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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5111-5117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could be a predictive factor of severe COVID-19. However, most relevant studies are retrospective, and the optimal NLR cut-off point has not been determined. The objective of our research was identification and validation of the best NLR cut-off value on admission that could predict high in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Medical files of all patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia in our dedicated COVID-units between March and April 2020 (derivation cohort) and between October and December 2020 (validation cohort) were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine patients were included in the study (198 in the derivation and 101 in the validation cohort, respectively). Youden's J statistic in the derivation cohort determined the optimal cut-off value for the performance of NLR at admission to predict mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The NLR cut-off value of 5.94 had a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 64%. In ROC curve analysis, the AUC was 0.665 [95% CI 0.530-0.801, p= 0.025]. In the validation cohort, the best predictive cut-off value of NLR was 6.4, which corresponded to a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 64% with AUC 0.766 [95% CI 0.651-0.881, p <0.001]. When the NLR cut-off value of 5.94 was applied in the validation cohort, there was no significant difference in death and survival in comparison with the derivation NLR cut-off. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis showed no significant classification change in outcome between both NLR cut-off values (NRI:0.012, p=0.31). CONCLUSION: In prospective analysis, an NLR value of 5.94 predicted high in-hospital mortality upon admission in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
Kidney Medicine ; : 100470, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1805342

ABSTRACT

Rationale & Objective Neutralizing monoclonal antibody treatments have shown promising preliminary results in kidney transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, their efficacy in kidney transplant recipients infected with Omicron variant has not been reported yet. Study Design Single-center retrospective study. Setting & Participants We included all consecutive kidney transplant recipients treated with monoclonal antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab) between June 10th 2021 and January 14th 2022. Forty-seven kidney transplant recipients were included. All patients had symptoms evolving for ≤ 7 days and no oxygen therapy need at monoclonal antibody infusion. Results Symptoms at diagnosis were mainly cough (n=25 [53%]) and fever (n=15 [32%]). Eighty-three percent of the cohort (n=39) had been vaccinated with at least 2 doses before infection, of whom 77% (n=30) had demonstrated a vaccine-induced humoral response. They were treated with either casirivimab-imdevimab (n= 16 [34%]) or sotrovimab (n= 31 [66%]) a median of 2 (ranges 0-6) days after the onset of symptoms. Except for one mild allergic reaction during casirivimab-imdevimab infusion, no side effects were reported. Median viral loads at admission (day 0) and 7 days after mAb infusion were 2,110,027 (ranges 1000-153,798,962) copies/mL and 1,000 (ranges 0-10,000,000) copies/mL, respectively. Genotypes were available for 22 kidney transplant recipients (47%). Omicron, Delta, and Gamma variants were identified in 13 (59%), 8 (36%), 1 (5%) patients, respectively. In kidney transplant recipients infected with Omicron variant, the median viral loads at day 0 and day 7 were 752,789 (ranges 4000-12,859,300) copies/mL and 1,353 (ranges 0-1,211,163) copies/mL, respectively. Two kidney transplant recipients required hospitalization immediately after sotrovimab perfusion for oxygen therapy that was weaned in 3 days allowing patients’ discharge. None were admitted to the intensive care unit or died. Limitations Small sample-size, no control group. Conclusions Neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy is associated with positive outcomes in kidney transplant recipients with mild COVID-19, including those infected with the Omicron variant.

3.
Psychiatry Research Communications ; : 100037, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1805006

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 has spread rapidly over the globe and has put an unprecedent psychological pressure on health care workers (HCWs). The present study aimed at quantifying the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs during and after the first wave and identify sociodemographic, situational, and psychological risk/protective factors for symptoms severity. An online survey was sent by e-mail to all nurses and physicians employed by a teaching hospital in Brussels, Belgium. 542 (20,62%) completed the survey. 47%, 55%, 32% and 52% of participants reported posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms, respectively, during the peak. Two to three months later, posttraumatic symptoms emerged de novo in 54% of HCWs. It persisted in 89% of those presenting severe symptoms initially. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and insomnia. Work overload was the strongest predictor of depression and second predictor of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and insomnia. Other significant predictors included being a nurse, the number of past traumatic experiences, avoidant coping style, and emotions ‘expression suppression.

4.
Transplant Direct ; 8(3): e1292, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707294

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have an increased risk of mortality compared with the general population and hemodialysis patients. As these patients are immunosuppressed, it might seem obvious to attribute this excess mortality to the impaired immunity induced by immunosuppression. In line with this reasoning is the low immune response, both cellular and humoral, that KTRs mount in response to the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; however, acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 is triggered by a state of inflammation and cytokine release syndrome that lead to pulmonary damage and increased mortality. In that context, immunosuppressive treatment dampening the immune response could, in theory, be potentially beneficial. This review aims at analyzing the current knowledge on the impact of immunosuppressive treatment on mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected KTRs, the optimal management of immunosuppression in the coronavirus disease 2019 era, and the vaccine response and management in immunosuppressed KTRs.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103893, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 targets endothelial cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. The resulting endothelial injury induces widespread thrombosis and microangiopathy. Nevertheless, early specific markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular redox status in COVID-19 patients are currently missing. METHODS: Observational study including ICU and non-ICU adult COVID-19 patients admitted in hospital for acute respiratory failure, compared with control subjects matched for cardiovascular risk factors similar to ICU COVID-19 patients, and ICU septic shock patients unrelated to COVID-19. FINDINGS: Early SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an imbalance between an exacerbated oxidative stress (plasma peroxides levels in ICU patients vs. controls: 1456.0 ± 400.2 vs 436 ± 272.1 mmol/L; P < 0.05) and a reduced nitric oxide bioavailability proportional to disease severity (5-α-nitrosyl-hemoglobin, HbNO in ICU patients vs. controls: 116.1 ± 62.1 vs. 163.3 ± 46.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05). HbNO levels correlated with oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) in COVID-19 patients (R2 = 0.13; P < 0.05). Plasma levels of angiotensin II, aldosterone, renin or serum level of TREM-1 ruled out any hyper-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or leucocyte respiratory burst in ICU COVID-19 patients, contrary to septic patients. INTERPRETATION: Endothelial oxidative stress with ensuing decreased NO bioavailability appears as a likely pathogenic factor of endothelial dysfunction in ICU COVID-19 patients. A correlation between NO bioavailability and oxygenation parameters is observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. These results highlight an urgent need for oriented research leading to a better understanding of the specific endothelial oxidative stress that occurs during SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: Stated in the acknowledgments section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1226-1232, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treating hypoxemia while meeting the soaring demands of oxygen can be a challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of the surgical facemask and the double-trunk mask on top of the low-flow oxygen nasal cannula on arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in hypoxemic COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 and hypoxemia treated with the low-flow nasal cannula were enrolled between November 13, 2020, and March 05, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the nasal cannula alone (control) or the nasal cannula covered by the surgical facemask or the double-trunk mask. Arterial blood gases were collected at baseline and 30 min after the use of each system. The oxygen output was adapted afterwards to retrieve the baseline pulse oxygen saturation. The final oxygen output value was recorded after another 30-min period. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was the absolute change in PaO2. Secondary outcomes included changes in oxygen output, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), vital parameters, and breathlessness. KEY RESULTS: Arterial blood samples were successfully collected in 24/27 (8 per group) randomized patients. Compared to the nasal cannula alone, PaO2 increased with the surgical facemask (mean change: 20 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.7-38.8; P = .04) and with the double-trunk mask (mean change: 40 mmHg; 95% CI: 21-59; P < .001). Oxygen output was reduced when adding the surgical facemask (median reduction: 1.5 L/min [95% CI: 0.5-4.5], P < .001) or the double-trunk mask (median reduction: 3.3 L/min [95% CI: 2-5], P < .001). The double-trunk mask was associated with a PaCO2 increase of 2.4 mmHg ([95% CI: 0-4.7], P = .049). Neither mask influenced vital parameters or breathlessness. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of the surgical facemask or the double-trunk mask above the nasal cannula improves arterial oxygenation and reduces oxygen consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cannula , Humans , Masks , Oxygen , Pandemics
13.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5111-5117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399044

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could be a predictive factor of severe COVID-19. However, most relevant studies are retrospective, and the optimal NLR cut-off point has not been determined. The objective of our research was identification and validation of the best NLR cut-off value on admission that could predict high in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Medical files of all patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia in our dedicated COVID-units between March and April 2020 (derivation cohort) and between October and December 2020 (validation cohort) were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine patients were included in the study (198 in the derivation and 101 in the validation cohort, respectively). Youden's J statistic in the derivation cohort determined the optimal cut-off value for the performance of NLR at admission to predict mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The NLR cut-off value of 5.94 had a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 64%. In ROC curve analysis, the AUC was 0.665 [95% CI 0.530-0.801, p= 0.025]. In the validation cohort, the best predictive cut-off value of NLR was 6.4, which corresponded to a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 64% with AUC 0.766 [95% CI 0.651-0.881, p <0.001]. When the NLR cut-off value of 5.94 was applied in the validation cohort, there was no significant difference in death and survival in comparison with the derivation NLR cut-off. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis showed no significant classification change in outcome between both NLR cut-off values (NRI:0.012, p=0.31). CONCLUSION: In prospective analysis, an NLR value of 5.94 predicted high in-hospital mortality upon admission in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

16.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5416-5424, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363679

ABSTRACT

The kinetics of IgG antibodies after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain poorly understood. We investigated factors influencing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody levels and time to seronegativation during the follow-up of severe and critically ill patients. We retrospectively reviewed serological evaluations drawn during the follow-up of severe or critical laboratory-proven COVID-19 patients hospitalized at a large academic hospital. Specific IgG titers were measured using a chemiluminescent assay targeting anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG. The influence of time, demographic factors, clinical and paraclinical characteristics, and COVID-19 therapeutics on IgG levels were assessed through linear regression using a mixed-effect model, and delay until IgG negativation through a Weibull regression model. The cohort included 116 patients with a total of 154 IgG measurements drawn at a median of 79 days after diagnosis. IgG antibodies were increased with age (p = 0.005) and decreased significantly over time (p = 0.0002). Using elapsed time and age as covariates, we demonstrated higher IgG levels in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.0026) and lower IgG levels in immunocompromised patients (p = 0.032). A high BMI was further found to delay and immunodeficiency to hasten significantly seronegativation, whereas no significant effect was observed with corticosteroids. These data highlight the waning over time of IgG antibodies after severe or critical COVID-19. Age, BMI, and immunosuppression also appear to influence the IgG kinetics, while short-term corticotherapy does not. Those data improve the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 serology while further research should determine the determinants of long-term seroprotection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
19.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): e98, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275994
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 212, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly variable between individuals, ranging from asymptomatic infection to critical disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Such variability stresses the need for novel biomarkers associated with disease outcome. As SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a kidney proximal tubule dysfunction with urinary loss of uric acid, we hypothesized that low serum levels of uric acid (hypouricemia) may be associated with severity and outcome of COVID-19. METHODS: In a retrospective study using two independent cohorts, we investigated and validated the prevalence, kinetics and clinical correlates of hypouricemia among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to a large academic hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Survival analyses using Cox regression and a competing risk approach assessed the time to mechanical ventilation and/or death. Confocal microscopy assessed the expression of urate transporter URAT1 in kidney proximal tubule cells from patients who died from COVID-19. RESULTS: The discovery and validation cohorts included 192 and 325 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Out of the 517 patients, 274 (53%) had severe and 92 (18%) critical COVID-19. In both cohorts, the prevalence of hypouricemia increased from 6% upon admission to 20% within the first days of hospitalization for COVID-19, contrasting with a very rare occurrence (< 1%) before hospitalization for COVID-19. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 148 days (50-168), 61 (12%) patients required mechanical ventilation and 93 (18%) died. In both cohorts considered separately and in pooled analyses, low serum levels of uric acid were strongly associated with disease severity (linear trend, P < 0.001) and with progression to death and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in Cox (adjusted hazard ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 3.6-7.8, P < 0.001) or competing risks (adjusted hazard ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval 10.4-41.4, P < 0.001) models. At the structural level, kidneys from patients with COVID-19 showed a major reduction in urate transporter URAT1 expression in the brush border of proximal tubules. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, low serum levels of uric acid are common and associate with disease severity and with progression to respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Uric Acid/blood , Aged , Belgium , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organic Anion Transporters/metabolism , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies
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