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J Clin Immunol ; 42(7): 1371-1378, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919859


PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised hosts is challenging, and prolonged viral shedding can be a common complication in these patients. We describe the clinical, immunological, and virological course of a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who developed the status of long-term asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carrier for more than 7 months. METHODS: Over the study period, the patient underwent 20 RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swabs. In addition, viral cultures and genetic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. As for immunological assessment, serological and specific T-cell testing was provided at different time points. RESULTS: Despite the patient showing a deep drug-induced B and T adaptive immunity impairment, he did not experience COVID-19 progression to severe complications, and the infection remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period, but he was not able to achieve viral clearance for more than 7 months. The infection was finally cleared by SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibody treatment, after that remdesivir and convalescent plasma failed in this scope. The genetic investigations evidenced that the infection was sustained by multiple viral subpopulations that had apparently evolved intra-host during the infection. CONCLUSION: Our case suggests that people with highly impaired B- and T-cell adaptive immunity can prevent COVID-19 progression to severe complications, but they may not be able to clear SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunocompromised hosts with a long-term infection may play a role in the emergence of viral variants.

COVID-19 , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunocompromised Host
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039


Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT04716556.

COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care