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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 83-88, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care-associated infection (HAI) incidence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Patients from 7 LMICs were followed up during hospital intensive care unit (ICU) stays from January 2019 to May 2020. HAI rates were calculated using the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Surveillance Online System applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) criteria. Pre-COVID-19 rates for 2019 were compared with COVID-19 era rates for 2020 for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), mortality, and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 7,775 patients were followed up for 49,506 bed days. The 2019 to 2020 rate comparisons were 2.54 and 4.73 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days (risk ratio [RR] = 1.85, p = .0006), 9.71 and 12.58 VAEs per 1,000 mechanical ventilator days (RR = 1.29, p = .10), and 1.64 and 1.43 CAUTIs per 1,000 urinary catheter days (RR = 1.14; p = .69). Mortality rates were 15.2% and 23.2% for 2019 and 2020 (RR = 1.42; p < .0001), respectively. Mean LOS for 2019 and 2020 were 6.02 and 7.54 days (RR = 1.21, p < .0001), respectively. DISCUSSION: This study documents an increase in HAI rates in 7 LMICs during the first 5 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights the need to reprioritize and return to conventional infection prevention practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Urinary Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 93-96, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664995

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 brought new challenges and opportunities for infection prevention and control. Virtual infection prevention and control (VIPC), although nascent, is rapidly becoming a viable and necessary strategy for combatting the COVID-19 pandemic. Benefits of VIPC include extending the impact of globally scarce infectious disease providers and public health practitioners, allowing coordination between disparate professionals to more effectively combat infectious disease, and increasing access to and quality of healthcare. Although mainly applied in developed countries, VIPC may play its greatest role in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with fewer healthcare resources. We conducted a brief literature search of VIPC in LMICs and found that many studies describe solutions in developed countries or describe planned or theoretical solutions. Few studies describe actual VIPC implementation in LMICs, except for China. Literature from related fields, for example, virtual critical care, and from developed countries is more robust and provides a roadmap for future research on VIPC in LMICs. Further research into strategies and outcomes related to VIPC in LMICs is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Income , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(1): 40-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and is notable for being highly contagious and potentially lethal; and SARS-CoV-2 is mainly spread by droplet transmission. The US healthcare system's response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been challenged by a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators. Restricted use, reuse, and sanitation of PPE have been widely adopted to provide protection for frontline healthcare workers caring for often critically ill and highly contagious patients. Here, we describe our validated process for N95 respirator sanitation. DESIGN: Process development, validation, and implementation. SETTING: Level 1, urban, academic, medical center. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed a novel evidence-based process for N95 respirator reprocessing and sanitation using ultraviolet (UV) light. Dose measurement, structural integrity, moisture content, particle filtration, fit testing, and environmental testing were performed for both quality control and validation of the process. RESULTS: The process achieved UV light dosing for sanitation while maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the N95 respirators, with a daily potential throughput capacity of ∼12,000 masks. This process has supported our health system to provide respiratory PPE to all frontline team members. CONCLUSIONS: This novel method of N95 respirator sanitation can safely enable reuse of the N95 respirators essential for healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19. Our high-throughput process can extend local supplies of this critical PPE until the national supply is replenished.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Masks , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1374-1375, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575358

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the acceleration of telehealth and remote environments as stakeholders and healthcare systems respond to the threat of this disease. How can infectious diseases and healthcare epidemiology expertise be adapted to support safe care for all?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Infect Dis Rep ; 23(10): 15, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the similarities between antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and infection prevention programs (IPPs), and we discuss how these similarities lend themselves to synergy between programs. We also discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has generated further opportunities for future collaborations that could benefit both programs. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has created new needs, such as real-time data and access to personnel important to both programs, such as information technologists and infectious diseases specialists. It has also increased concerns about rising rates of antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections, both of which overlap significantly and are key focus areas for both ASPs and IPPs. These emergent issues have highlighted the need for enhanced program infrastructure and new team models. The shift towards telecommunication and telework has facilitated the creation of enhanced infrastructures for collaboration on activities ranging from data access and reporting to providing telehealth services to remote hospitals. These enhanced infrastructures can be leveraged in future collaborative efforts between ASPs and IPPs. SUMMARY: Collaboration between IPPs and ASPs can mitigate setbacks experienced by health systems during the current pandemic, enhance the performance of both programs in the post-pandemic era and increase their preparedness for future pandemic threats. As health systems plan for the post-pandemic era, they should invest in opportunities for synergy between ASPs and IPPs highlighted during the pandemic.

7.
Curr Treat Options Infect Dis ; 13(4): 165-174, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474180

ABSTRACT

REASON FOR REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way healthcare services are provided and created challenges to the delivery of behavioral health in the inpatient setting. Here, we present our front-line experience of infection prevention for the psychiatric patient in the COVID era. RECENT FINDINGS: There are unique challenges surrounding COVID-19 precautions within inpatient psychiatric settings. The challenges presented to psychiatric care by COVID-19 begin in the emergency department and follow the patient through the continuum of care once admitted to the facility. Unit infrastructure, patient population, treatment modalities, staffing considerations, and discharge planning are distinct instances where COVID-19 protocols that are well-suited for other hospital settings necessitate revision for psychiatric settings. SUMMARY: The purpose of this communication is to add to the current body of shared experience of infection prevention for the psychiatric patient in the COVID-19 era.

9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(8): 1007-1009, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349622

ABSTRACT

The use of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system (EHHMS) decreased due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We analyzed dispenser use, hand hygiene (HH) badge use, and HH compliance to determine the effect of COVID-19 on EHHMS use and HH compliance. HH product shortages and other pandemic-induced challenges influenced EHHMS use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2035234, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068640

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data from seroepidemiologic surveys measuring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposure in diverse communities and ascertaining risk factors associated with infection are important to guide future prevention strategies. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection across Virginia and the risk factors associated with infection after the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this statewide cross-sectional surveillance study, 4675 adult outpatients presenting for health care not associated with COVID-19 in Virginia between June 1 and August 14, 2020, were recruited to participate in a questionnaire and receive venipuncture to assess SARS-CoV-2 serology. Eligibility was stratified to meet age, race, and ethnicity quotas that matched regional demographic profiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, as measured by the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G assay. Results: Among 4675 adult outpatients (mean [SD] age, 48.8 [16.9] years; 3119 women [66.7%]; 3098 White [66.3%] and 4279 non-Hispanic [91.5%] individuals) presenting for non-COVID-19-associated health care across Virginia, the weighted seroprevalence was 2.4% (95% CI, 1.8%-3.1%) and ranged from 0% to 20% by zip code. Seroprevalence was notably higher among participants who were Hispanic (10.2%; 95% CI, 6.1%-14.3%), residing in the northern region (4.4%; 95% CI, 2.8%-6.1%), aged 40 to 49 years (4.4%; 95% CI, 1.8%-7.1%), and uninsured (5.9%; 95% CI, 1.5%-10.3%). Higher seroprevalence was associated with Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.56; 95% CI, 1.76-7.21), residence in a multifamily unit (aOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.25-5.22), and contact with an individual with confirmed COVID-19 infection (aOR, 4.33; 95% CI, 1.77-10.58). The sensitivity of serology results was 94% (95% CI, 70%-100%) among those who reported receiving a previous polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 infection. Among 101 participants with seropositive results, 67 individuals (66.3%) were estimated to have asymptomatic infection. These data suggested a total estimated COVID-19 burden that was 2.8-fold higher than that ascertained by PCR-positive case counts. Conclusions and Relevance: This large statewide serologic study estimated that 2.4% of adults in Virginia had exposure to SARS-CoV-2, which was 2.8-fold higher than confirmed case counts. Hispanic ethnicity, residence in a multifamily unit, and contact with an individual with confirmed COVID-19 infection were significant risk factors associated with exposure. Most infections were asymptomatic. As of August 2020, the population in Virginia remained largely immunologically naive to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Curr Infect Dis Rep ; 22(9): 23, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629203

ABSTRACT

We describe traditional antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) activities with a discussion of how these activities can be refocused in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we discuss possible adverse consequences of ASP attention diversion on COVID-19 response efforts and overall implications for future pandemic planning. We also discuss ASP in collaboration with other groups within health systems and how COVID-19 may affect these relationships long term. Despite the paucity of literature on Antimicrobial Stewardship and COVID-19, the potential contributions of ASPs during a pandemic are numerous. ASPs can develop strategies to identify patients with COVID-19-like-illness; this is particularly useful when these patients are missed at the time of health system entry. ASPs can also play a critical role in the management of potential drug shortages, developing local treatment guidelines, optimizing the use of antibiotics, and in the diagnostic stewardship of COVID-19 testing, among other roles. Importantly, it is often difficult to ascertain whether critically ill patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19 have concurrent or secondary bacterial infections-ASPs are ideally situated to help optimize antimicrobial use for these patients via a variety of mechanisms. ASPs are uniquely positioned to aid in pandemic response planning and relief efforts. ASPs are already integrated into health systems and play a key role in optimizing antimicrobial prescribing. As ASPs assist in COVID-19 response, understanding the role of ASPs in pandemic relief efforts may mitigate damage from future outbreaks.

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