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1.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Vasc Nurs ; 38(4): 176-179, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688967

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 poses significant risks for patients with vascular disease. Telemedicine can help clinicians provide care for patients with vascular disease while adhering to social-distancing guidelines. In this article, we review the components of telemedicine used in the vascular medicine practice at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. In addition, we describe inpatient and outpatient diagnosis-based algorithms to help select patients for telemedicine versus in-person evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiology/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Preventive Health Services/standards , Telemedicine/standards , Cardiology/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Tennessee
3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547082

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral , Thromboembolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(7): 1004-1024, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-418767

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), currently a worldwide pandemic, is a viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The suspected contribution of thrombotic events to morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients has prompted a search for novel potential options for preventing COVID-19-associated thrombotic disease. In this article by the Global COVID-19 Thrombosis Collaborative Group, we describe novel dosing approaches for commonly used antithrombotic agents (especially heparin-based regimens) and the potential use of less widely used antithrombotic drugs in the absence of confirmed thrombosis. Although these therapies may have direct antithrombotic effects, other mechanisms of action, including anti-inflammatory or antiviral effects, have been postulated. Based on survey results from this group of authors, we suggest research priorities for specific agents and subgroups of patients with COVID-19. Further, we review other agents, including immunomodulators, that may have antithrombotic properties. It is our hope that the present document will encourage and stimulate future prospective studies and randomized trials to study the safety, efficacy, and optimal use of these agents for prevention or management of thrombosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glycosaminoglycans/therapeutic use , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(18): 2352-2371, 2020 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153661

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and pre-existing cardiovascular disease have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become hosts or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and pre-print reports pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Heart Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
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