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2.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(2): 182-188.e1, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been associated with allergic reactions. A history of anaphylaxis has been suggested as a risk factor for such reactions. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been proposed as a possible culprit allergen. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible PEG or polysorbate allergy among patients reporting prior reactions to COVID-19 vaccines or PEG and to report their subsequent tolerance of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to October 31, 2021, adult patients referred to the McGill University Health Centre allergy clinics who were considered at risk of anaphylaxis were prospectively recruited. The entry criteria were any documented history of reaction to a COVID-19 vaccine or reported allergy to PEG or polysorbate. Evaluated patients underwent skin prick testing (SPT) with PEG and polysorbate. After SPT, placebo-controlled vaccine challenges were carried out. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients recruited, 40 (90.1%) had reacted to the first vaccine dose, with 18 (45%) of them had anaphylactic reaction. All patients underwent SPT and 5 (11.3%) had a positive test result. A total of 39 patients (88.6%) underwent COVID-19 vaccine challenge at the allergy clinic. Most tolerated the vaccine, with 18 (40.1%) received a single full dose, 20 (45.4%) 2 split doses, and 6 (13.6%) a graded dosing protocol. Of the 40 patients who reacted to the first dose, 2 had immediate nonsevere allergic reactions to the second dose. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients with a history of anaphylaxis and increased risk of allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines, after allergist evaluation, including negative PEG skin testing result, the vaccine was safely administered without any serious adverse events.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Adult , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Universities
3.
Front Allergy ; 3: 825164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779934

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2109 (COVID-19) vaccines have recently been approved to curb the global pandemic. The risk of allergic reactions to the vaccine polyethylene glycol (PEG) component has raised significant public concern. Desensitization is suggested in cases of vaccine related hypersensitivity reactions. After comprehensive literature review on the topic, our aim was to establish a safe and effective desensitization protocol for patients with suspected or confirmed immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: Participants were referred to the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) Allergy-Immunology department for clinical evaluation following a reported reaction to their first dose of Moderna® mRNA-1273 or Pfizer-BioNTech® BNT162b2 vaccines. They underwent skin prick testing (SPT) with higher and lower molecular weight (MW) PEG and polysorbate 80, as per published protocols. Their second dose was administered following a desensitization protocol consisting of multiple dose-administration steps followed by a 60-min observation period. Results: Among a cohort of 142 patients with an increased risk for allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines, six individuals were selected to undergo desensitization. All were female with allergic background including chronic spontaneous urticaria, anaphylaxis to medications, and/or vaccines. The main symptom after their first dose was difficulty swallowing with lightheadedness or immediate urticaria, angioedema, and/or dizziness. Two patients had positive skin testing. One patient was on chronic antihistamines which resulted in an inconclusive PEG skin test and the skin testing was negative for the three other patients. During the desensitization, two patients reported cutaneous symptoms of an immediate reaction and were managed with antihistamines. One of these patients also complained of ear pressure and had a drop in her systolic blood pressure, treated with intravenous fluids. Conclusion: This study suggests that some individuals with an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to their first dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine may safely receive their second dose using a desensitization protocol. The success of this desensitization protocol is a step forward in the fight against COVID-19, allowing more individuals to be immunized.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 215-221.e2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food desensitization via oral immunotherapy (OIT) is gaining acceptance in clinical practice. Owing to adverse reactions, the duration of the buildup phase until a maintenance dose is achieved may be prolonged, and in a minority of cases, OIT is stopped. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess factors associated with the probability of reaching the maintenance dose in cow's milk (CM) OIT. METHODS: We collected data from patients undergoing CM OIT at the Montreal Children's Hospital, BC Children's Hospital, and Hospital for Sick Children. We compared univariable and multivariable Cox regressions to evaluate sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and biomarkers at study entry associated with the likelihood of reaching a maintenance dose of 200 mL of CM. RESULTS: Among 69 children who reached 4 mL of milk, the median age was 12 years (interquartile range, 9-15 years); 59% were male. Median duration of buildup phase from 4 to 200 mL was 24.0 weeks (interquartile range, 17.7-33.4 weeks). After adjusting for age and sex, higher baseline levels of specific IgE antibodies for α-lactalbumin (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.95), ß-lactoglobulin (HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98), casein (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94), and total CM (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) were associated with a decreased probability of reaching maintenance. In addition, for every 10-mL increase in CM tolerated at entry challenge, the probability of reaching maintenance increased by 10%. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that higher levels of CM-specific IgE decreased the likelihood of reaching maintenance, whereas an increased cumulative CM dose at entry challenge increased the likelihood. Assessing these factors before therapy may assist in predicting the success of CM OIT.


Subject(s)
Milk Hypersensitivity , Milk , Administration, Oral , Animals , Cattle , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Male , Milk Hypersensitivity/therapy , Probability
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3546-3567, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275424

ABSTRACT

Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunization efforts. We convened a multidisciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis composed of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the World Health Organizstion (WHO) global coronavirus database, and the gray literature (inception, March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases per million (n = 41,000,000 vaccinations; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the incidence of 0.15 cases per million patient-years (95% CI 0.11-0.2), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor, although specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Consensus , GRADE Approach , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Allergy ; 76(3): 816-830, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically disrupts health care around the globe. The impact of the pandemic on chronic urticaria (CU) and its management are largely unknown. AIM: To understand how CU patients are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; how specialists alter CU patient management; and the course of CU in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cross-sectional, international, questionnaire-based, multicenter UCARE COVID-CU study assessed the impact of the pandemic on patient consultations, remote treatment, changes in medications, and clinical consequences. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic severely impairs CU patient care, with less than 50% of the weekly numbers of patients treated as compared to before the pandemic. Reduced patient referrals and clinic hours were the major reasons. Almost half of responding UCARE physicians were involved in COVID-19 patient care, which negatively impacted on the care of urticaria patients. The rate of face-to-face consultations decreased by 62%, from 90% to less than half, whereas the rate of remote consultations increased by more than 600%, from one in 10 to more than two thirds. Cyclosporine and systemic corticosteroids, but not antihistamines or omalizumab, are used less during the pandemic. CU does not affect the course of COVID-19, but COVID-19 results in CU exacerbation in one of three patients, with higher rates in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic brings major changes and challenges for CU patients and their physicians. The long-term consequences of these changes, especially the increased use of remote consultations, require careful evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Urticaria/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Young Adult
11.
Postgrad Med ; 132(8): 749-755, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611127

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic that began with an outbreak of pneumonia cases in the Hubei province of China. Knowledge of those most at risk is integral for treatment, guideline implementation, and resource allocation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate comorbidities associated with severe and fatal cases of COVID-19. A search was conducted on PubMed and EmBase on 20 April 2020. Pooled estimates were collected using a random-effects model. Thirty-three studies were included in the systematic review and twenty-two in the meta-analysis. Of the total cases 40.80% (95%CI: 35.49%, 46.11%) had comorbidities, while fatal cases had 74.37% (95%CI: 55.78%, 86.97%). Hypertension was more prevalent in severe [47.65% (95%CI: 35.04%, 60.26%)] and fatal [47.90% (95%CI: 40.33%, 55.48%)] cases compared to total cases [14.34% (95%CI: 6.60%, 28.42%)]. Diabetes was more prevalent among fatal cases [24.89% (95%CI: 18.80%, 32.16%)] compared to total cases [9.65% (95%CI: 6.83%, 13.48%)]. Respiratory diseases had a higher prevalence in fatal cases [10.89% (95%CI: 7.57%, 15.43%)] in comparison to total cases [3.65% (95%CI: 2.16%, 6.1%)]. Studies assessing the mechanisms accounting for the associations between severe cases and hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory diseases are crucial in understanding this new disease, managing patients at risk, and developing policies and guidelines that will reduce future risk of severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Management , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Risk Management/methods , Risk Management/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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