement after three months as evaluated with LUS. Despite extrapolation to the general population may be done with caution, based on our data this ultrasound method is also effective for evaluating and following lung involvement in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089985

ABSTRACT

Secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by KPC- and NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) during the course of COVID-19 infections lead to significant mortality. Herein, a comparative retrospective case series of KPC- or NDM-K.p. BSIs occurring in COVID-19 subjects treated with Ceftazidime/Avibactam (CAZ/AVI) for KPC-K.p., or CAZ/AVI+ Aztreonam (ATM) for NDM-K.p is reported. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in two Italian hospitals with a BSI between March and September 2021 were included. The main outcome was 14-day mortality. Overall, 44 patients were included: 23 with KPC-K.p. and 21 with NDM-K.p. BSIs. The median (q1-q3) age was 67 (57-75) years, and 32 (72%) were males. The two groups were similar in terms of baseline comorbidity, or severity of COVID-19. Notably, 14-day mortality of KPC-K.p. BSIs and NDM-K.p. BSIs (26% vs. 38%, p = 0.521) and 28-day mortality (35% vs. 48%, p = 0.541) were similar. A Cox regression model of delayed initiation of an appropriate antibiotic therapy after the onset of symptoms independently predicted mortality: initiation between 24 and 72 h (aHR = 12.03; 95% CI = 1.10-130, p = 0.041); and initiation after 72h (aHR = 36.9, 95% CI = 3.22-424, p = 0.004). Moreover, a trend towards an increased risk of mortality was observed for polymicrobial infections (aHR = 3.73, 95% CI = 0.87-15.8, p = 0.074), while a protective effect was observed for a beta-lactam loading dose at the start of treatment (aHR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.02-1.10, p = 0.064). The high mortality of KPC and NDM-K.p. BSIs in COVID-19 patients may be reduced by an early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Further efforts should be made to develop antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in COVID-19 wards.

10.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the understanding of several aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome is increasing, there is limited literature regarding the treatment of these signs and symptoms. The aim of our systematic review was to understand which therapies have proved effective against the symptoms of long COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled or clinical trials in several databases was conducted through 15 May 2022. Specific inclusion criteria included: (1) intervention studies, either randomized controlled (RCTs) or clinical trials; (2) diagnosis of long COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization criteria; (3) presence of long COVID-19 for at least 12 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We initially found 1638 articles to screen. After removing 1602 works based on their title/abstract, we considered 35 full texts, and among them, two intervention studies were finally included. The first RCT focused on the greater improvement of treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin in patients with olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19. The second study evaluated the positive impact of aromatherapy vs. standard care in adult females affected by fatigue. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review found only two intervention studies focused on patients affected by long COVID-19. More intervention studies are needed to investigate potentially positive interventions for long COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Luteolin , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
11.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987895

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70% of the global population is no longer vaccinated against smallpox. Indeed, the smallpox vaccination also confers some indirect degree of protection against other poxviruses, including monkeypox. We performed a narrative review to describe the existing literature with regard to monkeypox using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. This review aims to provide updated evidence of findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of monkeypox, also considering the concurrent zoonotic pandemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847566

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has undone years of progress in providing essential TB services and controlling the TB burden. Italy, a low TB burden country, has an incidence of 7.1 cases per 100,000 people. To control the TB spreading in Italy is critical to investigate the characteristics of patients with the worst outcomes and the highest risk of adverse events related to antituberculosis therapy. Therefore, we conducted a large retrospective study in TB patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases University of Bari, Italy, in order to describe the clinical presentation and the factors associated with adverse events and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases from January 2013 to 15 December 2021. We stratified our cohort into two groups: <65 years of age and ≥65 years in order to assess any differences between the two groups. Two logistic regression models were implemented considering the dependent variables as: (I) the adverse events; and (II) the unsuccessful treatments. Results: In total, 206 consecutive patients [60% (n = 124) M, median age 39 years, range 16-92] were diagnosed and admitted with TB at Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Of the whole sample, 151 (74%) were <65 years and 55 (26%) were ≥65. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected (p-value < 0.05) for nationality (p-value = 0.01), previous contact with TB patient (p-value = 0.00), type of TB (p-value = 0.00), unsuccessful treatment (p-value = 0.00), length of hospitalization (p-value = 0.02) and diagnostic delay (p-value = 0.01). Adverse events related to TB drug regimen were reported in 24% (n = 49). Age < 65 years (O.R. = 3.91; 95% CI 1.72-4.21), non-Italian nationality (O.R. = 4.45; 95% CI 2.22-4.98.), homeless (O.R. = 3.23; 95% CI 2.58-4.54), presence of respiratory symptoms (O.R. = 1.23; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), diagnostic delay (O.R = 2.55; 95% CI 1.98-3.77) resulted associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (death, failure or lost to follow up). Finally, age < 65 years (O.R. = 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.49), presence of pulmonary TB (O.R. = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.35), length of hospitalization (O.R. = 1.82; 95% CI 1.35-2.57) and TB culture positive (O.R. = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.82) were associated with adverse events in our populations. Conclusions: The pharmacological approach alone seems insufficient to treat and cure a disease whose ethiopathogenesis is not only due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to the poverty or the social fragility. Our data suggest that young foreigners, the homeless, and the people with low social and economic status are at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome in low incidence TB countries. Targeted actions to support this highly vulnerable population both in terms of outcome and occurrence of adverse events are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580509

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of millions of individuals and caused millions of deaths worldwide. Predicting the clinical course of the disease is of pivotal importance to manage patients. Several studies have found hematochemical alterations in COVID-19 patients, such as inflammatory markers. We retrospectively analyzed the anamnestic data and laboratory parameters of 303 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted to the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari during the first phase of the COVID-19 global pandemic. After the pre-processing phase, we performed a survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Regression, with the aim to discover the most unfavorable predictors. The target outcomes were mortality or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Different machine learning models were also compared to realize a robust classifier relying on a low number of strongly significant factors to estimate the risk of death or admission to ICU. From the survival analysis, it emerged that the most significant laboratory parameters for both outcomes was C-reactive protein min; HR=17.963 (95% CI 6.548-49.277, p < 0.001) for death, HR=1.789 (95% CI 1.000-3.200, p = 0.050) for admission to ICU. The second most important parameter was Erythrocytes max; HR=1.765 (95% CI 1.141-2.729, p < 0.05) for death, HR=1.481 (95% CI 0.895-2.452, p = 0.127) for admission to ICU. The best model for predicting the risk of death was the decision tree, which resulted in ROC-AUC of 89.66%, whereas the best model for predicting the admission to ICU was support vector machine, which had ROC-AUC of 95.07%. The hematochemical predictors identified in this study can be utilized as a strong prognostic signature to characterize the severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533837

ABSTRACT

The quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH) has remarkably increased thanks to the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Still, PLWH are exposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about diagnosis and nutritional management with specific indication of macro and micronutrients intake for the main comorbidities of PLWH. In fact, a prompt diagnosis and management of lifestyle behaviors are fundamental steps to reach the "fourth 90". To achieve an early diagnosis of these comorbidities, clinicians have at their disposal algorithms such as the Framingham Score to assess cardiovascular risk; transient elastography and liver biopsy to detect NAFLD and NASH; and markers such as the oral glucose tolerance test and GFR to identify glucose impairment and renal failure, respectively. Furthermore, maintenance of ideal body weight is the goal for reducing cardiovascular risk and to improve diabetes, steatosis and fibrosis; while Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets are the dietetic approaches proposed for cardioprotective effects and for glycemic control, respectively. Conversely, diet management of chronic kidney disease requires different nutritional assessment, especially regarding protein intake, according to disease stage and eventually concomitant diabetes.

15.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481016

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent threat to public health and global development; in this scenario, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic has caused a major disruption of healthcare systems and practices. A narrative review was conducted on articles focusing on the impact of COVID-19 on multidrug-resistant gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. We found that, worldwide, multiple studies reported an unexpected high incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and C. auris among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. In this setting, inappropriate antimicrobial exposure, environmental contamination, and discontinuation of infection control measures may have driven selection and diffusion of drug-resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/epidemiology
16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256419

ABSTRACT

Cefiderocol is a new cephalosporin displaying against extensively resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria. We report our experience with cefiderocol-based combination therapies as "rescue" treatments in immunocompromised or critically ill patients or in patients with post-surgical infections who had failed previous regimens. A total of 13 patients were treated from 1 September 2020 to 31 March 2021. In total, 5/13 (38%) patients were classified as critically ill, due to severe COVID-19 lung failure; 4/13 (31%) patients had post-surgical infections and 4/13 (31%) had severe infections in immunocompromised subjects due to solid organ transplantation (2/4) or hematological malignancy (2/4). Overall, 10/13 infections were caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, one by KPC-positive ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia and two by Pseudomonas aeruginosa XDR. Based on clinical, microbiological and hematobiochemical evaluation, cefiderocol was associated with different companion drugs, particularly with fosfomycin, high-dose tigecycline and/or colistin. Microbiological eradication was achieved in all cases and the 30-day survival rate was 10/13; two patients died due to SARS-CoV-2 lung failure, whereas one death was attributed to subsequent infections. No recurrent infections within 30 days were reported. Finally, we hereby discuss the therapeutic potential of cefiderocol and the possible place in the therapy of this novel drug.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8851736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects (PAFDs) consistent with pulmonary artery embolism (PAE) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and at investigating possible radiological or clinical predictors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiographies (CTPAs) from 43 consecutive patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection were retrospectively reviewed, taking into consideration the revised Geneva score and the D-dimer value for each patient. Filling defects within the pulmonary arteries were recorded along with pleural and parenchymal findings such as ground glass opacities, consolidation, crazy paving, linear consolidation, and pleural effusion. All these variables were compared between patients with and without PAFD. The predictive performance of statistically different parameters was investigated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 15/43 patients (35%), whereas CTPA and parenchymal changes related to pulmonary COVID-19 disease were evident in 39/43 patients (91%). The revised Geneva score and the mean D-dimer value obtained using two consecutive measurements were significantly higher in patients with PAFD. The ROC analysis demonstrated that a mean D-dimer value is the parameter with the higher predictivity (AUC 0.831) that is a cut-off value > 1800 µg/l which predicts the probability of PAFD with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This single centre retrospective report shows a high prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects revealed using CTPA in COVID-19 patients and demonstrates that the mean value of multiple D-dimer measurements may represent a predicting factor of this complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115434

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people, fostering and unprecedent effort in vaccine development and distribution. Healthcare workers (HCW) play a key role in vaccine promotion and patient guidance, and it is likely that hesitancy among this population will have a major impact on the adoption of a successful immunization policy. To investigate HCW attitudes towards anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccination, we developed an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. 1723 Italian HCW responded. Overall, 1155 (67%) intended to be vaccinated, while 443 (26%) were not sure and 125 (7%) declared refusal. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with hesitancy were using Facebook as the main information source and being a non-physician HCW, while predictors of acceptance included younger age, being in close contact with high-risk groups and having received flu vaccination during the 2019-2020 season. Reasons for hesitancy included lack of trust in vaccine safety (85%) and receiving little (78%) or conflicting (69%) information about vaccines. According to our results, adequate investment in vaccine education for healthcare personnel appears to be urgently needed, prioritizing non-physicians and information quality spread through social media. We hope that our data could help governments and policy-makers to target communication in the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
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