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1.
Resusc Plus ; 10: 100219, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852002

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Code status orders impact clinical outcomes as well as patients' and surrogates' experiences. This is the first multicenter cohort examining code status orders of ICU patients with COVID-19 reported to date. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study including adult patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were admitted to the ICU at three hospitals in Massachusetts from March 11, 2020 - May 31, 2020. We examined differences in code status orders at multiple timepoints and performed multivariable regression analysis to identify variables associated with code status at admission. Results: Among 459 ICU patients with COVID-19, 421 (91.7%) were Full Code at hospital admission. Age and admission from a facility were positively associated with DNR status (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15, p < 0.001 and adjusted OR 2.68, CI 1.23-5.71, p = 0.011, respectively) while non-English preferred language was negatively associated with DNR status (adjusted OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.74, p = 0.012). Among 147 patients who died during hospitalization, 95.2% (140) died with DNR code status; most (86.4%) died within two days of final code status change. Conclusions: The association of non-English preferred language with Full Code status in critically ill COVID-19 patients highlights the importance of medical interpreters in the ICU. Patients who died were transitioned to DNR more than in previous studies, possibly reflecting changes in practice during a novel pandemic.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 24-33, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections among newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants with hydrocephalus in Uganda. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three populations-newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants (≤3 months) with nonpostinfectious (NPIH) or postinfectious (PIH) hydrocephalus-were evaluated for CMV infection at 3 medical centers in Uganda. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to characterize the prevalence of CMV. RESULTS: The overall CMV prevalence in 2498 samples across all groups was 9%. In newborn-mother pairs, there was a 3% prevalence of cord blood CMV positivity and 33% prevalence of maternal vaginal shedding. In neonates with clinical sepsis, there was a 2% CMV prevalence. Maternal HIV seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 25.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.43-134.26; p = 0.0001), residence in eastern Uganda (aOR 11.06; 95% CI 2.30-76.18; p = 0.003), maternal age <25 years (aOR 4.54; 95% CI 1.40-19.29; p = 0.02), and increasing neonatal age (aOR 1.08 for each day older; 95% CI 1.00-1.16; p = 0.05), were associated risk factors for CMV in neonates with clinical sepsis. We found a 2-fold higher maternal vaginal shedding in eastern (45%) vs western (22%) Uganda during parturition (n = 22/49 vs 11/50, the Fisher exact test; p = 0.02). In infants with PIH, the prevalence in blood was 24% and in infants with NPIH, it was 20%. CMV was present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 13% of infants with PIH compared with 0.5% of infants with NPIH (n = 26/205 vs 1/194, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that congenital and postnatal CMV prevalence is substantial in this African setting, and the long-term consequences are uncharacterized.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections , Hydrocephalus , Sepsis , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
Resuscitation plus ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728351

ABSTRACT

Purpose Code status orders impact clinical outcomes as well as patients’ and surrogates’ experiences. This is the first multicenter cohort examining status orders of ICU patients with COVID-19 reported to date. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study including adult patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were admitted to the ICU at three hospitals in Massachusetts from March 11, 2020 - May 31, 2020. We examined differences in code status orders at multiple timepoints and performed multivariable regression analysis to identify variables associated with code status at admission. Results Among 459 ICU patients with COVID-19, 421 (91.7%) were Full Code at hospital admission. Age and admission from a facility were positively associated with DNR status (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15, p < 0.001;adjusted OR 2.68, CI 1.23-5.71, p = 0.011) while non-English preferred language was negatively associated with DNR status (adjusted OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.74, p = 0.012). Among 147 patients who died during hospitalization, 95.2% (140) died with DNR code status;most (86.4%) died within two days of final code status change. Conclusions The association of non-English preferred language with Full Code status in critically ill COVID-19 patients highlights the importance of medical interpreters in the ICU. Patients who died were transitioned to DNR more than in previous studies, possibly reflecting changes in practice during a novel pandemic.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_6): S642-S646, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559852

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that the late gestation placental expression pattern of ACE2 (the primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] receptor) is localized to the villous syncytiotrophoblast (ST), usually in a polarized membranous pattern at the ST base sparing the apical surface (that directly exposed to maternal blood). We found that the late gestation placental expression pattern of TMPRSS2 (the spike proteinase required for SARS-CoV-2 cellular infection), is usually absent in the trophoblast but is rarely, weakly expressed in the placental endothelium. We now show the developmental protein expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 by immunohistochemistry throughout gestation, from the first through third trimester. We found that TMPRSS2 expression was rarely detectable in villous endothelium and very rarely detectable in the ST across gestation. We found that ACE2 expression varied during gestation with circumferential ST expression more common in early gestations and polarized expression more common in later gestation. Although this study is small, these preliminary results suggest that earlier gestation pregnancies may be more vulnerable to infection than later gestation pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Trophoblasts
5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Suppl 6): S647-S659, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), host molecules required for viral entry, may underlie sex differences in vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We investigated whether placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression vary by fetal sex in the presence of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by Western blot in 68 pregnant women (38 SARS-CoV-2 positive, 30 SARS-CoV-2 negative) delivering at Mass General Brigham from April to June 2020. The impact of fetal sex and maternal SARS-CoV-2 exposure on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted placental TMPRSS2 expression in a sexually dimorphic fashion (2-way ANOVA interaction, P = .002). We observed no impact of fetal sex or maternal SARS-CoV-2 status on ACE2. TMPRSS2 expression was significantly correlated with ACE2 expression in males (Spearman ρ = 0.54, P = .02) but not females (ρ = 0.23, P = .34) exposed to maternal SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in placental TMPRSS2 but not ACE2 were observed in the setting of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have implications for offspring vulnerability to placental infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fetal Blood/immunology , Placenta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sex Factors , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Fetus/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(617): eabi7428, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476378

ABSTRACT

There is a persistent bias toward higher prevalence and increased severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in males. Underlying mechanisms accounting for this sex difference remain incompletely understood. Interferon responses have been implicated as a modulator of COVID-19 disease in adults and play a key role in the placental antiviral response. Moreover, the interferon response has been shown to alter Fc receptor expression and therefore may affect placental antibody transfer. Here, we examined the intersection of maternal-fetal antibody transfer, viral-induced placental interferon responses, and fetal sex in pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Placental Fc receptor abundance, interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody transfer were interrogated in 68 human pregnancies. Sexually dimorphic expression of placental Fc receptors, ISGs and proteins, and interleukin-10 was observed after maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, with up-regulation of these features in placental tissue of pregnant individuals with male fetuses. Reduced maternal SARS-CoV-2­specific antibody titers and impaired placental antibody transfer were also observed in pregnancies with a male fetus. These results demonstrate fetal sex-specific maternal and placental adaptive and innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 8: 20499361211046669, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir (RDV) was approved for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in May 2020 under US Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization (EUA). Clinical outcomes related to RDV use in hospitalized patients during the EUA period are not well described. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received RDV under EUA. The primary outcome was clinical recovery by day 14 as determined by an eight-category ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included recovery and survival to day 28, and adverse events. Recovery and survival were calculated using a stratified log-rank Kaplan-Meier estimator and a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Overall, 164 patients received RDV between May and October 2020, and 153 (93.3%) had evaluable data. Most (77.1%) were hospitalized within 10 days of symptom onset, and 79.7% started RDV within 48 hours. By days 14 and 28, 96 (62.7%) and 117 patients (76.5%) met the definition of clinical recovery, respectively. Median time to recovery was 6 days [interquartile range (IQR) 4-12]. Mortality rates were 6.5% and 11.8% by days 14 and 28, respectively. Age and time to start of RDV after hospital admission were predictive of recovery and 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world experience, outcomes after 5 days of RDV therapy were comparable to those of clinical trials. Disease severity, age, and dexamethasone use influenced clinical outcomes. Time to RDV initiation appeared to affect recovery and 28-day mortality, a finding that should be explored further. Mortality rate decreased over the analysis period, which could be related to dexamethasone use and improved management of COVID-19.

8.
Cell ; 184(3): 628-642.e10, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385216

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes more severe disease in pregnant women compared to age-matched non-pregnant women. Whether maternal infection causes changes in the transfer of immunity to infants remains unclear. Maternal infections have previously been associated with compromised placental antibody transfer, but the mechanism underlying this compromised transfer is not established. Here, we used systems serology to characterize the Fc profile of influenza-, pertussis-, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies transferred across the placenta. Influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies were actively transferred. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody transfer was significantly reduced compared to influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies, and cord titers and functional activity were lower than in maternal plasma. This effect was only observed in third-trimester infection. SARS-CoV-2-specific transfer was linked to altered SARS-CoV-2-antibody glycosylation profiles and was partially rescued by infection-induced increases in IgG and increased FCGR3A placental expression. These results point to unexpected compensatory mechanisms to boost immunity in neonates, providing insights for maternal vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , THP-1 Cells
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1089-1096, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR is recommended to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, PCR availability is restricted in most countries. Rapid diagnostic tests are considered acceptable alternatives, but data are lacking on their performance. We assessed the performance of four antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests and one antigen-based rapid diagnostic test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community in Cameroon. METHODS: In this clinical, prospective, diagnostic accuracy study, we enrolled individuals aged at least 21 years who were either symptomatic and suspected of having COVID-19 or asymptomatic and presented for screening. We tested peripheral blood for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the Innovita (Biological Technology; Beijing, China), Wondfo (Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech; Guangzhou, China), SD Biosensor (SD Biosensor; Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), and Runkun tests (Runkun Pharmaceutical; Hunan, China), and nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 antigen using the SD Biosensor test. Antigen rapid diagnostic tests were compared with Abbott PCR testing (Abbott; Abbott Park, IL, USA), and antibody rapid diagnostic tests were compared with Biomerieux immunoassays (Biomerieux; Marcy l'Etoile, France). We retrospectively tested two diagnostic algorithms that incorporated rapid diagnostic tests for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients using simulation modelling. FINDINGS: 1195 participants were enrolled in the study. 347 (29%) tested SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive, 223 (19%) rapid diagnostic test antigen-positive, and 478 (40%) rapid diagnostic test antibody-positive. Antigen-based rapid diagnostic test sensitivity was 80·0% (95% CI 71·0-88·0) in the first 7 days after symptom onset, but antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests had only 26·8% sensitivity (18·3-36·8). Antibody rapid diagnostic test sensitivity increased to 76·4% (70·1-82·0) 14 days after symptom onset. Among asymptomatic participants, the sensitivity of antigen-based and antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests were 37·0% (27·0-48·0) and 50·7% (42·2-59·1), respectively. Cohen's κ showed substantial agreement between Wondfo antibody rapid diagnostic test and gold-standard ELISA (κ=0·76; sensitivity 0·98) and between Biosensor and ELISA (κ=0·60; sensitivity 0·94). Innovita (κ=0·47; sensitivity 0·93) and Runkun (κ=0·43; sensitivity 0·76) showed moderate agreement. An antigen-based retrospective algorithm applied to symptomatic patients showed 94·0% sensitivity and 91·0% specificity in the first 7 days after symptom onset. For asymptomatic participants, the algorithm showed a sensitivity of 34% (95% CI 23·0-44·0) and a specificity of 92·0% (88·0-96·0). INTERPRETATION: Rapid diagnostic tests had good overall sensitivity for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rapid diagnostic tests could be incorporated into efficient testing algorithms as an alternative to PCR to decrease diagnostic delays and onward viral transmission. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières WACA and Médecins Sans Frontières OCG. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Sci Afr ; 12: e00802, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253596

ABSTRACT

Official case counts suggest Africa has not seen the expected burden of COVID-19 as predicted by international health agencies, and the proportion of asymptomatic patients, disease severity, and mortality burden differ significantly in Africa from what has been observed elsewhere. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 was extremely limited early in the pandemic and likely led to under-reporting of cases leaving important gaps in our understanding of transmission and disease characteristics in the African context. SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence and serologic response data could help quantify the burden of COVID-19 disease in Africa to address this knowledge gap and guide future outbreak response, adapted to the local context. However, such data are widely lacking in Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey among 1,192 individuals seeking COVID-19 screening and testing in central Cameroon using the Innovita antibody-based rapid diagnostic. Overall immunoglobulin prevalence was 32%, IgM prevalence was 20%, and IgG prevalence was 24%. IgM positivity gradually increased, peaking around symptom day 20. IgG positivity was similar, gradually increasing over the first 10 days of symptoms, then increasing rapidly to 30 days and beyond. These findings highlight the importance of diagnostic testing and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Cameroon, which likely resulted in artificially low case counts. Rapid antibody tests are a useful diagnostic modality for seroprevalence surveys and infection diagnosis starting 5-7 days after symptom onset. These results represent the first step towards better understanding the SARS-CoV-2 immunological response in African populations.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 303.e1-303.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from initial coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine trials; thus, data to guide vaccine decision making are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and lactating women compared with: (1) nonpregnant controls and (2) natural coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 131 reproductive-age vaccine recipients (84 pregnant, 31 lactating, and 16 nonpregnant women) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at 2 academic medical centers. Titers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M were quantified in participant sera (n=131) and breastmilk (n=31) at baseline, at the second vaccine dose, at 2 to 6 weeks after the second vaccine, and at delivery by Luminex. Umbilical cord sera (n=10) titers were assessed at delivery. Titers were compared with those of pregnant women 4 to 12 weeks from the natural infection (n=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A pseudovirus neutralization assay was used to quantify neutralizing antibody titers for the subset of women who delivered during the study period. Postvaccination symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests and a mixed-effects model, with correction for multiple comparisons, were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating compared with nonpregnant women (pregnant, median, 5.59; interquartile range, 4.68-5.89; lactating, median, 5.74; interquartile range, 5.06-6.22; nonpregnant, median, 5.62; interquartile range, 4.77-5.98, P=.24). All titers were significantly higher than those induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy (P<.0001). Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in all umbilical cord blood and breastmilk samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in umbilical cord than maternal sera, although this finding did not achieve statistical significance (maternal sera, median, 104.7; interquartile range, 61.2-188.2; cord sera, median, 52.3; interquartile range, 11.7-69.6; P=.05). The second vaccine dose (boost dose) increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin A, in maternal blood and breastmilk. No differences were noted in reactogenicity across the groups. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccines generated robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women, with immunogenicity and reactogenicity similar to that observed in nonpregnant women. Vaccine-induced immune responses were statistically significantly greater than the response to natural infection. Immune transfer to neonates occurred via placenta and breastmilk.

13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 303.e1-303.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from initial coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine trials; thus, data to guide vaccine decision making are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and lactating women compared with: (1) nonpregnant controls and (2) natural coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 131 reproductive-age vaccine recipients (84 pregnant, 31 lactating, and 16 nonpregnant women) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at 2 academic medical centers. Titers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M were quantified in participant sera (n=131) and breastmilk (n=31) at baseline, at the second vaccine dose, at 2 to 6 weeks after the second vaccine, and at delivery by Luminex. Umbilical cord sera (n=10) titers were assessed at delivery. Titers were compared with those of pregnant women 4 to 12 weeks from the natural infection (n=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A pseudovirus neutralization assay was used to quantify neutralizing antibody titers for the subset of women who delivered during the study period. Postvaccination symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests and a mixed-effects model, with correction for multiple comparisons, were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating compared with nonpregnant women (pregnant, median, 5.59; interquartile range, 4.68-5.89; lactating, median, 5.74; interquartile range, 5.06-6.22; nonpregnant, median, 5.62; interquartile range, 4.77-5.98, P=.24). All titers were significantly higher than those induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy (P<.0001). Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in all umbilical cord blood and breastmilk samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in umbilical cord than maternal sera, although this finding did not achieve statistical significance (maternal sera, median, 104.7; interquartile range, 61.2-188.2; cord sera, median, 52.3; interquartile range, 11.7-69.6; P=.05). The second vaccine dose (boost dose) increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin A, in maternal blood and breastmilk. No differences were noted in reactogenicity across the groups. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccines generated robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women, with immunogenicity and reactogenicity similar to that observed in nonpregnant women. Vaccine-induced immune responses were statistically significantly greater than the response to natural infection. Immune transfer to neonates occurred via placenta and breastmilk.

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