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1.
JACC Case Rep ; 4(19): 1277-1282, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406923

ABSTRACT

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in surgical aortic valve is a safe and effective procedure to treat patients with failed bioprosthetic surgical valves at high risk for reoperation. Performing bioprosthetic valve fracture has been shown to improve postprocedural hemodynamics of TAVR in surgical aortic valve replacement. However, specific complications related to valve fracture are becoming more common. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 382-392, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125640

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with long-term outcome in patients with recent history of myocardial infarction (MI), and to investigate if diabetes may influence this association. METHODS: Consecutive MI patients who underwent urgent/emergent coronary angiography from February 2013 to June 2019 were prospectively collected. The primary outcome was the composite of MI recurrence and all-cause death. The propensity score weighting technique was used to account for covariates potentially influencing the relationship between Lp(a) levels and the study outcomes. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1018 post-MI patients (median age 63 years). Diabetes was reported in 280 patients (27.5%), who showed lower Lp(a) levels than patients without diabetes (p = 0.026). At a median follow-up of 1121 days, the primary outcome was reported in 182 patients (17.9%). At univariable Cox regression analysis, Lp(a) was associated with the risk of the primary outcome in the overall population and in non-diabetic patients, but not in diabetics. The adjusted Cox regression analysis confirmed the independent association between Lp(a) values and the primary outcome in non-diabetic patients, but not in diabetics.Lp(a) levels > 70 mg/dL were independently associated with the risk of the primary outcome in non-diabetic patients (adjusted HR: 2.839; 95% CI, 1.382-5.832), but not in diabetics. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world post-MI population, increasing Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with the risk of recurrent MI and all-cause death, and very high Lp(a) serum concentration independently predicted long-term outcome in non-diabetic patients, but not in diabetics.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Risk Factors
3.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(10): 1477-1485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040552

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress echocardiography is recommended in valvular heart disease when there is a mismatch between resting transthoracic echocardiography findings and symptoms during activities of daily living. We describe the current methodology and the evidence supporting these applications. RECENT FINDINGS: The comprehensive stress echo assessment includes valve function (gradients and regurgitation), left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function, left atrial volume, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular function, integrated with blood pressure response with cuff sphygmomanometer, chronotropic reserve with heart rate, and symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend the evaluation of asymptomatic severe or symptomatic non-severe mitral regurgitation or stenosis with exercise stress and suspected low-flow, low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with reduced ejection fraction with low dose (up to 20 mcg, without atropine) dobutamine stress. Prospective, large-scale studies based on a comprehensive protocol (ABCDE +) capturing the multiplicity of clinical phenotypes are needed to support stress echo-driven treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis , Heart Valve Diseases , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Activities of Daily Living , Atropine Derivatives , Dobutamine , Echocardiography, Stress , Humans , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 838200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548424

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Aim of this study was to evaluate, in a metropolitan area not already explored, the prevalence of Anderson-Fabry disease, by genetic screening, in patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) of unknown origin and "clinical red flags". Methods: From August 2016 to October 2017, all consecutive patients referring to our echo-lab for daily hospital practices with echocardiographic evidence of LVH of unknown origin in association with history of at least one of the classical signs and symptoms related to Fabry disease (FD) (neuropathic pain, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, gastrointestinal problems, chronic kidney disease, or cerebrovascular complications) were considered eligible for the FD genetic screening program. Through dried blood spot testing, α-Galactosidase A (α-Gal A) activity and analysis of the GLA gene were performed. Results: Among 3,360 patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography in our echo-lab during the study period, 30 patients (0.89%; 19 men, mean age 58 ± 18.2 years) were selected. FD was diagnosed in 3 (10%) unrelated patients. Three different GLA gene mutations were detected, one of them [mutation c.388A > G (p.Lys130Glu) in exon 3] never described before. Moreover, probands' familiar genetic screening allowed the identification of 5 other subjects affected by FD. Conclusion: In a metropolitan area not previously investigated, among patients with LVH of unknown origin associated with other "red flags," undergoing genetic screening, the prevalence of FD was very high (10%). Our results highlight the importance of an echocardiographic- and clinical-oriented genetic screening for FD in patients with uncommon cause of LVH.

7.
Heart ; 108(17): 1369-1376, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The advantage of beta-blockers has been postulated in patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) given the pathophysiological role of catecholamines. We hypothesised that beta-blocker treatment after discharge may improve the long-term clinical outcome in this patient population. METHODS: This was an observational, multicentre study including consecutive patients with TTS diagnosis prospectively enrolled in the Takotsubo Italian Network (TIN) register from January 2007 to December 2018. TTS was diagnosed according to the TIN, Heart Failure Association and InterTAK Diagnostic Criteria. The primary study outcome was the occurrence of all-cause death at the longest available follow-up; secondary outcomes were TTS recurrence, cardiac and non-cardiac death. RESULTS: The study population included 825 patients (median age: 72.0 (63.0-78.0) years; 91.9 % female): 488 (59.2%) were discharged on beta-blockers and 337 (40.8%) without beta-blockers. The median follow-up was 24.0 months. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a significantly lower risk for all-cause death (adjusted HR: 0.563; 95% CI: 0.356 to 0.889) and non-cardiac death (adjusted HR: 0.525; 95% CI: 0.309 to 0.893) in patients receiving versus those not receiving beta-blockers, but no significant differences in terms of TTS recurrence (adjusted HR: 0.607; 95% CI: 0.311 to 1.187) and cardiac death (adjusted HR: 0.699; 95% CI: 0.284 to 1.722). The positive survival effect of beta-blockers was higher in patients with hypertension than in those without (pinteraction=0.014), and in patients who developed cardiogenic shock during the acute phase than in those who did not (pinteraction=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world register population, beta-blockers were associated with a significantly higher long-term survival, particularly in patients with hypertension and in those who developed cardiogenic shock during the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/adverse effects , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Tin
8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 268-277, 2022 Apr.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343478

ABSTRACT

Chronic myeloid leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disease, characterized by a chromosomal translocation detected in 95% of cases, defined as "Philadelphia chromosome", encoding for the BCR-ABL fusion protein with continuous activation of the tyrosine kinase domain. Over the last 20 years, treatment has been revolutionized by the use of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Imatinib is the first TKI approved with a good cardiovascular safety profile, while some second-generation (nilotinib and dasatinib) and third-generation (ponatinib) drugs, developed to overcame drug resistance, can be associated with cardiovascular adverse events. The major adverse effect of dasatinib is pulmonary hypertension, reversible after treatment discontinuation. Conversely, nilotinib or ponatinib assumption is associated with a higher incidence of ischemic events, including coronary artery disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral arterial disease. Therefore, the management of patients receiving TKI therapy should include an integrated multidisciplinary evaluation and follow-up, involving highly specialized figures such as a cardiologist, hematologist and/or oncologist and the application of dedicated pathways, in order to prevent the onset or manage cardiovascular complications associated with these drugs.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Chronic Disease , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/metabolism , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/chemically induced , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 805727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187112

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as a diffuse or focal dilation of an epicardial coronary artery, which diameter exceeds by at least 1. 5 times the normal adjacent segment. The term ectasia refers to a diffuse dilation, involving more than 50% of the length of the vessel, while the term aneurysm defines a focal vessel dilation. CAE is a relatively uncommon angiographic finding and its prevalence ranges between 0.3 and 5% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Although its pathophysiology is still unclear, atherosclerosis seems to be the underlying mechanism in most cases. The prognostic role of CAE is also controversial, but previous studies reported a high risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in these patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite the availability of different options for the interventional management of patients with CAE, including covered stent implantation and stent-assisted coil embolization, there is no one standard approach, as therapy is tailored to the individual patient. The abnormal coronary dilation, often associated with high thrombus burden in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, makes the interventional treatment of CAE patients challenging and often complicated by distal thrombus embolization and stent malapposition. Moreover, the optimal antithrombotic therapy is debated and includes dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, or a combination of them. In this review we aimed to provide an overview of the pathophysiology, classification, clinical presentation, natural history, and management of patients with CAE, with a focus on the challenges for both clinical and interventional cardiologists in daily clinical practice.

10.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945717

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Pulmonary involvement in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may affect right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary pressures. The prognostic value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPS), and TAPSE/PAPS ratios have been poorly investigated in this clinical setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a multicenter Italian study, including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19. In-hospital mortality and pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified as the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. The study included 227 (16.1%) subjects (mean age 68 ± 13 years); intensive care unit (ICU) admission was reported in 32.2%. At competing risk analysis, after stratifying the population into tertiles, according to TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS ratio values, patients in the lower TAPSE and TAPSE/PAPS tertiles, as well as those in the higher PAPS tertiles, showed a significantly higher incidence of death vs. the probability to be discharged during the hospitalization. At univariable logistic regression analysis, TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS were significantly associated with a higher risk of death and PE, both in patients who were and were not admitted to ICU. At adjusted multivariable regression analysis, TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS resulted in independently associated risk of in-hospital death (TAPSE: OR 0.85, CI 0.74-0.97; PAPS: OR 1.08, CI 1.03-1.13; TAPSE/PAPS: OR 0.02, CI 0.02 × 10-1-0.2) and PE (TAPSE: OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.82; PAPS: OR 1.1, CI 1.05-1.14; TAPSE/PAPS: OR 0.02 × 10-1, CI 0.01 × 10-2-0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic evidence of RV systolic dysfunction, increased PAPS, and poor RV-arterial coupling may help to identify COVID-19 patients at higher risk of mortality and PE during hospitalization.

11.
Heart Fail Clin ; 18(1): 125-137, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776074

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo syndrome is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome, most frequently seen in postmenopausal women and precipitated generally by significant emotional stress or physical illness. A sudden sympathetic activation seems to play a key role in the pathophysiology, but growing evidence is emerging about the role of inflammation in the subacute and chronic phases. An incidence of life-threatening complications occurring in the acute phase and at long-term follow-up has been demonstrated, comparable with the acute coronary syndrome. Multimodality imaging could be useful to stratify in-hospital and long-term prognosis. The efficacy of specific medical treatments in long-term follow-up should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Female , Humans , Prognosis , Syndrome , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 44-51, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503819

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the predictors recurrent ischemic events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study aimed at investigating the predictors of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) at long-term follow-up in a real-world STEMI cohort. All consecutive STEMI patients who underwent emergent coronary angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention between February 2013 and June 2019 at our institution were included. The primary outcome was recurrent MI; secondary outcomes were all-cause death, target vessel revascularization (TVR), in-stent restenosis, definite stent thrombosis (ST) and non-TVR. The study population included 724 STEMI patients; at median follow-up of 803 (324 to 1,394) days, the primary outcome was reported in 70 patients (10.1%). All-cause death occurred in 6.8%, TVR in 4.2%, in-stent restenosis in 2.5%, and ST in 1.9% of cases. At multivariable analysis, diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18), serum level of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a), HR = 1.01], and angiographic evidence of restenotic lesion (HR = 2.98) resulted independent predictors of recurrent MI. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that diabetes, restenotic lesion, and differential Lp(a) risk range values, identified patients with lower long-term survival free from recurrent MI. Lp(a) level ≥ 30 mg/dL had an incremental prognostic stratification capability in patients with diabetes (HR = 5.34), and in patients with both diabetes and restenotic lesion (HR = 17.07). In conclusion, in this contemporary cohort of STEMI patients, diabetes, Lp(a) serum levels and restenotic lesions were independently associated with recurrent MI at long term. The coexistence of Lp(a) level ≥ 30 mg/dL showed an incremental risk stratification capability, supporting its implementation for long-term prognostic assessment in this high-risk clinical setting.


Subject(s)
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Recurrence
13.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 35(2): 154-164.e3, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) evaluation includes volumetric and functional parameters with an abundance of diagnostic and prognostic implications. Solid normal reference ranges are compulsory for accurate interpretation in individual patients, but previous studies have yielded mixed conclusions regarding the effects of age, sex, and/or race. The present report from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measures of LA structure and function, with subgroup analysis by age, sex, and race. METHODS: Transthoracic 2D and 3D echocardiographic images were obtained in 1,765 healthy individuals (901 men, 864 women) evenly distributed among age subgroups: 18 to 40 years (n = 745), 41 to 65 years (n = 618), and >65 years (n = 402); the racial distribution was 38.4% white, 39.9% Asian, and 9.7% black. Images were analyzed using dedicated LA analysis software to measure LA volumes and phasic function from 3D volume and 2D strain curves. RESULTS: Three-dimensional maximum and minimum LA volumes adjusted for body surface area were nearly identical for men and women, but women demonstrated higher 3D total and passive emptying fractions (EFs). Two-dimensional reservoir strain was similar for both sexes. Age was associated with an incremental rise in LA volumes alongside characteristic shifts in functional indices. Total 2D EF and reservoir and conduit strain varied inversely with age, counteracted by higher booster strain, with a greater magnitude of effect in women. Active 3D EF was significantly higher, while total and passive EFs decreased with age. Interracial differences were noted in LA volumes, without substantial differences in functional indices. CONCLUSION: Although similar normal values for LA volumes and strain can be applied to both sexes, meaningful differences in LA size occur with aging. Indices of function also shift with age, with a compensatory rise in booster function, which may serve to counteract observed lower total and passive EFs. Defining age-associated normal values may help differentiate age-associated "healthy" LA aging from pathologic processes.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Adolescent , Adult , Atrial Function, Left , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Reference Values , Young Adult
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362020

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute, generally transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Although TTS has been long regarded as a benign condition, recent evidence showed that rate of acute complications and in-hospital mortality is comparable to that of patients with acute coronary syndrome. In particular, the prevalence of cardiogenic shock ranges between 6% and 20%. In this setting, detection of mechanisms leading to cardiogenic shock can be challenging. Besides a severely impaired systolic function, onset of LV outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) together with mitral regurgitation related to systolic anterior motion of mitral valve leaflets can lead to hemodynamic instability. Early identification of LVOTO with echocardiography is crucial and has important implications on selection of the appropriate therapy. Application of short-acting b1-selective betablockers and prudent administration of fluids might help to resolve LVOTO. Conversely, inotrope agents may increase basal hypercontractility and worsen the intraventricular pressure gradient. To date, outcomes and management of patients with TTS complicated by LVOTO as yet has not been comprehensively investigated.

15.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(6): 884-887, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34317647

ABSTRACT

We report a unique case of a Starr-Edwards prosthesis (model 6310, cloth covered) implanted in the mitral position by Christian Barnard that was successfully explanted and replaced after 50 years, the longest period free from valve dysfunction ever reported. Reoperation also included replacement of the native aortic valve combined with tricuspid valve annuloplasty. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).

16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13638, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently recognized viral infective disease which can be complicated by acute respiratory stress syndrome (ARDS) and cardiovascular complications including severe arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes, myocarditis and pulmonary embolism. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical conditions and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective observational study including seven Italian centres. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 1 March to 22 April 2020 were included into study population. The association between baseline variables and risk of in-hospital mortality was assessed through multivariable logistic regression and competing risk analyses. RESULTS: Out of 1401 patients admitted at the participating centres with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, 226 (16.1%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and were included in the present analysis. In-hospital death occurred in 68 patients (30.1%). At multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, P < .001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, P < .001) and ARDS (P < .001) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. At competing risk analysis, we found a significantly higher risk of mortality in patients with ARDS vs those without ARDS (HR: 7.66; CI: 3.95-14.8), in patients with TAPSE ≤17 mm vs those with TAPSE >17 mm (HR: 5.08; CI: 3.15-8.19) and in patients with LVEF ≤50% vs those with LVEF >50% (HR: 4.06; CI: 2.50-6.59). CONCLUSIONS: TTE might be a useful tool in risk stratification of patients with COVID-19. In particular, reduced LVEF and reduced TAPSE may help to identify patients at higher risk of death during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging
17.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(2): 377-396, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191268

ABSTRACT

Several forms of cardiovascular involvement have been described in patients with Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19): myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, myocarditis, pericardial diseases, arrhythmias, takotsubo syndrome, and arterial and venous atherothrombotic and thromboembolic events. Data on long-term outcome of these patients are still sparse, and the type and real incidence of cardiovascular sequelae are poorly known. It is plausible that myocardial injury may be the initiator of an inflammatory cascade, edema, and subsequent fibrosis, but also a consequence of systemic inflammation. The extent and distribution of ongoing inflammation may be the basis for ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Indeed, preliminary observational findings seem to emphasize the importance of close monitoring of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury after discharge. Residual subclinical disease may be effectively investigated by using second-level imaging modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance, which allows better characterization of the type and extension of myocardial damage, as well as of the ongoing inflammation after the acute phase. In patients with venous thromboembolism, a very common complication of COVID-19, the type and the duration of anticoagulation therapy after the acute phase should be tailored to the patient and based on the estimation of the individual thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risk. Large randomized clinical trials are ongoing to address this clinical question. Whether the severity of cardiovascular involvement, the type of treatments adopted during the acute phase, and the hemodynamic response, may influence the long-term outcome of patients recovered from COVID-19 is unknown. An etiological diagnosis of myocardial injury during the hospitalization is the first step for an appropriate follow-up in these patients. After discharge, the screening for residual left and right ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, residual thrombosis, and myocardial scar should be considered on a case-by-case basis, whereas an active clinical surveillance is mandatory in any patient.

18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 23, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. RESULTS: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9-15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Publication Bias , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/mortality
19.
Aorta (Stamford) ; 8(4): 111-115, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307592

ABSTRACT

Type A aortic dissection, according to Stanford classification, is a surgical emergency with high morbidity and carries 56% of in-hospital mortality when surgical intervention is not performed. The surgical mortality at 30 days is 10 to 20%. The therapeutic goals are to replace the diseased ascending aorta and to treat or to monitor the distal aortic patent false lumen. When the dissection involves the aortic root and the architecture of aortic valve is normal, the surgical techniques used could be multiple: reinforce the aortic root and spare the native aortic valve or replace the aortic valve and the aortic root. The Florida sleeve technique has been developed to treat the aortic aneurysm, sparing the aortic valve in patients with connective tissue disease. Some case reports have described the use of this technique to treat an acute aortic dissection. In the following case, we present a single stage repair of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal intrathoracic aorta in a patient with Type A aortic dissection through the contemporaneous use of two techniques: Florida sleeve and Vascutek "Thoraflex" hybrid prosthesis. The use of these two techniques allows the repair/replacement of the proximal intrathoracic aorta, the sparing of the native aortic valve, the employment of a hybrid prosthesis to replace the supraortic vessels, and the creation of a descending aortic landing zone for later, distal intervention.

20.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 8-16, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065315

ABSTRACT

The management of patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be difficult due to the need for dedicated in-hospital pathways, protective measures for healthcare professionals and isolated beds of intensive care, particularly in areas overwhelmed by wide viral spread. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a variety of cardiovascular complications have been reported. An integrated diagnostic algorithm in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with suspected cardiac involvement (laboratory findings of myocardial injury and electrocardiographic changes) may help to avoid unnecessary examinations and minimize the risk of operator infection. Due to its mobility and bedside feasibility, echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique in this clinical setting. It quickly provides information on ventricular functions, pulmonary hypertension, valve disease and pericardial effusion. In case of ST-segment elevation (STE), urgent coronary angiography should be performed. Cardiac ultrasound helps distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease and may detect pericardial disease. Transmural ischemic electrocardiographic changes, with or without early elevated troponin levels or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, will determine the need for early invasive coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) through its multiple applications (chest CT; CT pulmonary angiography and coronary CT angiography; late iodine enhancement CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance might be helpful in reinforcing or redirecting diagnostic hypothesis emerged by other clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. The current pandemic makes it challenging to perform serial invasive and non-invasive diagnostic testing in COVID-19 patients and high serum troponin level. Nevertheless, thoughtful and systematic use of an appropriate multimodality imaging strategy is clinically relevant to detect cardiac injury and distinguish myocardial infarction from, myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome and pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Multimodal Imaging , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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