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1.
Dent Mater ; 38(6): e155-e159, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fast and reliable detection of infection is a key to control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Lateral flow antigen tests (LFATs) are inexpensive, easy to use, but have to be verified, as they are rather unspecific and can produce both, false positive and false negative results. Our objective was to combine the speed of LFAT for SARS-CoV-2 with the reliability of qPCR tests. METHODS: A serial dilution of a patient sample positive for SARS-CoV-2 was prepared and added to LFAT wells from two manufacturers. After evaluation, the devices were opened, the strips removed and extracted in a solution. Amplification was performed using point of care PCR systems (cobas® Liat®, ID NOW™) or on a LightCycler after extraction by MagNAPure 96. RESULTS: The nucleic acid amplification systems yielded higher sensitivity to LFAT. Thus, all samples determined positive by LFAT from the serial dilution were also positive in the subsequent amplification reactions. Sensitivity using extracted eluates was 10-100 times higher. SIGNIFICANCE: The usage of LFAT is highly recommended for single samples in emergency dental or emergency clinical settings, for smaller cohorts, or even for larger population screening, as it is inexpensive and fast. Positive results can be conveniently verified directly from the test devices using either point of care test equipment or more complex laboratory equipment thus making a major impact on efficient management of infections and isolations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488154

ABSTRACT

A number of seroassays are available for SARS-CoV-2 testing; yet, head-to-head evaluations of different testing principles are limited, especially using raw values rather than categorical data. In addition, identifying correlates of protection is of utmost importance, and comparisons of available testing systems with functional assays, such as direct viral neutralisation, are needed.We analysed 6658 samples consisting of true-positives (n=193), true-negatives (n=1091), and specimens of unknown status (n=5374). For primary testing, we used Euroimmun-Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA-IgA/IgG and Roche-Elecsys-Anti-SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently virus-neutralisation, GeneScriptcPass, VIRAMED-SARS-CoV-2-ViraChip, and Mikrogen-recomLine-SARS-CoV-2-IgG were applied for confirmatory testing. Statistical modelling generated optimised assay cut-off thresholds. Sensitivity of Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgA was 64.8%, specificity 93.3% (manufacturer's cut-off); for Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgG, sensitivity was 77.2/79.8% (manufacturer's/optimised cut-offs), specificity 98.0/97.8%; Roche-anti-N sensitivity was 85.5/88.6%, specificity 99.8/99.7%. In true-positives, mean and median Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgA and -IgG titres decreased 30/90 days after RT-PCR-positivity, Roche-anti-N titres decreased significantly later. Virus-neutralisation was 80.6% sensitive, 100.0% specific (≥1:5 dilution). Neutralisation surrogate tests (GeneScriptcPass, Mikrogen-recomLine-RBD) were >94.9% sensitive and >98.1% specific. Optimised cut-offs improved test performances of several tests. Confirmatory testing with virus-neutralisation might be complemented with GeneScriptcPassTM or recomLine-RBD for certain applications. Head-to-head comparisons given here aim to contribute to the refinement of testing strategies for individual and public health use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans
3.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 39, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388782

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a continued challenge for all parties involved especially for the dentist as routine operation must be resumed. Rapid Antigen Tests (RATs) are actually recommended to identify and minimize infectious risks. However, there is still no guideline on the implementation of RATs in a dental or medical setting. METHODS: Based on data and an extensive literature research regarding rapid antigen testing and reflecting the recommendations given by the various professional societies a task force was formed to determine a specific testing and treatment strategy. RESULTS: A comprehensive test and treatment strategy and risk analysis was developed with practical suggestions for a wide range of typical activities in dental and medical offices. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants via aerosols and droplets as well as the difficulties to maintain the minimum distance form special challenges to the dental routine. RATs might in addition to optimal and necessary hygienic standards in combination with the use of adequate personal protection equipment be an important instrument in managing the challenges. CONCLUSIONS: The present work gives recommendations for dental routine operation (dental practices, outpatient clinics) to provide the necessary dental care for the population while protecting the doctor, practice team and patient at the same time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dentistry , Infection Control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Dent Mater ; 37(3): e95-e97, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to recommend a fast and cost-effective screening procedure for UK/SA SARS-CoV-2 variants in a routing diagnostic setting. METHODS: A rapid procedure using qPCR is described to provide clinicians with information about the two currently most prevalent variants (B1.1.7 and B1.351) that harbour receptor binding domain mutation N501Y. The N501Y specific assay only delivers an amplification signal if the Y501 variant is present. RESULTS: 436 samples initially screened positive for SARS-CoV-2 were randomly selected. Only one of these samples showed a fluorescence signal increase indicative for the Y501 variant. The remaining 435 samples had a melting peak at 54 °C indicating the N501 wildtype. SIGNIFICANCE: The screening of a broad population base can still be performed with the established test system. In case of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 and corresponding clinical and anamnestic indications, a second qPCR for the mutation N501Y can follow and deliver the result to public health authorities and to the treating physician within a few hours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans
5.
Dent Mater ; 36(4): 479-490, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bisEMA) is a base monomer in several dental resin composites. It was the main aim of the present study to determine if bisEMA can reach the dental pulp by generally passive diffusion through the coronal dentinal tubules stimulated via eluent liquids surrounding the root structures only. METHODS: In 20 human third molar teeth, standard Class-I occlusal cavities were prepared and provided either with an adhesive system alone or additionally with a composite restoration, according to the instructions of the manufacturer. The teeth were placed in an elution chamber such that the elution media only came into contact with the tooth root/tooth base where they were incubated at 37 °C for up to 7 d. Samples were taken after 1, 2, 4 and 7 d. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify bisEMA and other monomers in ethanol/water (3:1) and aqueous eluates. RESULTS: bisEMA was only found in ethanol/water eluates, where the teeth had received a composite restoration. Traces of bisEMA with up to three ethylene oxide units could be detected in these eluates. Depending on the dentin thickness, different elution kinetics of bisEMA were determined. Regardless of the treatment of teeth, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEEGDMA) were found in ethanolic/aqueous eluates in equal amounts. Most TEGDMA and TEEGDMA diffused through the dentin within the first 24 h. SIGNIFICANCE: Depending on the dentin layer thickness, bisEMA was released for varied time periods, resulting in varied concentrations and exposure times for the different cells of the dental pulp. The concentrations of TEGDMA and TEEGDMA were greatest for cells of the dental pulp within the first 24 h.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins , Methacrylates , Humans , Kinetics , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymethacrylic Acids
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