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Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 117, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448444


BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists (IL-6RAs) and steroids are emerging immunomodulatory therapies for severe and critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this preliminary report, we aim to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of adult critically ill COVID-19 patients, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV), and receiving IL-6RA and steroids therapy over the last 11 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International, multicenter, cohort study derived from Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness University Study registry and conducted through Discovery Network, Society of Critical Care Medicine. Data were collected between March 01, 2020, and January 10, 2021. RESULTS: Of 860 patients who met eligibility criteria, 589 received steroids, 170 IL-6RAs, and 101 combinations. Patients who received IL-6RAs were younger (median age of 57.5 years vs. 61.1 and 61.8 years in the steroids and combination groups, respectively). The median C-reactive protein level was > 75 mg/L, indicating a hyperinflammatory phenotype. The median daily steroid dose was 7.5 mg dexamethasone or equivalent (interquartile range: 6-14 mg); 80.8% and 19.2% received low-dose and high-dose steroids, respectively. Of the patients who received IL-6RAs, the majority received one dose of tocilizumab and sarilumab (dose range of 600-800 mg for tocilizumab and 200-400 mg for sarilumab). Regarding the timing of administration, we observed that steroid and IL-6RA administration on day 0 of ICU admission was only 55.6% and 39.5%, respectively. By day 28, when compared with steroid use alone, IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88, 1.4) for ventilator-free days, while combination therapy was associated with an aIRR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.6, 1.14). IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.68 (95% CI 0.44, 1.07) for the 28-day mortality rate, while combination therapy was associated with an aOR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.67, 1.70). Liver dysfunction was higher in IL-6RA group (p = 0.04), while the bacteremia rate did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Discordance was observed between the registry utilization patterns (i.e., timing of steroids and IL-6RA administration) and new evidence from the recent randomized controlled trials and guideline recommendations. These data will help us to identify areas of improvement in prescribing patterns and enhance our understanding of IL-6RA safety with different steroid regimens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the drivers of hospital-level variation and their impact on clinical outcomes. Trial registration NCT04486521. Registered on July 2020.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 54, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383685


OBJECTIVE: Ketamine has been shown to decrease sedative requirements in intensive care unit (ICU). Randomized trials are limited on patient-centered outcomes. We designed this pilot trial to evaluate the feasibility of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effect of ketamine as an adjunct analgosedative compared with standard of care alone as a control group (CG) in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV). We also provided preliminary evidence on clinically relevant outcomes to plan a larger trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pilot, active-controlled, open-label RCT was conducted at medical, surgical, and transplant ICUs at a large tertiary and quaternary care medical institution (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia). The study included adult patients who were intubated within 24 h, expected to require MV for the next calendar day, and had institutional pain and sedation protocol initiated. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to adjunct ketamine infusion 1-2 µg/kg/min for 48 h or CG alone. RESULTS: Of 437 patients screened from September 2019 through November 2020, 83 (18.9%) patients were included (43 in CG and 40 in ketamine) and 352 (80.5%) were excluded. Average enrollment rate was 3-4 patients/month. Consent and protocol adherence rates were adequate (89.24% and 76%, respectively). Demographics were balanced between groups. Median MV duration was 7 (interquartile range [IQR] 3-9.25 days) in ketamine and 5 (IQR 2-8 days) in CG. Median VFDs was 19 (IQR 0-24.75 days) in ketamine and 19 (IQR 0-24 days) in the CG (p = 0.70). More patients attained goal Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale at 24 and 48 h in ketamine (67.5% and 73.5%, respectively) compared with CG (52.4% and 66.7%, respectively). Sedatives and vasopressors cumulative use, and hemodynamic changes were similar. ICU length-of-stay was 12.5 (IQR 6-21.2 days) in ketamine, compared with 12 (IQR 5.5-23 days) in CG. No serious adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine as an adjunct analgosedative agent appeared to be feasible and safe with no negative impact on outcomes, including hemodynamics. This pilot RCT identified areas of improvement in study protocol before conducting a large, adequately powered, multicenter RCT which is likely justified to investigate ketamine association with patient-centered outcomes further. Trial registration NCT04075006. Registered on 30 August 2019. Current controlled trials: ISRCTN14730035. Registered on 3 February 2020.

Patient Saf Surg ; 14: 34, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748906


In view of the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, hospitals need contingency planning. This planning should include preparation for an unexpected patient surge. This measure is evolving concomitantly with the implementation of the needed infection control rules. Here, we present our experience in contingency planning at four large tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia during this global pandemic, with a focus on dealing with COVID-19 patients who need to undergo surgery. The planning covers response measures required in the operating room and supporting units, including the administrative department, intensive care unit, and different sections of the surgical department. Furthermore, it covers the role of education and simulation in preparing health care providers and ensuring smooth workflow between all sections. We additionally discuss the guidelines and policies implemented in different surgical specialties. These measures are necessary to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the healthcare system should develop a comprehensive pandemic plan and set guidelines addressing the management of urgent and malignant cases. The guidelines should be in concordance with internal guidelines.