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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 187-193, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834259

ABSTRACT

Background: Long COVID (coronavirus disease 2019) syndrome includes a group of patients who, after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit lingering mild-to-moderate symptoms and develop medical complications that can have lasting health problems. In this report, we propose a model for the pathophysiology of the long COVID presentation based on increased proinflammatory cytokine production that results from the persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus or one of its molecular components. Associated with this hyperproduction of inflammatory cytokines is a heightened activity of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways that regulate cytokine production. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to review the causes of long COVID syndrome and suggest ways that can provide a basis for a better understanding of the clinical symptomatology for the of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the condition. Methods: Extensive research was conducted in medical literature data bases by applying terms such as "long COVID" associated with "persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus" "spike protein' "COVID-19" and "biologic therapies." Results and Conclusions: In this model of the long COVID syndrome, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 is hypothesized to trigger a dysregulated immune system with subsequent heightened release of proinflammatory cytokines that lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and multiorgan symptomatology. The condition seems to have a genetic basis, which predisposes individuals to have a diminished immunologic capacity to completely clear the virus, with residual parts of the virus persisting. This persistence of virus and resultant hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines are proposed to form the basis of the syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(6): 447-449, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533597
6.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 386-394, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350235

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been defined as a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines, despite the availability of vaccine services. In the past, despite an impressive record of vaccine effectiveness in the United States, several factors have contributed to a decreased acceptance of vaccines that has resulted in outbreaks of infectious diseases, e.g., measles. More recently, vaccine hesitancy has spread to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. There are many causes of vaccine hesitancy, such as misinformation, fallacies, and myths, that have contributed to vaccine hesitancy. Objective: The purpose of the present report is to address the many causes of vaccine hesitancy and to suggest ways that the allergist/immunologist can be involved in the promotion of vaccine acceptance. Methods: The current COVID-19 vaccines were reviewed, together with their mechanisms(s) of action and adverse reactions to them. Results: The many causes of vaccine hesitancy include many doubts and concerns related to COVID-19 vaccines as well as a diminished level of confidence and trust by segments of the public in the nation's leaders in government, medical, and business communities, that those groups once enjoyed. Conclusion: Vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines is the only way that COVID-19 will be eliminated or at least controlled today, and vaccine hesitancy is the potential nemesis. The present report describes how the allergist/immunologist not only plays a major role in the delivery of specialized therapy of COVID-19 but also in educating the public with regard to the importance of COVID-19 vaccines, in dispelling misinformation, and in promoting trust for vaccine acceptance but must be informed with the most accurate and current information to do so.


Subject(s)
Allergists , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Physician's Role , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Policy , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Patient Education as Topic , Physician-Patient Relations , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Trust , United States
7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): 263-266, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288762
12.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(1): 8-15, 2021 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011381

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its initial description in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly progressed into a worldwide pandemic, which has affected millions of lives. Unlike the disease in adults, the vast majority of children with COVID-19 have mild symptoms and are largely spared from severe respiratory disease. However, there are children who have significant respiratory disease, and some may develop a hyperinflammatory response similar to that seen in adults with COVID-19 and in children with Kawasaki disease (KD), which has been termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objective: The purpose of this report was to examine the current evidence that supports the etiopathogenesis of COVID-19 in children and the relationship of COVID-19 with KD and MIS-C as a basis for a better understanding of the clinical course, diagnosis, and management of these clinically perplexing conditions. Results: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is carried out in two distinct but overlapping phases of COVID-19: the first triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) itself and the second by the host immune response. Children with KD have fewer of the previously described COVID-19-associated KD features with less prominent acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock than children with MIS-C. Conclusion: COVID-19 in adults usually includes severe respiratory symptoms and pathology, with a high mortality. It has become apparent that children are infected as easily as adults but are more often asymptomatic and have milder disease because of their immature immune systems. Although children are largely spared from severe respiratory disease, they can present with a SARS-CoV-2-associated MIS-C similar to KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(6): 397-412, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717668

ABSTRACT

Background: Following its initial description in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) has rapidly progressed into a worldwide pandemic, affecting millions of lives. Although every specialty of medicine has been affected, the field of allergy/immunology holds a special place in the battle against this modern-day plague. Because of the specialized training in allergy and clinical immunology, and the familiarity with comorbid contributing conditions, the allergist/immunologist is uniquely poised to play a major role both in the delivery of specialized therapeutic procedures and practices that can improve the health of patients with COVID-19 as well as in the use of forthcoming vaccines for the prevention of its spread. Objective: The purpose of this report is to examine the current body of evidence supporting the two phases of infection and inflammation that influence the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and to provide a classification of COVID-19 disease presentations and potential therapeutic targets with which the allergist/immunologist has particular expertise. Methods: This article was based on a literature review of articles published in PubMed related to COVID-19 and the immune response, and the author's own research and clinical experiences in the field of immunology. Results: Currently, the management of COVID-19 disease is being directed by a preventive strategy based on social distancing, quarantine, and facemasks to reduce the spread of the virus. Numerous clinical trials are being initiated to identify effective treatments for COVID-19 and are directed toward treatment of the two phases of infection and inflammation that influence the pathogenesis of COVID-19. An important resource for the allergist/immunologist is the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (COVID-19 TGP), a National Institutes of Health sponsored panel of U.S. physicians, statisticians, and other experts, which has developed a set of continuously updated treatment guidelines intended for clinicians caring for patients during the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: COVID-19 is unique among other infectious diseases because, in many cases, the host immune inflammatory response can cause greater harm to the individual who is infected than the pathogen itself. In this report, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the influence it has on COVID-19 presentations is reviewed, together with recommended potential therapeutic targets and treatment recommendations.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Physician's Role , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
MedComm (2020) ; 1(2): 157-164, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697152

ABSTRACT

Since the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 began to spread, an infection disease termed COVID-19. The virus has spread throughout the world in a short period of time, resulting in a pandemic. The number of reported cases in global reached 5 695 596 including 352 460 deaths, as of May 27, 2020. Due to the lack of effective treatment options for COVID-19, various strategies are being tested. Recently, pathologic studies conducted by two teams in China revealed immunopathologic abnormalities in lung tissue. These results have implications for immunotherapy that could offer a novel therapy strategy for combating lethal viral pneumonia. This review discusses the clinical and pathological features of COVID-19, the roles of immune cells in pathological processes, and the possible avenues for induction of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells attenuating lung inflammation due to viral infection. It is our hope that these proposals may both be helpful in understanding the novel features of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia as well as providing new immunological strategies for treating the severe sequelae of disease manifestations seen in people infected with SARS-CoV-2.

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