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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329601

ABSTRACT

Detailed knowledge of cellular networks that are modulated by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed to understand viral replication and host response. So far, transcriptomic analyses of interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and cells were performed on mixed populations of infected and uninfected cells or using single-cell RNA sequencing, both leading to inaccurate or low-resolution gene expression interpretations. Moreover, they generally focused on annotated messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ignoring other transcripts, such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and unannotated RNAs. Here, we performed deep polyA + transcriptome analyses of lung epithelial A549 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, which were sorted based on the expression of the viral protein spike (S). To increase the sequencing depth and improve the robustness of the analysis, the samples were depleted of viral transcripts. Infection caused a massive reduction in mRNAs and lncRNAs, including transcripts coding for antiviral innate immune proteins, such as interferons (IFNs). This absence of IFN response probably explains the poor transcriptomic response of bystander cells co-cultured with spike positive (S + ) ones. NF-κB and inflammatory response were among the pathways that escaped the global shutoff in S + cells. In agreement with the RNA-seq analysis, inflammatory cytokines, but not IFNs, were produced and secreted by infected cells. Functional investigations revealed the proviral function of the NF-kB subunit p105/p50 and some of its known target genes, including IL32 and IL8, as well as the lncRNA ADIRF-AS1, which we identified as a novel NF-kB target gene. Thus, analyzing the polyA + transcriptome of sorted populations of infected lung cells allowed unprecedented identification of cellular functions that are directly affected by infection and the recovery of coding and non-coding genes that contribute to SARS-CoV-2 replication.

2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295279

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent way, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.

3.
J Mol Biol ; 434(6): 167277, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440208

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions induced by IFN. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent manner, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavivirus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavivirus/genetics , Histone Deacetylases , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins , RNA-Binding Proteins , Repressor Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/genetics , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/genetics
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