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Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0087021, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455682


The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in Israel in late February 2020. Three major outbreaks followed, resulting in over 800,000 cases and over 6,000 deaths by April 2021. Our aim was characterization of a serological snapshot of Israeli patients and healthy adults in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sera from 55 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 146 healthy subjects (early-pandemic, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR [qRT-PCR]-negative), collected in Israel between March and April 2020, were screened for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, using a 6-plex antigen microarray presenting the whole inactivated virus and five viral antigens: a stabilized version of the spike ectodomain (S2P), spike subunit 1 (S1), receptor-binding-domain (RBD), N-terminal-domain (NTD), and nucleocapsid (NC). COVID-19 patients, 4 to 40 days post symptom onset, presented specific IgG to all of the viral antigens (6/6) in 54 of the 55 samples (98% sensitivity). Specific IgM and IgA antibodies for all six antigens were detected in only 10% (5/55) and 4% (2/55) of the patients, respectively, suggesting that specific IgG is a superior serological marker for COVID-19. None of the qRT-PCR-negative sera reacted with all six viral antigens (100% specificity), and 48% (70/146) were negative throughout the panel. Our findings confirm a low seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Israeli adult population prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. We further suggest that the presence of low-level cross-reacting antibodies in naive individuals calls for a combined, multiantigen analysis for accurate discrimination between naive and exposed individuals. IMPORTANCE A 6-plex protein array presenting the whole inactivated virus and five nucleocapsid and spike-derived SARS-CoV-2 antigens was used to generate a serological snapshot of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and seroconversion in Israel in the early months of the pandemic. Our findings confirm a very low seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Israeli adult population. We further propose that the presence of low-level nonspecific antibodies in naive individuals calls for a combined, multiantigen analysis for accurate discrimination between naive and exposed individuals enabling accurate determination of seroconversion. The developed assay is currently applied to evaluate immune responses to the Israeli vaccine during human phase I/II trials.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Microarray Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434013


OBJECTIVE: To assess reasons for noncompliance with COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Cohort observational and surveillance study. SETTING: Sheba Medical Center, a 1,600-bed tertiary-care medical center in Israel. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10,888 HCWs including all employees, students, and volunteers. INTERVENTION: The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was offered to all HCWs of the hospital. Noncompliance was assessed, and pre-rollout and post-rollout surveys were conducted. Data regarding uptake of the vaccine as well as demographic data and compliance with prior influenza vaccination were collected, and 2 surveys were distributed. The survey before the rollout pertained to the intention to receive the vaccine, and the survey after the rollout pertained to all unvaccinated HCWs regarding causes of hesitancy. RESULTS: In the pre-rollout survey, 1,673 (47%) of 3,563 HCWs declared their intent to receive the vaccine. Overall, 8,108 (79%) HCWs received the COVID-19 vaccine within 40 days of rollout. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the factors that were significant predictors of vaccine uptake were male sex, age 40-59 years, occupation (paramedical professionals and doctors), high socioeconomic level, and compliance with flu vaccine. Among 425 unvaccinated HCWs who answered the second survey, the most common cause for hesitancy was the risk during pregnancy (31%). CONCLUSIONS: Although vaccine uptake among HCWs was higher than expected, relatively low uptake was observed among young women and those from lower socioeconomic levels and educational backgrounds. Concerns regarding vaccine safety during pregnancy were common and more data about vaccine safety, especially during pregnancy, might improve compliance.