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1.
The New Microbiologica ; 45(1):35, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and flu may lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of the present study is to compare the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and outcome in patients with flu and SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in ICU and undergoing ECMO. This study is a retrospective analysis of the San Matteo COVID-19 Registry (SMACORE) cohort. The study was conducted from January 2018 to April 2020. Demographic data and microbiological data were recorded during hospitalization. BSIs occurring during ECMO were analyzed. Eighteen patients treated with ECMO, 22 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 7 with flu, median age 61years for SARS-CoV-2 and 50 for flu (p=NS). Median ECMO duration was similar in the two pathologies. Median time to bloodstream infection from ECMO initiation was similar. Bloodstream infection incidence rate was 2.65 per 100 patients/days for flu and 2.2 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2. Global infection rate was 5 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2 patients and 5.3 per 100 patients/days for flu. Mortality during ECMO was 40.9% (5 out of 22 patients) for SARS-CoV-2 infection while none died among flu patients. ECMO-associated mortality was higher in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with flu infection.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488625

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced some reflections to be had surrounding the ventilatory support to be applied to certain types of patients. The model of two phenotypes, set out by Professor Gattinoni and colleagues, suggests that adequate monitoring of respiratory effort may play a key role in the treatment of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. An insufficient control of the patient's respiratory efforts could lead to an aggravation of lung damage, mainly due to the possibility of generating Patient Self-Inflicted Lung Injury (PSILI) with a consequent aggravation of the pathological picture. Nevertheless, effectively monitoring the patient's respiratory work, especially in nonintensive settings, is not easy. This article briefly describes some methods that allow the assessment of respiratory effort, such as the use of ultrasound and respiratory tests, which can be performed in nonintensive settings.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m2) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.

4.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(6): 723-730, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060315

ABSTRACT

The 2020 International Web Scientific Event in COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients aimed at updating the information and knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic in the intensive care unit. Experts reviewed the latest literature relating to the COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients, such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, phenotypes of infection, COVID-19 as a systematic infection, molecular diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, thromboprophylaxis, COVID-19 associated co-infections, immunotherapy, plasma treatment, catheter-related bloodstream infections, artificial intelligence for COVID-19, and vaccination. Antiviral therapy and co-infections are out of the scope of this review. In this review, each of these issues is discussed with key messages regarding management and further research being presented after a brief review of available evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics , Phenotype , Symptom Assessment , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Videoconferencing , Virus Internalization
5.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 68: 90-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore anxiety status across a broad range of HCWs supporting patients with COVID-19 in different global regions. METHOD: This was an international online survey in which participation was on voluntary basis and data were submitted via Google Drive, across a two-week period starting from March 18, 2020. The Beck Anxiety Inventory was used to quantify the level of anxiety. RESULTS: 1416 HCWs (70.8% medical doctors, 26.2% nurses) responded to the survey from 75 countries. The distribution of anxiety levels was: normal/minimal (n = 503, 35.5%), low (n = 390, 27.5%); moderate (n = 287, 20.3%), and severe (n = 236, 16.7%). According to multiple generalized linear model, female gender (p = 0.001), occupation (ie, being a nurse dealing directly with patients with COVID-19 [p = 0.017]), being younger (p = 0.001), reporting inadequate knowledge on COVID-19 (p = 0.005), having insufficient personal protective equipment (p = 0.001) and poor access to hand sanitizers or liquid soaps (p = 0.008), coexisting chronic disorders (p = 0.001) and existing mental health problems (p = 0.001), and higher income of countries where HCWs lived (p = 0.048) were significantly associated with increased anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Front-line HCWs, regardless of the levels of COVID-19 transmission in their country, are anxious when they do not feel protected. Our findings suggest that anxiety could be mitigated ensuring sufficient levels of protective personal equipment alongside greater education and information.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(11): 1214-1233, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941782

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread around the word. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, multiorgan damage might be due to direct SARS-CoV2 action against the infected organ cells, as well as an imbalanced host immune response. In effect, a "cytokines storm" and an impaired innate immunity were found in the COVID-19 critically ill patients. In this review, we summarized the virus immune response steps, underlying the relevance of introducing the measurement of plasma cytokine levels and of circulating lymphocyte subsets in clinical practice for the follow-up of critically ill COVID-19 patients and support new therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Adaptive Immunity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy
7.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 566-571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922603

ABSTRACT

We report a preliminary experience of adjuvant therapy with Hemoperfusion (HP) in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pneumonia. Currently, there are no approved treatments for CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19); however, therapeutic strategies based on the preclinical evidence include supportive measures, such as oxygen supplementation, antiviral, and anticoagulant agents. Despite these treatments, 10% of patients worsen and develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the pathogenic mechanism of ARDS is an uncontrolled inflammatory state, we speculate that removing inflammation effectors from blood may contrast tissue injury and improve clinical outcome. In a scenario of dramatic medical emergency, we conducted an observational study on 9 consecutive patients hospitalized in COVID Intensive Care Unit, where 5 of 9 consecutive patients were treated with HP, due to the emergency overload made it impossible to deliver blood purification in the other 4 patients. COVID-19 was diagnosed through the identification of virus sequences by reverse transcription-PCR on respiratory specimens. All patients had severe pneumonia requiring continuous positive airway pressure. HP was started in all patients 6-7 days after hospital admission. The treated patients (T) received 2 consecutive sessions of HP using CytoSorb cartridge. Our results show a better clinical course of T compared to control patients (C), in fact all T except 1 survived, and only 2 of them were intubated, while all C required intubation and died. Lymphocytopenia worsened in C but not in T. C-reactive protein decreased in both patients, but to a greater extent in T. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α decreased after HP, IL-10 did not change. Respiratory function remained stable and did not worsen in T compared to C. The limited sample size and observational study design preclude a sound statement about the potential effectiveness of HP in COVID-19 patients, but our experience suggests a potential therapeutic role of adjuvant CytoSorb HP in the early course of CO-VID-19 pneumonia. A randomized clinical trial is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Hemoperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Polymers , Polystyrenes , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Vinyl Compounds
8.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(11): 3386-3390, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics may be indicated in patients with COVID-19 due to suspected or confirmed bacterial superinfection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate antibiotic prescribing practices in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an international web-based survey and investigated the pattern of antibiotic use as reported by physicians involved in treatment of COVID-19. SPSS Statistics version 25 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 166 participants from 23 countries and 82 different hospitals. Local guidelines for antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients were reported by 61.8% (n = 102) of participants and for 82.9% (n = 136) they did not differ from local community-acquired pneumonia guidelines. Clinical presentation was recognized as the most important reason for the start of antibiotics (mean score = 4.07 and SD = 1.095 on grading scale from 1 to 5). When antibiotics were started, most respondents rated as the highest the need for coverage of atypical pathogens (mean score = 2.8 and SD = 0.99), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (mean score = 2.67 and SD = 1.05 on bi-modal scale, with values 1 and 2 for disagreement and values 3 and 4 for agreement). In the patients on the ward, 29.1% of respondents chose not to prescribe any antibiotic. Combination of ß-lactams and macrolides or fluoroquinolones was reported by 52.4% (n = 87) of respondents. In patients in the ICU, piperacillin/tazobactam was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic. The mean reported duration of antibiotic treatment was 7.12 (SD = 2.44) days. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed widespread broad-spectrum antibiotic use in patients with COVID-19. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship principles is warranted to mitigate the negative consequences of antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Haematologica ; 105(12): 2834-2840, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676584

ABSTRACT

Hyperimmune plasma from Covid-19 convalescent is a potential treatment for severe Covid-19. We conducted a multicenter one arm proof of concept interventional study. Patients with Covid-19 disease with moderate-to-severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, elevated C-reactive Protein and need for mechanical ventilation and/or CPAP were enrolled. One to three 250-300 ml unit of hyperimmune plasma (neutralizing antibodies titer ≥1:160) were administered. Primary outcome was 7-days hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were PaO2/FiO2, laboratory and radiologic changes, as well as weaning from mechanical ventilation and safety. The study observed 46 patients from March, 25 to April, 21 2020. Patients were aged 63, 61% male, of them, 30 were on CPAP and 7 intubated. PaO2/FiO2 was 128 (SD 47). Bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray was present in 36 patients (84%). Symptoms and ARDS duration were 14 (SD 7) and 6 days (SD 3). Three patients (6.5%) died within 7 days as compared to an expected 15% from the National Statistics and 30% from a small concurrent cohort of 23 patients. The upper one-sided 90%CI was 13.9%, allowing to reject the null hypothesis of a 15% mortality. PaO2/FiO2 increased by 112 units (95%CI 82 to142) in survivors, the chest radiogram severity decreased in 23% (95%CI 5% to 42%); CRP, Ferritin and LDH decreased by 60, 36 and 20% respectively. Weaning from CPAP was obtained in 26/30 patients and 3/7 were extubated. Five serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (2 likely, 2 possible treatment related). In conclusion, Hyperimmune plasma in Covid-19 shows promising benefits, to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. This proof of concept study could open to future developments including hyperimmune plasma banking, development of standardized pharmaceutical products and monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Immunization, Passive/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e19514, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who show mild symptoms are sent home by physicians to recover. However, the condition of some of these patients becomes severe or critical as the disease progresses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a telemedicine model that was developed to address the challenges of treating patients with progressive COVID-19 who are home-quarantined and shortages in the medical workforce. METHODS: A telemedicine system was developed to continuously monitor the progression of home-quarantined patients with COVID-19. The system was built based on a popular social media smartphone app called WeChat; the app was used to establish two-way communication between a multidisciplinary team consisting of 7 medical workers and 188 home-quarantined individuals (including 74 confirmed patients with COVID-19). The system helped patients self-assess their conditions and update the multidisciplinary team through a telemedicine form stored on a cloud service, based on which the multidisciplinary team made treatment decisions. We evaluated this telemedicine system via a single-center retrospective study conducted at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, in January 2020. RESULTS: Among 188 individuals using the telemedicine system, 114 (60.6%) were not infected with COVID-19 and were dismissed. Of the 74 confirmed patients with COVID-19, 26 (35%) recovered during the study period and voluntarily stopped using the system. The remaining 48/76 confirmed patients with COVID-19 (63%) used the system until the end of the study, including 6 patients whose conditions progressed to severe or critical. These 6 patients were admitted to hospital and were stabilized (one received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for 17 days). All 74 patients with COVID-19 eventually recovered. Through a comparison of the monitored symptoms between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients, we found prolonged persistence and deterioration of fever, dyspnea, lack of strength, and muscle soreness to be diagnostic of need for hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: By continuously monitoring the changes in several key symptoms, the telemedicine system reduces the risks of delayed hospitalization due to disease progression for patients with COVID-19 quarantined at home. The system uses a set of scales for quarantine management assessment that enables patients to self-assess their conditions. The results are useful for medical staff to identify disease progression and, hence, make appropriate and timely treatment decisions. The system requires few staff to manage a large cohort of patients. In addition, the system can solicit help from recovered but self-quarantined medical workers to alleviate shortages in the medical workforce and free healthy medical workers to fight COVID-19 on the front line. Thus, it optimizes the usage of local medical resources and prevents cross-infections among medical workers and patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Housing , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143997

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 present a broad spectrum of clinical presentation. Whereas hypoxaemia is the marker of severity, different strategies of management should be customised to five specific individual phenotypes. Many intubated patients present with phenotype 4, characterised by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, being associated with severe hypoxaemia with "normal" (>40 mL·cmH2O-1) lung compliance and likely representing pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Phenotype 5 is often associated with high plasma procalcitonin and has low pulmonary compliance, Which is a result of co-infection or acute lung injury after noninvasive ventilation. Identifying these clinical phenotypes and applying a personalised approach would benefit the optimisation of therapies and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Biomarkers/blood , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Lung Compliance/genetics , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrition ; 74: 110835, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-56906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Beginning in December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a pneumonia epidemic that began in Wuhan, China, and is rapidly spreading throughout the whole world. Italy is the hardest hit country after China. Considering the deleterious consequences of malnutrition, which certainly can affect patients with COVID-19, the aim of this article is to present a pragmatic protocol for early nutritional supplementation of non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19 disease. It is based on the observation that most patients present at admission with severe inflammation and anorexia leading to a drastic reduction of food intake, and that a substantial percentage develops respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation or even continuous positive airway pressure. METHODS: High-calorie dense diets in a variety of different consistencies with highly digestible foods and snacks are available for all patients. Oral supplementation of whey proteins as well as intravenous infusion of multivitamin, multimineral trace elements solutions are implemented at admission. In the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficit, cholecalciferol is promptly supplied. If nutritional risk is detected, two to three bottles of protein-calorie oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are provided. If <2 bottles/d of ONS are consumed for 2 consecutive days and/or respiratory conditions are worsening, supplemental/total parenteral nutrition is prescribed. CONCLUSION: We are aware that our straight approach may be debatable. However, to cope with the current emergency crisis, its aim is to promptly and pragmatically implement nutritional care in patients with COVID-19, which might be overlooked despite being potentially beneficial to clinical outcomes and effective in preventing the consequences of malnutrition in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Administration, Oral , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Feasibility Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Whey Proteins/administration & dosage
16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 911-915, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46118

ABSTRACT

We describe the first case of acute cardiac injury directly linked to myocardial localization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a 69-year-old patient with flu-like symptoms rapidly degenerating into respiratory distress, hypotension, and cardiogenic shock. The patient was successfully treated with venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and mechanical ventilation. Cardiac function fully recovered in 5 days and ECMO was removed. Endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated low-grade myocardial inflammation and viral particles in the myocardium suggesting either a viraemic phase or, alternatively, infected macrophage migration from the lung.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology
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