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2.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice ; : 109880, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803865

ABSTRACT

Aims The aim was to report the prevalence of diabetes status in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and assess the association between the glucometabolic status at admission and 90-day mortality. Methods Consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included in the study. All participants included had an HbA1c measurement 60 days prior to or within 7 days after admission. We studied the association between diabetes status, the glycemic gap (difference between admission and habitual status), admission plasma-glucose, and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Of 674 patients included, 114 (17%) had normal glucose level, 287 (43%) had pre-diabetes, 74 (11%) had new-onset, and 199 (30%) had diagnosed diabetes. No association between diabetes status, plasma-glucose at admission, and mortality was found. Compared to the 2nd quartile (reference) of glycemic-gap, those with the highest glycemic gap had increased mortality (3rd (HR 2.38 [1.29-4.38], p=0.005) and 4th quartile (HR 2.48 [1.37-4.52], p=0.002). Conclusion Abnormal glucose metabolism was highly prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Diabetes status per se or admission plasma-glucose was not associated with a poorer outcome. However, a high glycemic gap was associated with increased risk of mortality, suggesting that, irrespective of diabetes status, glycemic stress serves as an important prognostic marker for mortality.

3.
eClinicalMedicine ; 47:101409, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1800090

ABSTRACT

Summary Background In COVACTA, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), tocilizumab did not improve 28-day mortality, but shortened hospital and intensive care unit stay. Longer-term effects of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 are unknown. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 beyond day 28 and its impact on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance and antibody response in COVACTA were investigated. Methods Adults in Europe and North America hospitalised with COVID-19 (N = 452) between April 3, 2020 and May 28, 2020 were randomly assigned (2:1) to double-blind intravenous tocilizumab or placebo and assessed for efficacy and safety through day 60. Assessments included mortality, time to hospital discharge, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples, and neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04320615. Findings By day 60, 24·5% (72/294) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 25·0% (36/144) in the placebo arm died (weighted difference –0·5% [95% CI –9·1 to 8·0]), and 67·0% (197/294) in the tocilizumab arm and 63·9% (92/144) in the placebo arm were discharged from the hospital. Serious infections occurred in 24·1% (71/295) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 29·4% (42/143) in the placebo arm. Median time to negative reverse transcriptase–quantitative polymerase chain reaction result in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal samples was 15·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 21·0) in the tocilizumab arm and 21·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 28·0) in the placebo arm. All tested patients had positive test results for neutralising anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at day 60. Interpretation There was no mortality benefit with tocilizumab through day 60. Tocilizumab did not impair viral clearance or host immune response, and no new safety signals were observed. Future investigations may explore potential biomarkers to optimize patient selection for tocilizumab treatment and combination therapy with other treatments. Funding F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under OT number HHSO100201800036C.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We assessed long-term outcomes of dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg given daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia. METHODS: We assessed 180-day mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using EuroQoL (EQ)-5D-5L index values and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) in the international, stratified, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial, which randomised 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 receiving at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation in 26 hospitals in Europe and India. In the HRQoL analyses, higher values indicated better outcomes, and deceased patients were given a score of zero. RESULTS: We obtained vital status at 180 days for 963 of 982 patients (98.1%) in the intention-to-treat population, EQ-5D-5L index value data for 922 (93.9%) and EQ VAS data for 924 (94.1%). At 180 days, 164 of 486 patients (33.7%) had died in the 12 mg group versus 184 of 477 (38.6%) in the 6 mg group [adjusted risk difference - 4.3%; 99% confidence interval (CI) - 11.7-3.0; relative risk 0.89; 0.72-1.09; P = 0.13]. The adjusted mean differences between the 12 mg and the 6 mg groups in EQ-5D-5L index values were 0.06 (99% CI - 0.01 to 0.12; P = 0.10) and in EQ VAS scores 4 (- 3 to 10; P = 0.22). CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia, dexamethasone 12 mg compared with 6 mg did not result in statistically significant improvements in mortality or HRQoL at 180 days, but the results were most compatible with benefit from the higher dose.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(2): 302-310, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immigrants and ethnic minorities have been shown to be at increased risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. Our aim was to analyse the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic risk factors on hospital admissions for COVID-19 among immigrants and ethnic minorities compared to the majority population. METHODS: We used nationwide register data on all hospitalized COVID-19 cases between February and June 2020 (N = 2232) and random controls from the general population (N = 498 117). We performed logistic regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic factors. The main outcome measure was hospitalization with COVID-19 and was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Among 2232 COVID-19 cases, the OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among immigrants and descendants of non-Western origin was 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 2.23-2.89) compared with individuals of Danish origin with most pronounced results among individuals from Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan and Somalia. The OR was largely attributed to comorbidity and socioeconomic factors, especially household size, occupation, and population density. CONCLUSION: There is a significantly higher OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among non-Western immigrants and ethnic minorities compared with ethnic Danes. This knowledge is crucial for health policymakers and practitioners in both the current and future pandemics to identify more vulnerable groups and target prevention initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0039622, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769829

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care (POC) quantification of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can enable decentralized monitoring of immune responses after infection or vaccination. We evaluated a novel POC microfluidic cartridge-based device (ViroTrack Sero COVID-19 Total Ab) for quantitative detection of total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike trimeric spike protein compared to standard laboratory chemiluminescence (CLIA)-based tests. Antibody responses of 101 individuals were measured on capillary blood, venous whole blood, plasma, and diluted plasma samples directly on the POC. Results were available within 7 min. As the reference, plasma samples were analyzed on DiaSorin LIAISON XL CLIA analyzer using LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 IgM, LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, and LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assays. The Spearman rank's correlation coefficient between ViroTrack Sero COVID-19 Total Ab and LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG and LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assays was found to be 0.83 and 0.89, respectively. ViroTrack Sero COVID-19 Total Ab showed high correlation between the different matrixes. Agreement for determination of samples of >230 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL on POC and CLIA methods is estimated to be around 90%. ViroTrack Sero Covid Total Ab is a rapid and simple-to-use POC test with high sensitivity and correlation of numerical results expressed in BAU/mL compared to those of a commercial CLIA assay. IMPORTANCE Serological testing is an important diagnostic support tool in the fight against COVID-19. So far, serological testing has been performed on either lateral flow assays, which perform only qualitatively and can be difficult for the individual to read, or standard laboratory assays, which are time- and resource-consuming. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of a new POC microfluidic cartridge-based device based on immunomagnetic agglutination assay that can provide an accurate numerical quantification of the total antibodies within only 7 min from a single drop of capillary blood. We demonstrated a high level of correlation between the POC and the two CLIA laboratory-based immunoassays from Diasorin, thus allowing a potentially wider use of quantitative serology tests in the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331791

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccines based on the Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 are a cornerstone of the global management of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, variants of concern have continuously evolved and may erode previously induced immunity. This study aimed to determine risk of breakthrough infection in a fully vaccinated cohort. Methods: Participants were enrolled before their first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG levels were measured after 21–28, 90 and 180 days of follow-up, as well as day -7 and 28 after booster vaccination. Rate of breakthrough infections were ascertained from two weeks after the second vaccine dose, and captured through the Danish National Microbiology database. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the risk of breakthrough infection at time-updated anti-spike IgG levels after adjustment for age, sex, being health care worker, and time-updated SARS-CoV-2 transmission level. Findings: Among 6076 participants (median age 64 years, interquartile range 55–75) included in this analysis, breakthrough infections due to the Delta variant were observed in 127 participants and in 363 due to the Omicron variant. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for breakthrough infection with the Delta variant decreased with higher levels of anti-spike IgG yielding an IRR of 0.28 (95% CI 0·15–0·55) when comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of anti-spike IgG. For the Omicron variant, no significant differences in IRR of breakthrough infection between quintiles of anti-spike IgG was observed. Notably, 1 of 127 (0·8%) SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and 0 of 336 (0%) Omicron variant breakthrough infections resulted in severe COVID-19. Interpretation: We observed a strong association between increasing levels of anti-spike antibodies and reduced risk of breakthrough infections with the Delta but not the Omicron variant. However, despite a high proportion of elderly participants, severe COVID-19 was rare in both Delta and Omicron infections.

8.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): 234-243, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, bamlanivimab, a SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody, given in combination with remdesivir, did not improve outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 based on an early futility assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a priori hypothesis that bamlanivimab has greater benefit in patients without detectable levels of endogenous neutralizing antibody (nAb) at study entry than in those with antibodies, especially if viral levels are high. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04501978). SETTING: Multicenter trial. PATIENTS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without end-organ failure. INTERVENTION: Bamlanivimab (7000 mg) or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Antibody, antigen, and viral RNA levels were centrally measured on stored specimens collected at baseline. Patients were followed for 90 days for sustained recovery (defined as discharge to home and remaining home for 14 consecutive days) and a composite safety outcome (death, serious adverse events, organ failure, or serious infections). RESULTS: Among 314 participants (163 receiving bamlanivimab and 151 placebo), the median time to sustained recovery was 19 days and did not differ between the bamlanivimab and placebo groups (subhazard ratio [sHR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.79 to 1.22]; sHR > 1 favors bamlanivimab). At entry, 50% evidenced production of anti-spike nAbs; 50% had SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid plasma antigen levels of at least 1000 ng/L. Among those without and with nAbs at study entry, the sHRs were 1.24 (CI, 0.90 to 1.70) and 0.74 (CI, 0.54 to 1.00), respectively (nominal P for interaction = 0.018). The sHR (bamlanivimab vs. placebo) was also more than 1 for those with plasma antigen or nasal viral RNA levels above median level at entry and was greatest for those without antibodies and with elevated levels of antigen (sHR, 1.48 [CI, 0.99 to 2.23]) or viral RNA (sHR, 1.89 [CI, 1.23 to 2.91]). Hazard ratios for the composite safety outcome (<1 favors bamlanivimab) also differed by serostatus at entry: 0.67 (CI, 0.37 to 1.20) for those without and 1.79 (CI, 0.92 to 3.48) for those with nAbs. LIMITATION: Subgroup analysis of a trial prematurely stopped because of futility; small sample size; multiple subgroups analyzed. CONCLUSION: Efficacy and safety of bamlanivimab may differ depending on whether an endogenous nAb response has been mounted. The limited sample size of the study does not allow firm conclusions based on these findings, and further independent trials are required that assess other types of passive immune therapies in the same patient setting. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. government Operation Warp Speed and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Futility , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4040, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735284

ABSTRACT

To provide novel data on surfactant levels in adult COVID-19 patients, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid less than 72 h after intubation and used Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to measure levels of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). A total of eleven COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS (CARDS) and 15 healthy controls were included. CARDS patients had lower DPPC levels than healthy controls. Moreover, a principal component analysis was able to separate patient groups into distinguishable subgroups. Our findings indicate markedly impaired pulmonary surfactant levels in COVID-19 patients, justifying further studies and clinical trials of exogenous surfactant.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Surfactants/analysis , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/analysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Principal Component Analysis , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spectrophotometry, Infrared/methods
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify individual characteristics associated with serological COVID-19 vaccine responsiveness and the durability of vaccine-induced antibodies. METHODS: Adults without history of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the Danish population scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in this parallel group, phase 4 study. SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG and Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies were measured at days 0, 21, 90, and 180. Vaccine responsiveness was categorized according to Spike IgG and Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking levels at day 90 after first vaccination. Nondurable vaccine response was defined as day-90 responders who no longer had significant responses by day 180. RESULTS: Of 6544 participants completing two vaccine doses (median age 64 years; interquartile range: 54-75), 3654 (55.8%) received BTN162b2, 2472 (37.8%) mRNA-1273, and 418 (6.4%) ChAdOx1 followed by an mRNA vaccine. Levels of both types of antibodies increased from baseline to day 90 and then decreased to day 180. The decrease was more pronounced for levels of Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies than for Spike IgG. Proportions with vaccine hyporesponsiveness and lack of durable response were 5.0% and 12.1% for Spike IgG and 12.7% and 39.6% for Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibody levels, respectively. Male sex, vaccine type, and number of comorbidities were associated with all four outcomes. Additionally, age ≥75 years was associated with hyporesponsiveness for Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies (adjusted odds ratio: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.01) but not for Spike IgG. DISCUSSION: Comorbidity, male sex, and vaccine type were risk factors for hyporesponsiveness and nondurable response to COVID-19 vaccination. The functional activity of vaccine-induced antibodies declined with increasing age and had waned to pre-second-vaccination levels for most individuals after 6 months.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the potential decline in dynamic lung volumes following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the general population. METHODS: A prospective matched cohort study of adult Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) participants with a pre-pandemic spirometry available. CGPS individuals with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test performed a repeat spirometry, a questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms and a diffusing capacity test for carbon monoxide. A matched uninfected CGPS control sample was used, and simple regression and linear mixed effect models were computed to study lung function decline. RESULTS: A total of 606 were included. 92/107 (85.9%) of individuals with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test experienced COVID-19 symptoms and 12 (11.2%) were hospitalized. Spirometry was performed at a median (interquartile range) of 5.6 (3.9-12.8) months after positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. COVID-19 was associated with an adjusted 7.3 mL (95%CI: 0.3-14.3) and 22.6 mL (95%CI: 13.1-32.0) steeper decline in annual FEV1 and FVC or a total of 113.8 and 301.3 ml lower FEV1 and FVC from baseline to follow up. Results were robust in analyses restricted to individuals not requiring hospitalization. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 related decline of dynamic lung volumes in the general population not requiring hospitalization were small but measurable.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312471

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate to severe respiratory distress among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality. Dexamethasone and remdesivir were introduced in the second wave of COVID-19 in Denmark. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 and a supplemental oxygen requirement of ≥15 Liters per minute (L/min). The patients were divided in two groups corresponding to the first- and second wave of COVID-19 and analysed regarding need of ventilator support and mortality dependent on orders to Do Intubate (DI) or Do Not Intubate (DNI), respectively. Results: The study included 178 patients. The mortality was 24% for patients with DI orders (n=115) and 81% for patients with DNI orders (n=63) increasing to 98% (n=46) for patients with DNI orders and very high flow oxygen requirements (≥30 L/min). Use of constant continuous positive airway pressure (cCPAP) increased from 71% in the first wave to 91% in the second wave (p<0.001) whereas the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) decreased from 54% to 28% (p=0.005). Conclusion: The mortality was high for patients with DNI orders and respiratory distress with very high levels in supplemental oxygen in both the first and second wave of COVID-19 despite treatment with dexamethasone and remdesivir and improved prognosis for patients with DI orders. Hence careful evaluation on transition to palliative care must be considered for these patients. Study Registration The study was retrospectively registered and approved by the Danish Patient Safety Authority (record no. 31-1521-309) and the Regional Data Protection Center (record no. WZ20017637-2020-37).

17.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642959

ABSTRACT

The course of COVID-19 is unpredictable, ranging from asymptomatic to respiratory failure and death. Prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed. We hypothesized that long pentraxin PTX3 could be a valuable plasma biomarker due to its essential role in inflammatory processes. In a prospective hospitalized COVID-19 derivation cohort (n = 126) during the spring of 2020, we measured PTX3 within 4 days of admission. The predictive value of mechanical ventilation (MV) and 30-day mortality compared with clinical parameters and other markers of inflammation were assessed by logistic regression analysis and expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Analyses were repeated in a prospective validation cohort (n = 112) of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone. Thirty-day mortality in the derivation cohort was 26.2%. In patients who died, the median PTX3 concentration upon admission was 19.5 ng/mL (IQR: 12.5-33.3) versus 6.6 ng/mL (IQR 2.9-12.3) (p < 0.0001) for survivors. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of 30-day mortality increased two-fold for each doubling of PTX3 (OR 2.03 [95% CI: 1.23-3.34], p = 0.006), which was also observed in the validation cohort (OR 1.70 [95% CI: 1.09-2.67], p = 0.02). Similarly, PTX3 levels were associated with MV. After adjustment for covariates, OR of MV was 2.34 (95% CI: 1.33-4.12, p = 0.003) in the derivation cohort and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.03-2.62, p = 0.04) in the validation cohort. PTX3 appears to be a useful clinical biomarker to predict 30-day respiratory failure and mortality risk in COVID-19 patients treated with and without remdesivir and dexamethasone.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621617

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess if influenza vaccination has an impact on the risk of COVID-19. A cohort of 46,112 health care workers were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and filled in a survey on COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization, and influenza vaccination. The RR of hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 for influenza vaccinated compared with unvaccinated participants was 1.00 for the seasonal vaccination in 2019/2020 (CI 0.56-1.78, p=1.00). Likewise, no clinical effect of influenza vaccination on development of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was found. The present findings indicate that influenza vaccination does not affect the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.

19.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 45-55, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared dexamethasone 12 versus 6 mg daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia in the international, randomised, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial. In the primary, conventional analyses, the predefined statistical significance thresholds were not reached. We conducted a pre-planned Bayesian analysis to facilitate probabilistic interpretation. METHODS: We analysed outcome data within 90 days in the intention-to-treat population (data available in 967 to 982 patients) using Bayesian models with various sensitivity analyses. Results are presented as median posterior probabilities with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) and probabilities of different effect sizes with 12 mg dexamethasone. RESULTS: The adjusted mean difference on days alive without life support at day 28 (primary outcome) was 1.3 days (95% CrI -0.3 to 2.9; 94.2% probability of benefit). Adjusted relative risks and probabilities of benefit on serious adverse reactions was 0.85 (0.63 to 1.16; 84.1%) and on mortality 0.87 (0.73 to 1.03; 94.8%) at day 28 and 0.88 (0.75 to 1.02; 95.1%) at day 90. Probabilities of benefit on days alive without life support and days alive out of hospital at day 90 were 85 and 95.7%, respectively. Results were largely consistent across sensitivity analyses, with relatively low probabilities of clinically important harm with 12 mg on all outcomes in all analyses. CONCLUSION: We found high probabilities of benefit and low probabilities of clinically important harm with dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg daily in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia on all outcomes up to 90 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
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