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1.
Epidemics ; 37: 100529, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term suppression of SARS-CoV-2 transmission will involve strategies that recognize the heterogeneous capacity of communities to undertake public health recommendations. We highlight the epidemiological impact of barriers to adoption and the potential role of community-led coordination of support for cases and high-risk contacts in urban slums. METHODS: A compartmental model representing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in urban poor versus less socioeconomically vulnerable subpopulations was developed for Montserrado County, Liberia. Adoption of home-isolation behavior was assumed to be related to the proportion of each subpopulation residing in housing units with multiple rooms and with access to sanitation, water, and food. We evaluated the potential impact of increasing the maximum attainable proportion of adoption among urban poor following the scheduled lifting of the state of emergency. RESULTS: Without intervention, the model estimated higher overall infection burden but fewer severe cases among urban poor versus the less socioeconomically vulnerable population. With self-isolation by mildly symptomatic individuals, median reductions in cumulative infections, severe cases, and maximum daily incidence were 7.6% (IQR: 2.2%-20.9%), 7.0% (2.0%-18.5%), and 9.9% (2.5%-31.4%), respectively, in the urban poor subpopulation and 16.8% (5.5%-29.3%), 15.0% (5.0%-26.4%), and 28.1% (9.3%-47.8%) in the less socioeconomically vulnerable population. An increase in the maximum attainable percentage of behavior adoption by the urban slum subpopulation was associated with median reductions of 19.2% (10.1%-34.0%), 21.1% (13.3%-34.2%), and 26.0% (11.5%-48.9%) relative to the status quo scenario. CONCLUSIONS: Post-lockdown recommendations that prioritize home-isolation by confirmed cases are limited by resource constraints. Investing in community-based initiatives that coordinate support for self-identified cases and their contacts could more effectively suppress COVID-19 in settings with socioeconomic vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Liberia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(7): 834-846, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286458

ABSTRACT

Social and behavioural factors are critical to the emergence, spread and containment of human disease, and are key determinants of the course, duration and outcomes of disease outbreaks. Recent epidemics of Ebola in West Africa and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) globally have reinforced the importance of developing infectious disease models that better integrate social and behavioural dynamics and theories. Meanwhile, the growth in capacity, coordination and prioritization of social science research and of risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) practice within the current pandemic response provides an opportunity for collaboration among epidemiological modellers, social scientists and RCCE practitioners towards a mutually beneficial research and practice agenda. Here, we provide a review of the current modelling methodologies and describe the challenges and opportunities for integrating them with social science research and RCCE practice. Finally, we set out an agenda for advancing transdisciplinary collaboration for integrated disease modelling and for more robust policy and practice for reducing disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Primary Prevention/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Health Policy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1694-1702, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122145

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was reported by Nigeria on February 27, 2020. Whereas case counts in the entire region remain considerably less than those being reported by individual countries in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, variation in preparedness and response capacity as well as in data availability has raised concerns about undetected transmission events in the SSA region. To capture epidemiological details related to early transmission events into and within countries, a line list was developed from publicly available data on institutional websites, situation reports, press releases, and social media accounts. The availability of indicators-gender, age, travel history, date of arrival in country, reporting date of confirmation, and how detected-for each imported case was assessed. We evaluated the relationship between the time to first reported importation and the Global Health Security Index (GHSI) overall score; 13,201 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported by 48 countries in SSA during the 54 days following the first known introduction to the region. Of the 2,516 cases for which travel history information was publicly available, 1,129 (44.9%) were considered importation events. Imported cases tended to be male (65.0%), with a median age of 41.0 years (range: 6 weeks-88 years; IQR: 31-54 years). A country's time to report its first importation was not related to the GHSI overall score, after controlling for air traffic. Countries in SSA generally reported with less publicly available detail over time and tended to have greater information on imported than local cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Travel , Young Adult
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054670

ABSTRACT

Human behaviour will continue to play an important role as the world grapples with public health threats. In this paper, we draw from the emerging evidence on behaviour adoption during diverse public health emergencies to develop a framework that contextualises behaviour adoption vis-à-vis a combination of top-down, intermediary and bottom-up approaches. Using the COVID-19 pandemic as a case study, we operationalise the contextual framework to demonstrate how these three approaches differ in terms of their implementation, underlying drivers of action, enforcement, reach and uptake. We illustrate how blended strategies that include all three approaches can help accelerate and sustain protective behaviours that will remain important even when safe and effective vaccines become more widely available. As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic and prepares to respond to (re)emerging public health threats, our contextual framework can inform the design, implementation, tracking and evaluation of comprehensive public health and social measures during health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Humans
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