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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321044

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and has compromised economic stability. In addition to the development of an effective vaccine, it is imperative to understand how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks host cellular machineries on a systems-wide scale so that potential host-directed therapy can be developed. In situ proteome-wide abundance and thermal stability measurements using thermal proteome profiling (TPP), can inform on global changes in protein activity. Here we adapted TPP to high biosafety conditions amenable to SARS-CoV-2 handling. We discovered pronounced temporal alterations in host protein thermostability during infection, which converged on cellular processes including cell cycle, microtubule and regulation of RNA splicing. Pharmacological inhibition of host proteins displaying altered thermal stability or abundance during infection suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication. Overall, this work serves as a framework for expanding TPP workflows to globally important human pathogens that require high biosafety containment and provides deeper resolution into the molecular changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Nature ; 602(7897): 487-495, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585830

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern suggests viral adaptation to enhance human-to-human transmission1,2. Although much effort has focused on the characterization of changes in the spike protein in variants of concern, mutations outside of spike are likely to contribute to adaptation. Here, using unbiased abundance proteomics, phosphoproteomics, RNA sequencing and viral replication assays, we show that isolates of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant3 suppress innate immune responses in airway epithelial cells more effectively than first-wave isolates. We found that the Alpha variant has markedly increased subgenomic RNA and protein levels of the nucleocapsid protein (N), Orf9b and Orf6-all known innate immune antagonists. Expression of Orf9b alone suppressed the innate immune response through interaction with TOM70, a mitochondrial protein that is required for activation of the RNA-sensing adaptor MAVS. Moreover, the activity of Orf9b and its association with TOM70 was regulated by phosphorylation. We propose that more effective innate immune suppression, through enhanced expression of specific viral antagonist proteins, increases the likelihood of successful transmission of the Alpha variant, and may increase in vivo replication and duration of infection4. The importance of mutations outside the spike coding region in the adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 to humans is underscored by the observation that similar mutations exist in the N and Orf9b regulatory regions of the Delta and Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proteomics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14532, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310255

ABSTRACT

Since the start of 2020, the world has been upended by the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has not only led to a tragic loss of life and terrible economic costs but has also been met with an unprecedented response of the scientific and medical communities. In an effort to better understand this viral infection, scientists around the world generated the largest surge in research in documented history for any topic (Lever & Altman, 2021). A part of this work has included the need to better understand the impact of the virus on human proteins-the key machinery of the cell-and human physiology. In their recent study, Geyer and colleagues (Geyer et al, 2021) analyzed a total of 720 proteomes from longitudinal serum samples of 31 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and control individuals with COVID-19-like symptoms but not infected with SARS-CoV-2, providing a comprehensive characterization of the plasma proteome changes along the time course of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Humans , Pandemics , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174686

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Drug Repositioning , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit/genetics , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit/physiology , Quantitative Trait Loci , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/physiology
6.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(2): e10188, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084993

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and has compromised economic stability. In addition to the development of an effective vaccine, it is imperative to understand how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks host cellular machineries on a system-wide scale so that potential host-directed therapies can be developed. In situ proteome-wide abundance and thermal stability measurements using thermal proteome profiling (TPP) can inform on global changes in protein activity. Here we adapted TPP to high biosafety conditions amenable to SARS-CoV-2 handling. We discovered pronounced temporal alterations in host protein thermostability during infection, which converged on cellular processes including cell cycle, microtubule and RNA splicing regulation. Pharmacological inhibition of host proteins displaying altered thermal stability or abundance during infection suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication. Overall, this work serves as a framework for expanding TPP workflows to globally important human pathogens that require high biosafety containment and provides deeper resolution into the molecular changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Temperature , Virus Replication/drug effects
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