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1.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031729

ABSTRACT

Background Influenza vaccination rates are decreasing in the United States. Disinformation surrounding COVID-related public health protections and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine roll-out may have unintended consequences impacting pediatric influenza vaccination.We assessed influenza vaccination rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in one pediatric primary care center, serving a minoritized population. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed influenza vaccination rates for children aged 6 months to 12 years over the following influenza seasons (September-May): 1) 2018-19 and 2019-20 (pre-pandemic), and 2) 2020-21 and 2021-22 (intra-pandemic). Demographics and responses to social risk questionnaires were extracted from electronic health records. Total tetanus vaccinations across influenza seasons served as approximations of general vaccination rates. Generalized linear regression models with robust standard errors evaluated differences in demographics, social risks, and influenza vaccination rates by season. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors evaluated associations between influenza season, demographics, social risks, and influenza vaccination. Results Most patients were young (mean age ∼6 years), non-Hispanic Black (∼80%), and publicly insured (∼90%). Forty-two percent of patients eligible to receive the influenza vaccine who were seen in 2019-20 influenza season received the influenza vaccine, compared to 30% in 2021-22. Influenza and tetanus vaccination rates decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.01). The 2020-21 and 2021-22 influenza seasons, older age, Black race, and self-pay were associated with decreased influenza vaccine administration (p<0.05). Conclusions Influenza vaccination rates within one pediatric primary care center decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic and have not rebounded, particularly for older children, those identifying as Black, and those without insurance.

2.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796442

ABSTRACT

Pediatric primary care is a trusted source for treatment and information. In the 6 months after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines became available for adolescents, we administered 2286 doses (1270 to patients; 1016 to household members) to 1376 individuals (64.1% Black; 10.1% Latinx), providing opportunities to address family concerns in a familiar location.

3.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latinx populations have experienced disproportionately high case rates of COVID-19 across the USA. Latinx communities in non-traditional migration areas may experience greater baseline day-to-day challenges such as a lack of resources for immigrants and insufficient language services. These challenges may be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the results of an initial community health needs assessment to better understand the prevention and care of COVID-19 infection in the Cincinnati Latinx community. METHODS: We used convergent mixed methods to examine barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 prevention and care for those with infection. RESULTS: Latinx adults ≥ 18 years old completed 255 quantitative surveys and 17 qualitative interviews. Overarching mixed methods domains included knowledge, prevention, work, challenges, and treatment. Quantitative results largely reinforced qualitative results (confirmation). Certain quantitative and qualitative results, however, diverged and expanded insights related to caring for COVID-19 infection among Latinx adults (expansion). There were infrequent contradictions between quantitative and qualitative findings (discordance). Primary barriers for the Latinx community during the COVID-19 pandemic included insecurities in food, jobs, housing, and immigration. Key facilitators included having trusted messengers of health-related information. CONCLUSION: Public health interventions should be centered on community partnerships and the use of trusted messengers. Wraparound services (including resources for immigrants) are essential public health services. Close partnership with employers is essential as lack of sick leave and mask supplies were more frequent barriers than knowledge. These findings emerged from experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic but likely generalize to future public health crises.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(6): 206-211, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687588

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance is a critical tool for tracking emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which can exhibit characteristics that potentially affect public health and clinical interventions, including increased transmissibility, illness severity, and capacity for immune escape. During June 2021-January 2022, CDC expanded genomic surveillance data sources to incorporate sequence data from public repositories to produce weighted estimates of variant proportions at the jurisdiction level and refined analytic methods to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of national and regional variant proportion estimates. These changes also allowed for more comprehensive variant proportion estimation at the jurisdictional level (i.e., U.S. state, district, territory, and freely associated state). The data in this report are a summary of findings of recent proportions of circulating variants that are updated weekly on CDC's COVID Data Tracker website to enable timely public health action.† The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2 and AY sublineages) variant rose from 1% to >50% of viral lineages circulating nationally during 8 weeks, from May 1-June 26, 2021. Delta-associated infections remained predominant until being rapidly overtaken by infections associated with the Omicron (B.1.1.529 and BA sublineages) variant in December 2021, when Omicron increased from 1% to >50% of circulating viral lineages during a 2-week period. As of the week ending January 22, 2022, Omicron was estimated to account for 99.2% (95% CI = 99.0%-99.5%) of SARS-CoV-2 infections nationwide, and Delta for 0.7% (95% CI = 0.5%-1.0%). The dynamic landscape of SARS-CoV-2 variants in 2021, including Delta- and Omicron-driven resurgences of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across the United States, underscores the importance of robust genomic surveillance efforts to inform public health planning and practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Genomics , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance/methods , United States/epidemiology
5.
Euro Surveill ; 27(3)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643421

ABSTRACT

We describe the development of a risk assessment profile tool that incorporates data from multiple domains to help determine activities and events where rapid antigen detection tests (Ag-RDT) could be used to screen asymptomatic individuals to identify infectious cases as an additional mitigation measure to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The tool aims to stratify, in real time, the overall risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with common activities and events, and this can be matched to an appropriate Ag-RDT testing protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Ireland , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044684, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Rapid review to determine the magnitude of association between potential risk factors and severity of COVID-19, to inform vaccine prioritisation in Canada. SETTING: Ovid MEDLINE(R) ALL, Epistemonikos COVID-19 in L·OVE Platform, McMaster COVID-19 Evidence Alerts and websites were searched to 15 June 2020. Eligible studies were conducted in high-income countries and used multivariate analyses. PARTICIPANTS: After piloting, screening, data extraction and quality appraisal were performed by a single experienced reviewer. Of 3740 unique records identified, 34 were included that reported on median 596 (range 44-418 794) participants, aged 42-84 years. 19/34 (56%) were good quality. OUTCOMES: Hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, length of stay in hospital or intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, severe disease, mortality. RESULTS: Authors synthesised findings narratively and appraised the certainty of the evidence for each risk factor-outcome association. There was low or moderate certainty evidence for a large (≥2-fold) magnitude of association between hospitalisation in people with COVID-19, and: obesity class III, heart failure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, age >45 years, male gender, black race/ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic white), homelessness and low income. Age >60 and >70 years may be associated with large increases in mechanical ventilation and severe disease, respectively. For mortality, a large magnitude of association may exist with liver disease, Bangladeshi ethnicity (vs British white), age >45 years, age >80 years (vs 65-69 years) and male gender among 20-64 years (but not older). Associations with hospitalisation and mortality may be very large (≥5-fold) for those aged ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age (especially >60 years) may be the most important risk factor for severe outcomes. High-quality primary research accounting for multiple confounders is needed to better understand the magnitude of associations for severity of COVID-19 with several other factors. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020198001.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(1): 395-398, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938403

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in the setting of SGLT2 inhibitor use may precipitate euglycemic DKA separate from known acute viral illness and dehydration precipitants. There should be consideration of proactive discontinuation of these medications in these patients.

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