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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 888498, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Here we report our results of a multi-center, open cohort study ("COVID-Kids-Bavaria") investigating the distribution of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in 99 daycare facilities and 48 elementary schools in Bavaria, Germany. Materials and Methods: Overall, 2,568 children (1,337 school children, 1,231 preschool children) and 1,288 adults (466 teachers, 822 daycare staff) consented to participate in the study and were randomly tested in three consecutive phases (September/October 2020, November/December 2020, March 2021). In total, 7,062 throat swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by commercial RT-PCR kits. Results: In phase I, only one daycare worker tested positive. In phase II, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in three daycare workers, two preschool children, and seven school children. In phase III, no sample tested positive. This corresponds to a positive test rate of 0.05% in phase I, 0.4% in phase II and 0% in phase III. Correlation of a positive PCR test result with the local-7-day incidence values showed a strong association of a 7-day-incidence of more than 100/100,000 as compared to <100/100,000 (OR = 10.3 [1.5-438], p < 0.005). After phase III, antibody testing was offered to 713 study participants in elementary schools. A seroprevalence rate of 7.7% (students) and 4.5% (teachers) was determined. Discussion: During the initial waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 result correlated positively with the local 7-day incidence. Hence, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections were reflected in schools and daycare facilities. An increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the setting of daycare and elementary schooling was unlikely.

2.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958087

ABSTRACT

Introduction Here we report our results of a multi-center, open cohort study (“COVID-Kids-Bavaria”) investigating the distribution of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in 99 daycare facilities and 48 elementary schools in Bavaria, Germany. Materials and Methods Overall, 2,568 children (1,337 school children, 1,231 preschool children) and 1,288 adults (466 teachers, 822 daycare staff) consented to participate in the study and were randomly tested in three consecutive phases (September/October 2020, November/December 2020, March 2021). In total, 7,062 throat swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by commercial RT-PCR kits. Results In phase I, only one daycare worker tested positive. In phase II, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in three daycare workers, two preschool children, and seven school children. In phase III, no sample tested positive. This corresponds to a positive test rate of 0.05% in phase I, 0.4% in phase II and 0% in phase III. Correlation of a positive PCR test result with the local-7-day incidence values showed a strong association of a 7-day-incidence of more than 100/100,000 as compared to <100/100,000 (OR = 10.3 [1.5–438], p < 0.005). After phase III, antibody testing was offered to 713 study participants in elementary schools. A seroprevalence rate of 7.7% (students) and 4.5% (teachers) was determined. Discussion During the initial waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 result correlated positively with the local 7-day incidence. Hence, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections were reflected in schools and daycare facilities. An increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the setting of daycare and elementary schooling was unlikely.

3.
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd ; 170(6): 539-547, 2022.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935750

ABSTRACT

This current consensus paper for long COVID complements the existing AWMF S1 guidelines for long COVID with a detailed overview on the various clinical aspects of long COVID in children and adolescents. Members of 19 different pediatric societies of the DGKJ convent and collaborating societies together provide expert-based recommendations for the clinical management of long COVID based on the currently available but limited academic evidence for long COVID in children and adolescents. It contains screening questions for long COVID and suggestions for a structured, standardized pediatric medical history and diagnostic evaluation for patients with suspected long COVID. A time and resource-saving questionnaire, which takes the clinical complexity of long COVID into account, is offered via the DGKJ and DGPI websites as well as additional questionnaires suggested for an advanced screening of specific neurocognitive and/or psychiatric symptoms including post-exertional malaise (PEM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). According to the individual medical history as well as clinical signs and symptoms a step by step diagnostic procedure and a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach are recommended.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3128, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878524

ABSTRACT

The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children remains unclear due to many asymptomatic cases. We present a study of cross-sectional seroprevalence surveys of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in 10,358 children recruited in paediatric hospitals across Germany from June 2020 to May 2021. Seropositivity increased from 2.0% (95% CI 1.6, 2.5) to 10.8% (95% CI 8.7, 12.9) in March 2021 with little change up to May 2021. Rates increased by migrant background (2.8%, 4.4% and 7.8% for no, one and two parents born outside Germany). Children under three were initially 3.6 (95% CI 2.3, 5.7) times more likely to be seropositive with levels equalising later. The ratio of seropositive cases per recalled infection decreased from 8.6 to 2.8. Since seropositivity exceeds the rate of recalled infections considerably, serologic testing may provide a more valid estimate of infections, which is required to assess both the spread and the risk for severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Töpfner, Nicole, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Infektiologie e. , V.; Alberer, Martin, Ankermann, Tobias, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Pneumologie e. , V.; Bender, Stephan, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie e  V, Berner, Reinhard, de Laffolie, Jan, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernährung e. , V.; Dingemann, Jens, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinderchirurgie e. , V.; Heinicke, Dirk, Bündnis Kinder- und Jugendreha e. , V.; Haas, Johannes Peter, Gesellschaft für Kinder- und, Jugendrheumatologie, Hufnagel, Markus, Hummel, Thomas, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf-und Hals-Chirurgie e  V, Huppertz, Hans-Iko, Deutsche Akademie für Kinder- und, Jugendmedizin, Knuf, Markus, Kobbe, Robin, Lücke, Thomas, Gesellschaft für Neuropädiatrie e. , V.; Riedel, Joachim, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialpädiatrie und, Jugendmedizin, Rosenecker, Josef, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Rehabilitation und Prävention e. , V.; Wölfle, Joachim, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinderendokrinologie und -diabetologie e. , V.; Schneider, Barbara, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin e. , V.; Schneider, Dominik, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin e. , V.; Schriever, Valentin, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf-und Hals-Chirurgie e  V, Schroeder, Anne, Gesellschaft für, Neuropsychologie, Stojanov, Silvia, Tenenbaum, Tobias, Trapp, Stefan, Berufsverband der Kinder- und Jugendärzte e. , V.; Vilser, Daniel, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Kardiologie und Angeborene Herzfehler e. , V.; Brinkmann, Folke, Behrends, Uta.
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde : Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Kinderheilkunde ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in German | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871866

ABSTRACT

Das vorliegende Konsensuspapier bietet in Ergänzung zur AWMF-S1-Leitlinie eine Übersicht über die verschiedenen klinischen Aspekte von Long COVID im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Es wurde von Vertreter:innen aus 19 Fachgesellschaften des DGKJ-Konvents und kooperierenden Fachgesellschaften erstellt und bietet Expertenempfehlungen für die Praxis auf Grundlage der bisherigen, noch geringen studienbasierten Evidenz zu Long COVID im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Es enthält Screeningfragen zu Long COVID sowie einen Vorschlag zur strukturierten, standardisierten pädiatrischen Anamnese und zur diagnostischen Evaluation bei V. a. Long COVID. Dazu werden ein zeit- und ressourcensparender Erfassungsbogen, der die Komplexität des Krankheitsbildes berücksichtigt, über die Internetseiten der DGKJ und DGPI zur Verfügung gestellt und weitere Fragebögen zur Abklärung von spezifischen neurokognitiven und/oder psychischen Störungen sowie post-exertioneller Malaise (PEM) und myalgischer Enzephalomyelitis/chronischem Fatigue-Syndrom (ME/CFS) benannt. Anhand der jeweiligen anamnestisch und klinisch ermittelten Hauptsymptome werden ein gestuftes, diagnostisches Vorgehen und eine multidisziplinäre Betreuung empfohlen. Zusatzmaterial online Die Online-Version dieses Beitrags (10.1007/s00112-021-01408-1) enthält weitere Tabellen mit Angaben zur erweiterten Diagnostik (Labor- und Funktionsdiagnostik, Bildgebung).

6.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 16(1): 37, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing particularly in parents. Although being specifically vulnerable to negative environmental exposures, research on psychosocial stress factors in infants' and toddlers' families during the pandemic is so far sparse. The CoronabaBY study investigates the perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress and parent and child mental health problems in families with children aged 0-3 years in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Further, the relationships between these psychosocial stressors are examined and sociodemographic characteristics that may be predictive of these factors will be explored. METHODS: Participants were cross-sectionally surveyed via smartphone app. Standardized questionnaires on perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress, parental symptoms of depression and anxiety, infants' crying, sleeping and feeding problems or toddlers' emotional and behavioral problems were applied. RESULTS: N = 991 parents (Mage = 33.7 years, SD = 4.5; 93.7% mothers, 91.5% born in Germany) with infants (n = 554; Mage = 5.9 months, SD = 3.0) or toddlers (n = 435; Mage = 25.9 months, SD = 6.5) participated in the first half-year of 2021. Sixty-five percent of the parents perceived a high pandemic burden, 37.7% experienced parenting stress and 24.1% showed affective symptoms (anxiety: 30.1%, depression: 18.5%). Feeding problems, crying/ sleeping problems and multiple regulatory problems were found in 34.8%, 26.2% and 13.5% of the infants, respectively. Amongst toddlers, 8.5% showed noticeable behavior and emotional problems. Children`s mental health problems correlated moderately with parenting stress and parental affective symptoms and weakly with perceived pandemic burden. A lower financial status, higher parental education and increasing child age were significant but weak predictors for higher parenting stress, affective symptoms and higher psychological problems in children. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of the surveyed families with infants and toddlers experience the pandemic as stressful. The main challenges are parental affective symptoms and limited resources for childcare due to parenting stress. Overall, infants and toddlers show similar levels of mental health problems when being compared to pre-pandemic studies, but staggered detrimental effects on children`s mental health might occur if the stressful conditions persist. This is already indicated by correlations between parental and child psychosocial stress factors.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313936

ABSTRACT

A subset of patients has long-lasting symptoms after mild to moderate COVID-19. In a prospective observational cohort study we analysed clinical and laboratory parameters in 42 patients (29 female/13 male, median age 36.5 years) with persistent moderate to severe fatigue and exertion intolerance six months following COVID-19 referred to as Chronic COVID-19 Syndrome (CCS). Most patients were moderately to severely impaired in daily live. 19 patients fulfilled the 2003 Canadian Consensus Criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome referred to as CFS/CCS. Hand grip strength (HGS) was diminished in most patients. Association of several biomarker with key symptoms of physical and mental fatigue and post exertional malaise indicate low level inflammation and hypoperfusion as potential pathomechanisms.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604322

ABSTRACT

Whole genome sequencing of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) isolates from around the world has uncovered pervasive strain heterogeneity, but the forces driving strain diversification and the impact on immune recognition remained largely unknown. Using a data mining approach, we analyzed more than 300 T-cell epitopes in 168 published EBV strains. Polymorphisms were detected in approximately 65% of all CD8+ and 80% of all CD4+ T-cell epitopes and these numbers further increased when epitope flanking regions were included. Polymorphisms in CD8+ T-cell epitopes often involved MHC anchor residues and resulted in changes of the amino acid subgroup, suggesting that only a limited number of conserved T-cell epitopes may represent generic target antigens against different viral strains. Although considered the prototypic EBV strain, the rather low degree of overlap with most other viral strains implied that B95.8 may not represent the ideal reference strain for T-cell epitopes. Instead, a combinatorial library of consensus epitopes may provide better targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes when the infecting strain is unknown. Polymorphisms were significantly enriched in epitope versus non-epitope protein sequences, implicating immune selection in driving strain diversification. Remarkably, CD4+ T-cell epitopes in EBNA2, EBNA-LP, and the EBNA3 family appeared to be under negative selection pressure, hinting towards a beneficial role of immune responses against these latency type III antigens in virus biology. These findings validate this immunoinformatics approach for providing novel insight into immune targets and the intricate relationship of host defense and virus evolution that may also pertain to other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Genetic Heterogeneity , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Algorithms , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Data Mining , Databases, Genetic , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology
9.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292706

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Investigating the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is pivotal to prevent the virus spreading. In most cases, children infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic. Therefore, the infection rate among this age group remains unclear. Seroprevalence studies, including clinical questionnaires, may contribute to our understanding of the time course and clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: SARS-CoV-2-KIDS is a longitudinal, hospital-based, multicentre study in Germany on the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G, as determined by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in children (aged ≤17 years). A study-specific questionnaire provided additional information on clinical aspects. Findings: This analysis included 10,358 participants recruited from June 2020 to May 2021. The estimated anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 2·0% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1·6, 2·5) to 10·8% (95% CI 8·7, 12·9) in March 2021, without major change afterwards and was higher in children with migrant background (on average 6·6% vs. 2·8%). In the pandemic early stages, children under three years were 3·5 (95% CI 2·2, 5·6) times more likely to be seropositive than older children, with the levels equalising in later observations. History of self-reported respiratory tract infections or pneumonia was associated with seropositivity (OR 1·8 (95% CI 1·4, 2·3);2·7 (95% CI 1·7, 4·1)). Interpretation: The majority of children in Germany do not have detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG. To some extent, this may reflect the effect of differing containment measures implemented in the federal states. Detection levels might have been greater in certain age groups or migrant background. Lifting containment measurements is likely to cause a general increase in respiratory tract infections, which already pose a challenge to paediatric medical care during regular winter seasons. This challenge might become critical with additional infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Pneumologie ; 75(11): 869-900, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392935

ABSTRACT

The German Society of Pneumology initiated the AWMFS1 guideline Post-COVID/Long-COVID. In a broad interdisciplinary approach, this S1 guideline was designed based on the current state of knowledge.The clinical recommendation describes current post-COVID/long-COVID symptoms, diagnostic approaches, and therapies.In addition to the general and consensus introduction, a subject-specific approach was taken to summarize the current state of knowledge.The guideline has an expilcit practical claim and will be continuously developed and adapted by the author team based on the current increase in knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nature ; 594(7862): 265-270, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246377

ABSTRACT

Fast and reliable detection of patients with severe and heterogeneous illnesses is a major goal of precision medicine1,2. Patients with leukaemia can be identified using machine learning on the basis of their blood transcriptomes3. However, there is an increasing divide between what is technically possible and what is allowed, because of privacy legislation4,5. Here, to facilitate the integration of any medical data from any data owner worldwide without violating privacy laws, we introduce Swarm Learning-a decentralized machine-learning approach that unites edge computing, blockchain-based peer-to-peer networking and coordination while maintaining confidentiality without the need for a central coordinator, thereby going beyond federated learning. To illustrate the feasibility of using Swarm Learning to develop disease classifiers using distributed data, we chose four use cases of heterogeneous diseases (COVID-19, tuberculosis, leukaemia and lung pathologies). With more than 16,400 blood transcriptomes derived from 127 clinical studies with non-uniform distributions of cases and controls and substantial study biases, as well as more than 95,000 chest X-ray images, we show that Swarm Learning classifiers outperform those developed at individual sites. In addition, Swarm Learning completely fulfils local confidentiality regulations by design. We believe that this approach will notably accelerate the introduction of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Confidentiality , Datasets as Topic , Machine Learning , Precision Medicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Machine Learning/trends , Male , Software , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607918, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021890

ABSTRACT

The inability of patients with CVID to mount specific antibody responses to pathogens has raised concerns on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there might be a role for protective T cells in these patients. SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells have been reported for SARS-CoV-2 unexposed healthy individuals. Until now, there is no data on T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection in CVID. This study aimed to evaluate reactive T cells to human endemic corona viruses (HCoV) and to study pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in unexposed CVID patients. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2- and HCoV-229E and -OC43 reactive T cells in response to seven peptide pools, including spike and nucleocapsid (NCAP) proteins, in 11 unexposed CVID, 12 unexposed and 11 post COVID-19 healthy controls (HC). We further characterized reactive T cells by IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 profiles. SARS-CoV-2 spike-reactive CD4+ T cells were detected in 7 of 11 unexposed CVID patients, albeit with fewer multifunctional (IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2) cells than unexposed HC. CVID patients had no SARS-CoV-2 NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells and less reactive CD8+ cells compared to unexposed HC. We observed a correlation between T cell reactivity against spike of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs in unexposed, but not post COVID-19 HC, suggesting cross-reactivity. T cell responses in post COVID-19 HC could be distinguished from unexposed HC by higher frequencies of triple-positive NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells are detectable in unexposed CVID patients albeit with lower recognition frequencies and polyfunctional potential. Frequencies of triple-functional reactive CD4+ cells might provide a marker to distinguish HCoV cross-reactive from SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses. Our data provides evidence, that anti-viral T cell immunity is not relevantly impaired in most CVID patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Coronaviridae/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/blood , Cross Reactions , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Infection ; 49(1): 63-73, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812468

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Knowledge regarding patients' clinical condition at severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection is sparse. Data in the international, multicenter Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients (LEOSS) cohort study may enhance the understanding of COVID-19. METHODS: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, enrolled in the LEOSS cohort study between March 16, 2020, and May 14, 2020, were analyzed. Associations between baseline characteristics and clinical stages at diagnosis (uncomplicated vs. complicated) were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: We included 2155 patients, 59.7% (1,287/2,155) were male; the most common age category was 66-85 years (39.6%; 500/2,155). The primary COVID-19 diagnosis was made in 35.0% (755/2,155) during complicated clinical stages. A significant univariate association between age; sex; body mass index; smoking; diabetes; cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, and kidney diseases; ACE inhibitor therapy; statin intake and an increased risk for complicated clinical stages of COVID-19 at diagnosis was found. Multivariable analysis revealed that advanced age [46-65 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.73, 95% CI 1.25-2.42, p = 0.001; 66-85 years: aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.36-2.74, p < 0.001; > 85 years: aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.49-3.81, p < 0.001 vs. individuals aged 26-45 years], male sex (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50, p = 0.040), cardiovascular disease (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72, p = 0.007), and diabetes (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69, p = 0.023) were associated with complicated stages of COVID-19 at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The LEOSS cohort identified age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and male sex as risk factors for complicated disease stages at SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, thus confirming previous data. Further data regarding outcomes of the natural course of COVID-19 and the influence of treatment are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
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