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Inflammopharmacology ; 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872586


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes transmissible viral illness of the respiratory tract prompted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 is one of the worst global pandemics affecting a large population worldwide and causing catastrophic loss of life. Patients having pre-existing chronic disorders are more susceptible to contracting this viral infection. This pandemic virus is known to cause notable respiratory pathology. Besides, it can also cause extra-pulmonary manifestations. Multiple extra-pulmonary tissues express the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, hence causing direct viral tissue damage. This insightful review gives a brief description of the impact of coronavirus on the pulmonary system, extra-pulmonary systems, histopathology, multiorgan consequences, the possible mechanisms associated with the disease, and various potential therapeutic approaches to tackle the manifestations.

Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects