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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050672, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sleep is important for human health and well-being. No previous study has assessed whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts sleep and daytime function across the globe. METHODS: This large-scale international survey used a harmonised questionnaire. Fourteen countries participated during the period of May-August 2020. Sleep and daytime problems (poor sleep quality, sleep onset and maintenance problems, nightmares, hypnotic use, fatigue and excessive sleepiness) occurring 'before' and 'during' the pandemic were investigated. In total, 25 484 people participated and 22 151 (86.9%) responded to the key parameters and were included. Effects of COVID-19, confinement and financial suffering were considered. In the fully adjusted logistic regression models, results (weighted and stratified by country) were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, presence of sleep problems before COVID-19 and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in each country at the time of the survey. RESULTS: The responders were mostly women (64%) with a mean age 41.8 (SD 15.9) years (median 39, range 18-95). Altogether, 3.0% reported having had COVID-19; 42.2% reported having been in confinement; and 55.9% had suffered financially. All sleep and daytime problems worsened during the pandemic by about 10% or more. Also, some participants reported improvements in sleep and daytime function. For example, sleep quality worsened in about 20% of subjects and improved in about 5%. COVID-19 was particularly associated with poor sleep quality, early morning awakening and daytime sleepiness. Confinement was associated with poor sleep quality, problems falling asleep and decreased use of hypnotics. Financial suffering was associated with all sleep and daytime problems, including nightmares and fatigue, even in the fully adjusted logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems, fatigue and excessive sleepiness increased significantly worldwide during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problems were associated with confinement and especially with financial suffering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1711-1722, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477668

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-associated change in 1) the magnitude of social jetlag (SJL) - ie, the difference between sleep timing on working vs free days - and 2) symptoms of insomnia. Patients and Methods: A total of 14,968 anonymous participants (mean age: 40 years; 64% females) responded to a standardized internet-based survey distributed across 14 countries. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined the association between the degree of social jetlag and symptoms of insomnia, controlling for important confounders like social restriction extension, country specific COVID-19 severity and psychological distress, for example. Results: In response to the pandemic, participants reported later sleep timing, especially during workdays. Most participants (46%) exhibited a reduction in their SJL, whereas 20% increased it; and 34% reported no change in SJL. Notably, we found that both increased and decreased SJL, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with later sleep midpoint (indicating a later chronotype) as well as more recurrent and moderate-to-severe symptoms of insomnia (about 23-54% higher odds ratio than subjects with unchanged SJL). Primarily those with reduced SJL shifted their bedtimes to a later timepoint, compared with those without changes in SJL. Conclusion: Our findings offer important insights into how self-reported changes to the stability of sleep/wake timing, as reflected by changes in SJL, can be a critical marker of the risk of experiencing insomnia-related symptoms - even when individuals manage to reduce their social jetlag. These findings emphasize the clinical importance of analyzing sleep-wake regularity.

4.
Sleep ; 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371748

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental health between circadian types are examined globally before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample collected between May and August 2020 across 12 countries/regions consisted of 19,267 adults with information on their circadian type. Statistical analyses were performed by using Complex Sample procedures, stratified by country and weighted by the number of inhabitants in the country/area of interest and by the relative number of responders in that country/area. RESULTS: Evening-types had poorer mental health, well-being, and quality of life or health than other circadian types during the pandemic. Sleep-wake schedules were delayed especially on working days, and evening-types reported an increase in sleep duration. Sleep problems increased in all circadian types, but especially among evening-types, moderated by financial suffering and confinement. Intermediate-types were less vulnerable to sleep changes, although morningness protected from most sleep problems. These findings were confirmed after adjusting for age, sex, duration of the confinement or socio-economic status during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an alarming increase in sleep and mental health problems, especially among evening-types as compared to other circadian types during the pandemic.

5.
Sleep Med ; 87: 38-45, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340841

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented changes in social, work, and leisure activities, which all have had major impact on sleep and psychological well-being. This study documented the prevalence of clinical cases of insomnia, anxiety, and depression and selected risk factors (COVID-19, confinement, financial burden, social isolation) during the first wave of the pandemic in 13 countries throughout the world. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: International, multi-center, harmonized survey of 22 330 adults (mean age = 41.9 years old, range 18-95; 65.6% women) from the general population in 13 countries and four continents. Participants were invited to complete a standardized web-based survey about sleep and psychological symptoms during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to August 2020. RESULTS: Clinical insomnia symptoms were reported by 36.7% (95% CI, 36.0-37.4) of respondents and 17.4% (95% CI, 16.9-17.9) met criteria for a probable insomnia disorder. There were 25.6% (95% CI, 25.0-26.2) with probable anxiety and 23.1% (95% CI, 22.5-23.6) with probable depression. Rates of insomnia symptoms (>40%) and insomnia disorder (>25%) were significantly higher in women, younger age groups, and in residents of Brazil, Canada, Norway, Poland, USA, and United Kingdom compared to residents from Asian countries (China and Japan, 8% for disorder and 22%-25% for symptoms) (all Ps < 0.01). Proportions of insomnia cases were significantly higher among participants who completed the survey earlier in the first wave of the pandemic relative to those who completed it later. Risks of insomnia were higher among participants who reported having had COVID-19, who reported greater financial burden, were in confinement for a period of four to five weeks, and living alone or with more than five people in same household. These associations remained significant after controlling for age, sex, and psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Insomnia, anxiety, and depression were very prevalent during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health prevention programs are needed to prevent chronicity and reduce long-term adverse outcomes associated with chronic insomnia and mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 849-860, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based web survey in adults in 14 countries/regions. The survey included sociodemographic variables and comorbidities. Participants were asked questions about COVID-19, hospitalization, and ICU treatment. Standardized questionnaire (STOP questionnaire for high risk of OSA) was included. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted adjusting for various factors. RESULTS: Out of 26,539 respondents, 20,598 (35.4% male) completed the survey. Mean age and BMI of participants were 41.5 ± 16.0 years and 24.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed OSA was 4.1% and high risk of OSA was 9.5%. We found that high risk of OSA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.47) and diabetes (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.48) were associated with reporting of a COVID-19 diagnosis. High risk for OSA (aOR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.01), being male (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.55-5.12), having diabetes (aOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.70-9.12), and having depression (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or ICU treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Participants at high risk of OSA had increased odds of having COVID-19 and were two times more likely to be hospitalized or treated in ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Snoring/epidemiology
7.
Clocks Sleep ; 3(2): 251-258, 2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201846

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions, such as stay-at-home-orders, have significantly altered daily routines and lifestyles. Given their importance for metabolic health, we herein compared sleep and meal timing parameters during vs. before the COVID-19 pandemic based on subjective recall, in an anonymous Swedish survey. Among 191 adults (mean age: 47 years; 77.5% females), we show that social jetlag, i.e., the mismatch in sleep midpoint between work and free days, was reduced by about 17 min during the pandemic compared with the pre-pandemic state (p < 0.001). Concomitantly, respondents' sleep midpoint was shifted toward morning hours during workdays (p < 0.001). A later daily eating midpoint accompanied the shift in sleep timing (p = 0.001). This effect was mainly driven by a later scheduled first meal (p < 0.001). No difference in the timing of the day's last meal was found (p = 0.814). Although our survey was limited in terms of sample size and by being cross-sectional, our results suggest that the delay in sleep timing due to the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by a corresponding shift in the timing of early but not late meals.

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