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1.
Ocean Coast Manag ; : 106318, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031606

ABSTRACT

Despite the significant fluctuations in global trend due to the rising trade friction and the COVID19 pandemic, the container terminals are continuously working in three technology areas including automation, electrification and digitalization. This study reviewed recent technology trends as well as relevant research topics related to the container terminals, and investigated how the trends and topics would facilitate the terminals to achieve their strategic objectives. We also studied the trends in the container terminal industry before and after the pandemic outbreak. Recent progress shows that generally the long-term plans remain unchanged while there are some changes in timeline and priorities. The findings suggest that despite the common interest in long-term plans, gaps are still identified between academia and industry interests. Future directions are discussed for these technology areas, particularly in the context of the post-pandemic world, where the limited resources should be invested to the most urgent areas.

2.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in adaptations to pediatric resuscitation systems of care. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal association between the pandemic and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) process of care metrics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) quality, and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective analysis of a dataset comprising observations of IHCA outcomes pre pandemic (March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) versus pandemic (March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021). SETTING: Data source was the ICU-RESUScitation Project ("ICU-RESUS;" NCT028374497), a prospective, multicenter, cluster randomized interventional trial. PATIENTS: Children (<= 18 yr) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation while admitted to the ICU and were enrolled in ICU-RESUS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 429 IHCAs meeting inclusion criteria, occurrence during the pandemic period was associated with higher frequency of hypotension as the immediate cause of arrest. Cardiac arrest physiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics, and postarrest physiologic and quality of care metrics were similar between the two periods. Survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score 1-3 or unchanged from baseline) occurred in 102 of 195 subjects (52%) during the pandemic compared with 140 of 234 (60%) pre pandemic (p = 0.12). Among survivors, occurrence of IHCA during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in Functional Status Scale (FSS) (i.e., worsening) from baseline (1 [0-3] vs 0 [0-2];p = 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, IHCA survival during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in FSS from baseline (+1.19 [95% CI, 0.35-2.04] FSS points;p = 0.006) and higher odds of a new FSS-defined morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.03-3.46];p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Using the ICU-RESUS dataset, we found that relative to the year prior, pediatric IHCA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with greater worsening of functional status and higher odds of new functional morbidity among survivors.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):14189, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000929

ABSTRACT

Mental health has been a major public health concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the effects of COVID-19 on mental health and whether individual and regional characteristics are associated with the changes in mental health. We estimated district-specific changes in the prevalence of moderate stress, extreme stress, and depression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic after adjusting for the time trend of mental health outcomes. Then, a meta-regression was conducted to examine the associations between district-level characteristics and changes in mental health due to the pandemic. The prevalence of moderate stress, extreme stress, and depression increased during the pandemic and the increases were more prominent in districts with high population density and in individuals aged 19-59 years, with a high education level, and with high household income. The % with reduced physical activity due to the pandemic were positively associated with increases in stress;while, the % that have mutual trust among neighbors and the number of sports facilities were negatively associated with increases in stress. Local tax per person had a positive association with increase in depression. Our study provides epidemiological evidence into the mental health consequences of the pandemic, which can inform the priority of resource allocation for managing mental health.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-600, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967347

ABSTRACT

Introduction Despite the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine hesitancy remains common in the general public. Adults who were on immunosuppressive medications were among the earlier groups recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. It is unclear whether similar vaccine hesitancy is seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially those who are on immunosuppressive medications. We sought to examine rate of vaccine hesitancy in patients with IBD as well as associated demographic and socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review in November 2021 of 1383 patients with IBD seen at University of Maryland Medical Center, a tertiary referral medical center, between November 2020 and October 2021. Data obtained from patients' charts included demographics;disease characteristics including disease phenotype, number of years since diagnosis, number of IBD-related surgeries;and IBD therapy including biologics, thiopurines or methotrexate, corticosteroids, and mesalamine. Information on COVID vaccination and routinely recommended vaccines were also collected which included annual influenza vaccine, Prevnar/ Pneumovax, and Shingrix. Those with no recorded COVID-19 vaccine were contacted by nurses for updated vaccine status. Results 72% (990/1383) of patients in this cohort were on a biologic, 17% (232/1383) were on corticosteroids, and 16% (224/1383) were on thiopurine or methotrexate, indicating a cohort of patients with moderate to severe disease phenotype. Fifty-seven percent (792/1383) of patients received either the Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccine. In a multivariate regression analysis, COVID vaccination was found to be positively associated with a number of factors including older age (p-value= 4.92e-4), female sex (p=1.61e-3), Asian and Caucasian races (p=9.13e-3, 6.47e-06), number of years since diagnosis (p=2.73e-2), number of clinic visits in the past 12 months (p= 2.66e-10), and biologic use (p=4.41e-4). This remained the case while controlling for IBD disease type;marital status;insurance (Commercial vs Medicaid vs Medicare);and tobacco, alcohol, and substance use history. Patients who received other routinely recommended vaccines (influenza, Prevnar/Pneumovax, Shingrix) were not more likely to receive COVID- 19 vaccine. Discussion Although majority of patients in this cohort were on an immunosuppressive medication, COVID-19 vaccination rate is only recorded to be at 57%. Number of clinic visits, presumably more education and conversation with healthcare providers, had a positive impact on COVID-19 vaccination. In this cohort, younger adults, males, and African Americans were less likely to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Healthcare providers need to recognize these potential risk factors for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

5.
Medical Imaging 2022: Computer-Aided Diagnosis ; 12033, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923072

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality, requiring tools to support rapid triage and risk stratification. In response, deep learning has demonstrated great potential to quicklyand autonomously detect COVID-19 features in lung ultrasound B-mode images. However, no previous work considers the application of these deep learning models to signal processing stages that occur prior to traditional ultrasound B-mode image formation. Considering the multiple signal processing stages required to achieve ultrasound B-mode images, our research objective is to investigate the most appropriate stage for our deep learning approach to COVID-19 B-line feature detection, starting with raw channel data received by an ultrasound transducer. Results demonstrate that for our given training and testing configuration, the maximum Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was produced by B-mode images (DSC = 0.996) when compared with three alternative image formation stages that can serve as network inputs: (1) raw in-phase and quadrature (IQ) data before beamforming, (2) beamformed IQ data, (3) envelope detected IQ data. The best-performing simulation-trained network was tested on in vivo B-mode images of COVID-19 patients, ultimately achieving 76% accuracy to detect the same (82% of cases) or more (18% of cases) B-line features when compared to B-line feature detection by human observers interpreting B-mode images. Results are promising to proceed with future COVID-19 B-line feature detection using ultrasound B-mode images as the input to deep learning models. © 2022 SPIE.

8.
Journal of Latin American Geography ; 20(2):6-8, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1344746
9.
Physics Education ; 56(5), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1281837

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus pandemic, there have been significant challenges in the remote teaching and demonstration of experiments, especially those that require laboratory testing equipment. With a desire to give students a feel for our materials laboratory on open days and allow them to gain a deeper understanding of what materials science and engineering is about, we have designed an experiment focused on composite materials that can be performed remotely and without specialist equipment. This enabled students to experience a bend test sensorily through seeing, hearing and feeling it, creating a strong link to then being able to relate it to the pre-prepared experimental data taken in the laboratory. This fun, easy-to-run and engaging experiment allowed a shared experience and encouraged a discussion about students' observations, differences in results and implications of the bend strength of sandwich composites. We have found it not only works well universally by all ages but can be used with younger children to think about words such as 'stronger', 'stiffer' and 'flexible' and how materials can be different in different directions. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S338, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185905

ABSTRACT

Background: Children and young adults were initially reported as largely spared from severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the impact to this population has been significant. Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study includes 420 symptomatic children and young adults with lab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated between March 15 and June 16, 2020 at Children's National Hospital in Washington DC. We identified and compared cohorts of non-hospitalized (N=324) and hospitalized (N=96) patients, including non-critically ill (N=64) and critically ill hospitalized (N=32) patients. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from medical records Results: Of 420 SARS-CoV-2-infected symptomatic patients, 23% required hospitalization, of which 67% were non-critically ill and 33% were critically ill. All age groups were represented in the symptomatic cohort, with a median age of 8.6 years. Patients > 15 years of age represented 44% of critical care admissions. Males and females were equally represented in all cohorts. Underlying medical conditions were present in 36%, but more common in hospitalized (59 %) and critically ill (66 %) patients. The most frequent underlying diagnosis overall was asthma (16 %), but also included neurologic (6 %), diabetes (3 %), obesity (3 %), cardiac (3 %), hematologic (3 %) and oncologic (1 %) conditions. The majority (66 %) of SARSCoV- 2 infected patients presented with respiratory symptoms with or without fever. Other symptoms were also present, including diarrhea/vomiting (21 %), myalgia (11 %), chest pain (8 %) and loss of sense of smell or taste (7%). Hospitalized patients required varying levels of respiratory support, including mechanical ventilation, BiPAP, RAM cannula and HFNC. Additional presentations included diabetic hyperglycemia, sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis, vascular complications, and multisystem inflammation. Treatment included remdesivir, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab and other therapies. Conclusion: Although children/young adults have been less affected than elderly adults, the impact of SARS-CoV2 on this population has been significant in Washington DC and informs other regions anticipating their surge.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S338, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185903

ABSTRACT

Background: Background: Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome of Children (MIS-C) has recently emerged internationally as a serious inflammatory complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with significant morbidity for the pediatric population. Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study includes 33 children meeting CDC criteria for MIS-C treated between March 15 and June 17, 2020 at Children's National Hospital in Washington DC. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from medical records and are summarized. Results: Of 33 hospitalized MIS-C patients, 42% were critically ill, and 58% were non-critically ill. The median age was 8.9 years (0.7-18.7 years). More males (58 %) than females (43 %) were represented in the MIS-C cohort. The majority (75%) of children had no underlying medical condition. Criteria for incomplete or complete Kawasaki Disease (KD) were present in 39% of patients, while an additional 9% had some features of KD. However the remaining 52% of MIS-C patients presented with other sub-phenotypes including prominent severe abdominal pain and/or nonspecific multiorgan dysfunction. 30% presented with shock requiring volume and/or inotropic support. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were present in 61% of patients. Virus was detectable by PCR in 36% of patients. At the time of initial evaluation, 39% (13/33) of children had identified cardiac abnormalities including myocardial dysfunction (5/33;15%), coronary ectasia (4/33;12%), coronary aneurysm (3/33;9%), or pericardial effusion 5/33;15%) either alone or in combination. Cytokine profiling identified elevation of several cytokines in this cohort, including IL-6. Treatment has included intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, anakinra and other immunomodulatory therapies, with overall rapid response to therapy. No deaths have occurred. Conclusion: The emergence of MIS-C late in the surge of SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the Washington DC metropolitan region has added to the already significant burden of hospitalized and critically ill children in our region. A significant percentage of these children present with cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities, whether or not with KD features at presentation. Detailed characterization of immune responses and long term outcome of these patients is a priority.

13.
Journal of Latin American Geography ; 19(4):6-8, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-955358
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(early release), 2020.
Article | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Grey literature | ID: grc-740482

ABSTRACT

This report describes confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases among incarcerated or detained persons or staff members across 420 correctional and detention facilities in the United States.

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