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2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(8): 1346-1354, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974363

ABSTRACT

Rationale: During the first wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City, the number of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients rapidly surpassed the capacity of traditional intensive care units (ICUs), resulting in health systems utilizing other areas as expanded ICUs to provide critical care. Objectives: To evaluate the mortality of patients admitted to expanded ICUs compared with those admitted to traditional ICUs. Methods: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICUs at 11 Northwell Health hospitals in the greater New York City area between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality up to 28 days after intubation of COVID-19 patients. Results: Among 1,966 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, 1,198 (61%) died within 28 days after intubation, 46 (2%) were transferred to other hospitals outside of the Northwell Health system, 722 (37%) survived in the hospital until 28 days or were discharged after recovery. The risk of mortality of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to expanded ICUs was not different from those admitted to traditional ICUs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.20; P = 0.28), while hospital occupancy for critically ill patients itself was associated with increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12-1.45; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although increased hospital occupancy for critically ill patients itself was associated with increased mortality, the risk of 28-day in-hospital mortality of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to expanded ICUs was not different from those admitted to traditional ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New York City/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
3.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(6): 656-662, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a framework for resuscitation of COVID-19 critical illness for emergency and intensive care clinicians with the most up to date evidence and recommendations in the care of COVID-19 patients in cardiac arrest or in extremis. RECENT FINDINGS: Performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on COVID-19 patients requires the clinicians to adopt infection mitigation strategies such as full personal protective equipment, mechanical chest compression devices, and restricting the number of people present during the resuscitation. The time of intubation is a subject of ongoing research and clinicians should use their best judgment for each patient. Clinicians should prepare for CPR in prone position. Particular attention should be given to the psychological well-being of the staff. Point of care ultrasound has proved to be an invaluable diagnostic tool in assessing ventricular dysfunction and parenchymal lung disease. Although novel therapies to supplant the function of diseased lungs have shown promise in select patients the evidence is still being collected. The end-of-life discussions have been negatively impacted by prognostic uncertainty as well as barriers to in person meetings with families. SUMMARY: The resuscitation of critically ill COVID-19 patients poses new challenges, but the principles remain largely unchanged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Humans , New York , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(4): e008900, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807749
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 698268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592355

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a 60 year-old Black-American male with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and hyperthyroidism, who suffered a bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. SP is a well-established complication in HIV-positive patients and only recently has been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. While HIV and COVID-19 infections have been independently linked with increased risk of SP development, it is unknown if both infections interact in a synergistic fashion to exacerbate SP risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), patients living with HIV have a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection and the mechanism remains to be elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a HIV-positive patient, who in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection, developed bilateral apical spontaneous pneumothorax and was later found to have a left lower lobe tension pneumothorax. This case highlights the importance of considering SP on the differential diagnosis when HIV-positive patients suddenly develop respiratory distress in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21124, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493211

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have increased risk of mortality shortly after intubation. The aim of this study is to develop a model using predictors of early mortality after intubation from COVID-19. A retrospective study of 1945 intubated patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 Northwell hospitals in the greater New York City area was performed. Logistic regression model using backward selection was applied. This study evaluated predictors of 14-day mortality after intubation for COVID-19 patients. The predictors of mortality within 14 days after intubation included older age, history of chronic kidney disease, lower mean arterial pressure or increased dose of required vasopressors, higher urea nitrogen level, higher ferritin, higher oxygen index, and abnormal pH levels. We developed and externally validated an intubated COVID-19 predictive score (ICOP). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67-0.75) in the validation cohort; both were significantly greater than corresponding values for sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) or CURB-65 scores. The externally validated predictive score may help clinicians estimate early mortality risk after intubation and provide guidance for deciding the most effective patient therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Arterial Pressure , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Young Adult
8.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1257-1268, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447236

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prioritises treatment for cardiac arrests from a primary cardiac cause, which make up the majority of treated cardiac arrests. Early chest compressions and, when indicated, a defibrillation shock from a bystander give the best chance of survival with a good neurological status. Cardiac arrest can also be caused by special circumstances, such as asphyxia, trauma, pulmonary embolism, accidental hypothermia, anaphylaxis, or COVID-19, and during pregnancy or perioperatively. Cardiac arrests in these circumstances represent an increasing proportion of all treated cardiac arrests, often have a preventable cause, and require additional interventions to correct a reversible cause during resuscitation. The evidence for treating these conditions is mostly of low or very low certainty and further studies are needed. Irrespective of the cause, treatments for cardiac arrest are time sensitive and most effective when given early-every minute counts.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/therapy , Asphyxia/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hypothermia/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Anaphylaxis/complications , Asphyxia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Countershock , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia/complications , Intraoperative Complications/therapy , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/complications
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 638075, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278408

ABSTRACT

This case series reviews four critically ill patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] suffering from pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) during their hospital admission. All patients received the biological agent tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin (IL)-6 antagonist, as an experimental treatment for COVID-19 before developing PI. COVID-19 and TCZ have been independently linked to PI risk, yet the cause of this relationship is unknown and under speculation. PI is a rare condition, defined as the presence of gas in the intestinal wall, and although its pathogenesis is poorly understood, intestinal ischemia is one of its causative agents. Based on COVID-19's association with vasculopathic and ischemic insults, and IL-6's protective role in intestinal epithelial ischemia-reperfusion injury, an adverse synergistic association of COVID-19 and TCZ can be proposed in the setting of PI. To our knowledge, this is the first published, single center, case series of pneumatosis intestinalis in COVID-19 patients who received tocilizumab therapy.

10.
Endosc Int Open ; 9(5): E701-E705, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211305

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine medical care due to uncertainty regarding the risk of viral spread. One major concern for viral transmission to both patients and providers is performing aerosol-generating procedures such as endoscopy. As such, we performed a prospective study to examine the extent of viral contamination present in the local environment before and after endoscopic procedures on COVID-19 positive patients. Materials and methods A total of 82 samples were collected from 23 surfaces in the procedure area of four COVID-positive patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. Samples were collected both before and after the procedure. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was extracted and quantified using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers to detect nucleocapsid RNA, and results reported as the number of viral copies per square centimeter of contaminated surface. Results A total of six positive samples were detected from three of the four patients. The floor beneath the patient bed was the most common site of viral RNA, but RNA was also detected on the ventilator monitor prior to the procedure and the endoscope after the procedure. Conclusions The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with upper endoscopy procedures is low based on the low rate of surface contamination. Some surfaces in close proximity to the patient and endoscopist may pose a higher risk for contamination. Patient positioning and oxygen delivery methods may influence the directionality and extent of viral spread. Our results support the use of appropriate personal protection to minimize risk of viral transmission.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124806

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care systems in the United States are continuously expanding and contracting spaces to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in intensive care units (ICUs). As a result, hospitals must effectively decontaminate and contain severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in constructed and deconstructed ICUs that care for patients with COVID-19. We assessed decontamination of a COVID-19 ICU and examined the containment efficacy of combined contact and droplet precautions in creating and maintaining a SARS-CoV-2-negative ICU "antechamber". Methods: To examine the efficacy of chemical decontamination, we used high-density, semi-quantitative environmental sampling to detect SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces in a COVID-19 ICU and COVID-19 ICU antechamber. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure viral RNA on surfaces. Viral location mapping revealed the distribution of viral RNA in the COVID-19 ICU and COVID-19 ICU antechamber. Results were further assessed using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Results: We collected 224 surface samples pre-decontamination and 193 samples post-decontamination from a COVID-19 ICU and adjoining COVID-19 ICU antechamber. We found that 46% of antechamber objects were positive for SARS-CoV-2 pre-decontamination despite the construction of a swinging door barrier system, implementation of contact precautions, and installation of high-efficiency particulate air filters. The object positivity rate reduced to 32.1% and viral particle rate reduced by 95.4% following decontamination. Matched items had an average of 432.2 ± 2729 viral copies/cm2 pre-decontamination and 19.2 ± 118 viral copies/cm2 post-decontamination, demonstrating significantly reduced viral surface distribution (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Environmental sampling is an effective method for evaluating decontamination protocols and validating measures used to contain SARS-CoV-2 viral particles. While chemical decontamination effectively removes detectable viral RNA from surfaces, our approach to droplet/contact containment with an antechamber was not highly effective. These data suggest that hospitals should plan for the potential of aerosolized virions when creating strategies to contain SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Decontamination , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
13.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2522-2531, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029528

ABSTRACT

We compared the outcome of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) patients to a transplant naïve population. In total, 10 356 adult hospital admissions for COVID-19 from March 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020 were analyzed. Data were collected on demographics, baseline clinical conditions, medications, immunosuppression, and COVID-19 course. Primary outcome was combined death or mechanical ventilation. We assessed the association between primary outcome and prognostic variables using bivariate and multivariate regression models. We also compared the primary endpoint in SOT patients to an age, gender, and comorbidity-matched control group. Bivariate analysis found transplant status, age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, COPD, and GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 to be significant predictors of combined death or mechanical ventilation. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, SOT status had a trend toward significance (odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% CI 0.99-1.69, p = .06). Compared to an age, gender, and comorbidity-matched control group, SOT patients had a higher combined risk of death or mechanical ventilation (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03-1.74, p = .027).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
14.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese studies reported predictors of severe disease and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A generalizable and simple survival calculator based on data from US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not yet been introduced. OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a clinical tool to predict 7-day survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirteen acute care hospitals in the New York City area. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The development and internal validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 6, 2020. The external validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 5, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, laboratory, clinical, and outcome data were extracted from the electronic health record. Optimal predictors and performance were identified using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression with receiver operating characteristic curves and measurements of area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The development and internal validation cohort included 11 095 patients with a median age of 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 54-77]. Overall 7-day survival was 89%. Serum blood urea nitrogen, age, absolute neutrophil count, red cell distribution width, oxygen saturation, and serum sodium were identified as the 6 optimal of 42 possible predictors of survival. These factors constitute the NOCOS (Northwell COVID-19 Survival) Calculator. Performance in the internal validation, prospective validation, and external validation were marked by AUCs of 0.86, 0.82, and 0.82, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All participants were hospitalized within the New York City area. CONCLUSIONS: The NOCOS Calculator uses 6 factors routinely available at hospital admission to predict 7-day survival for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The calculator is publicly available at https://feinstein.northwell.edu/NOCOS.

15.
JAMA ; 323(20): 2052-2059, 2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101977

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures: Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results: A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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