Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236117

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the kinetics of the humoral response elicited by a fourth dose with a heterologous mRNA1273 booster in patients who previously received a third dose with BNT162b2 and two doses of BBIBP-CorV as the primary regimen. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the humoral response using Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (anti-S-RBD) of 452 healthcare workers (HCWs) in a private laboratory in Lima, Peru at 21, 120, 210, and 300 days after a third dose with a BNT162b2 heterologous booster in HCW previously immunized with two doses of BBIBP-CorV, depending on whether or not they received a fourth dose with the mRNA1273 heterologous vaccine and on the history of previous SARS infection -CoV-2. Of the 452 HCWs, 204 (45.13%) were previously infected (PI) with SARS-CoV-2, and 215 (47.57%) received a fourth dose with a heterologous mRNA-1273 booster. A total of 100% of HCWs presented positive anti-S-RBD 300 days after the third dose. In HCWs receiving a fourth dose, GMTs 2.3 and 1.6 times higher than controls were observed 30 and 120 days after the fourth dose. No statistically significant differences in anti-S-RBD titers were observed in those HCWs PI and NPI during the follow-up period. We observed that HCWs who received a fourth dose with the mRNA1273 and those previously infected after the third dose with BNT162b2 (during the Omicron wave) presented higher anti-S-RBD titers (5734 and 3428 U/mL, respectively). Further studies are required to determine whether patients infected after the third dose need a fourth dose.

2.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 5: 100384, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290850

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the correlation between COVID-19 vaccination coverage and the Human Development Index (HDI) at the provincial level in Peru. Study design: Ecological study. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional ecological study based on secondary data analysis. Coverages of the first, second, and third doses of the vaccine against COVID-19 and the HDI were evaluated. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients with their corresponding bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Scatter plots were also constructed. Results: A total of 196 provinces were included. There was a moderate correlation between the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and the HDI (r = 0.3807 [95% CI 0.2585-0.5030], p < 0.0001). The same direction was found for the second (r = 0.4064 [95% CI 0.2853-0.5276], p < 0.0001) and third dose (r = 0.4435 [95% CI 0.3201-0.5669], p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A positive correlation was found between COVID-19 vaccination coverage and the HDI, suggesting the presence of inequalities in access to vaccines. Individualised strategies are needed in lower HDI regions to tackle inequalities.

3.
Heliyon ; 9(4): e15366, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294999

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between self-rated evidence-based medicine (EBM) competencies and the prescription of drugs without scientific evidence against mild COVID-19 (present with any of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 but who do not have shortness of breath, dyspnea, or abnormal chest imaging) among recently graduated physicians in Peru. Methods: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study where we evaluated a non-probability sample of recently graduated physicians during June and July 2021 (end of second wave of COVID-19 in Peru). Self-rated EBM competencies were assessed by four domains (formulation of a clinical question, search, analysis, and application) using a Likert scale with scores from zero to four ("Very inadequate" = 0, to "Very Adequate" = 4), it was considered as "Adequate" if the score was three or four. In addition, the variable "General competence on EBM" was rated as "Adequate" if in all domains evaluated it presented an adequate self-rating. For the outcome, drug prescription, we considered the use of ivermectin, azithromycin, other antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, and anticoagulants (drugs with no efficacy demonstrated for patients with mild COVID-19). To assess the association, we used Poisson regression models with robust variances and obtaining crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Of a total of 239 physicians included 70.7% prescribed at least one drug without scientific evidence. A total of 51.1% reported adequate ratings in all evaluated domains of EBM. Self-rating the "Clinical Question Formulation" competency as adequate was associated with a lower frequency of prescribing medications for mild COVID-19 (aPR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91-0.95). While self-rating as adequate the competency of "Identify possible implications of investigations" was associated with an increase in the prescription of such drugs (aPR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). Additionally, self-rating all domains as adequate were associated with less prescription (aPR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.96). Conclusion: Seven out of ten recently graduated physicians prescribed some type of medication without scientific evidence to treat patients with mild COVID-19. Having adequate self-perceived EBM competencies was associated with a lower frequency of prescribing medications without scientific evidence to manage patients with mild COVID-19.

4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(5)2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259801

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by BBIBP-CorV between HCW previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (PI) and not previously infected (NPI), employing the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit at intervals of 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in HCW 21 days after full vaccination was 100% in PI and 91.60% in NPI. We observed a progressive decrease in antibody levels over time in both groups. Comparing HCW PI with NPI, PI had a 10.9, 14.3, and 8.6-fold higher antibody titer with the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p< 0.001) and 180 days (p <0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. Using the percent of signal inhibition (PSI) of the antibody neutralization cPass™, HCW PI showed a level of 1.3, 2.0, and 3.1 times more antibodies, at 21 (p <0.001), 90 (p <0.001), and 180 days (p <0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. We determined a progressive decrease in humoral immunity over time, particularly higher in those NPI.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 8(3)2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263413

ABSTRACT

Cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in patients with COVID-19. The majority are in patients with severe symptoms or who received immunosuppressants. However, there is still no clear association between COVID-19 and cryptococcosis. We report eight cases of cerebral cryptococcosis associated with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in non-HIV patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median age was 57 years and 5/8 were male. In addition, 2/8 of patients had diabetes, and 8/8 had a history of mild COVID-19, with a median of 75 days before diagnosis of cerebral cryptococcosis. All patients denied having received prior immunosuppressive therapy. The most frequent symptoms were confusion (8/8), headache (7/8), vomiting (6/8), and nausea (6/8) All patients were diagnosed by isolating Cryptococcus in cerebrospinal fluid. The median CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were 247 and 173.5, respectively. Other causes of immunosuppression, such as HIV or HTLV infection, were excluded in all patients. Finally, three patients died, and one presented long-term visual and auditory sequelae. The CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte count normalized during follow-up in those patients who survived. We hypothesize that CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in the patients in this case series could increase the risk of cryptococcosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102563, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ensuring broad COVID-19 vaccination coverage among migrants is a global public health concern. Thus, our study aimed to assess the factors associated with not receiving the primary series and booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine among Venezuelan migrants in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data analysis of the 2022 Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru Survey. Our population included Venezuelan migrants and refugees over 18 years old living in Peru with complete information for the variables of interest. Two outcome variables were assessed: not receiving the primary series and not receiving the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Crude and adjusted prevalences were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 7,727 Venezuelan adults were included in our study, of whom 6,511 completed the primary series. The overall COVID-19 vaccination coverage of the primary series was 84.17%, whilst the coverage of the booster dose was 28.06%. Being younger, uninsured, illegally-staying, and having a low educational level were associated with both outcomes. CONCLUSION: Several sociodemographic and migration-related variables were associated with both outcomes. Governmental policies prioritizing vaccination among Venezuelan migrants are needed to ensure broad coverage in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peru/epidemiology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241603

ABSTRACT

We evaluated neutralizing antibody (NAbs) levels as a protective factor against vaccine breakthrough infection (VBI) in healthcare workers (HCWs) during the third COVID-19 wave in Peru. This retrospective cohort study employed the information from a private laboratory in Lima (Peru) of HCW who received only two BBIBP-CorV vaccines or (additionally) a heterologous booster with BNT162b2. We evaluated the association between the VBI and the levels of NAbs at 21, 90, 180, and 210 days after the BBIBP-CorV second dose. NAbs were calculated with the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit (surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT)) and the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S Test. Of the 435 HCW evaluated, 31.72% had an infection previous to vaccination, 68.28% received a booster dose, and 23.21% had a VBI during the third wave. The variables associated with a lower risk of VBI were male sex (aRR: 0.43) and those who had (180 days after BBIBP-CorV inoculation) NAbs levels ≥ 60% (aRR: 0.58) and ≥90% (aRR: 0.59) on cPass™, and ≥500 with Elecsys® (aRR: 0.58). HCW whose NAbs persisted at higher levels six months after the BBIBP-CorV showed a lower risk of suffering from a VBI during the third COVID-19 wave.

8.
PeerJ ; 10: e14290, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217508

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes high mortality. The objective of this study is to determine whether the arterial pressure of oxygen/inspiratory fraction of oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 h after invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and the difference between PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h after IMV and PaO2/FiO2 before admission to IMV (ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h) are predictors of survival in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted that included patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 in IMV admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in southern Peru from April 2020 to April 2021. The ROC curves and the Youden index were used to establish the cut-off point for PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h of IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 at 24 h associated with mortality. The association with mortality was determined by Cox regression, calculating the crude (cHR) and adjusted (aHR) risk ratios, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Two hundred patients were analyzed. The average age was 54.29 years, 79% were men, and 25.5% (n = 51) died. The cut-off point calculated for PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h was 222.5 and 109.5, respectively. Those participants with a value below the cut-off point of ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h and PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV had higher mortality, aHR = 3.32 (CI 95% [1.82-6.07]) and aHR = 2.87 (CI 95% [1.48-5.57]) respectively. Conclusion: PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h in patients diagnosed with ARDS due to COVID-19 on IMV were associated with higher hospital mortality. These findings are helpful to identify those patients with a higher risk of dying on admission to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Oxygen
9.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090351

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic circumstances have varied the pathogens related to acute respiratory infections (ARI), and most specialists have ignored them due to SARS-CoV-2's similar symptomatology. We identify respiratory pathogens with multiplex PCR in samples with presumptive SARS-CoV-2 but negative RT-qPCR results. We performed a retrospective transversal study employing clinical data and nasopharyngeal swab samples from patients with suspected clinical SARS-CoV-2 infection and a negative PCR result in a private laboratory in Lima, Peru. The samples were analyzed using the FilmArray™ respiratory panel. Of 342 samples, we detected at least one pathogen in 50% of the samples. The main ones were rhinovirus (54.38%), influenza A(H3N2) (22.80%), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (14.04%). The clinical characteristics were sore throat (70.18%), cough (58.48%), nasal congestion (56.43%), and fever (40.06%). Only 41.46% and 48.78% of patients with influenza met the definition of influenza-like illness (ILI) by the World Health Organization (WHO) (characterized by cough and fever) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (characterized by fever and cough and sore throat), respectively. A higher prevalence of influenza was associated with ILI by WHO (aPR: 2.331) and ILI by CDC (aPR: 1.892), which was not observed with other respiratory viruses. The clinical characteristic associated with the increased prevalence of rhinovirus was nasal congestion (aPR: 1.84). For patients with ARI and negative PCR results, the leading respiratory pathogens detected were rhinovirus, influenza, and RSV. Less than half of patients with influenza presented ILI, although its presence was specific to the disease.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 877764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080166

ABSTRACT

Background: The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has been one of the regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with countries presenting some of the highest numbers of cases and deaths from this disease in the world. Despite this, vaccination intention is not homogeneous in the region, and no study has evaluated the influence of the mass media on vaccination intention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of mass media to learn about COVID-19 and the non-intention of vaccination against COVID-19 in LAC countries. Methods: An analysis of secondary data from a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey was conducted in collaboration with Facebook on people's beliefs, behaviors, and norms regarding COVID-19. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between the use of mass media and non-vaccination intention using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with logarithmic link. Results: A total of 350,322 Facebook users over the age of 18 from LAC countries were included. 50.0% were men, 28.4% were between 18 and 30 years old, 41.4% had a high school education level, 86.1% lived in the city and 34.4% reported good health condition. The prevalence of using the mass media to learn about COVID-19 was mostly through mixed media (65.8%). The non-intention of vaccination was 10.8%. A higher prevalence of not intending to be vaccinated against COVID-19 was found in those who used traditional media (aPR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.29-1.44; p < 0.001) and digital media (aPR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.24-2.33; p = 0.003) compared to those using mixed media. Conclusion: We found an association between the type of mass media used to learn about COVID-19 and the non-intention of vaccination. The use of only traditional or digital information sources were associated with a higher probability of non-intention to vaccinate compared to the use of both sources.

11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the association between the use of prehospital medications and the development of fatal outcomes in patients who required hospitalization due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, prehospital medication history, and fatal outcome development (use of high-flow oxygen therapy, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, or mortality) were extracted from the medical records of patients who were admitted due to COVID-19 to the Carlos Seguín Escobedo National Hospital of Arequipa, Peru during July to September 2021, the period after the second wave of COVID-19 cases in Peru. Survival was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, and crude hazard ratios and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were evaluated, of whom 62% were males and 46.9% did not require oxygen support at admission. Additionally, 64.6% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 35.4% used corticosteroids, 28.1% used macrolides or ceftriaxone, 24.5% used ivermectin, and 21.9% used warfarin before hospitalization. Of the patients, 30.2% developed a fatal outcome during follow-up. The multivariate analysis revealed that prehospital corticosteroid use was independently associated with the fatal outcome due to COVID-19 with an aHR = 5.29 (95%CI: 1.63-17.2). CONCLUSION: Prehospital corticosteroid use was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of fatal outcome development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Emergency Medical Services , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Referral and Consultation , Oxygen
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102409, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Booster doses have been described as effective in reducing hospitalizations and deaths from the new variants. However, its coverage is heterogeneous in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), one of the regions most affected by the pandemic. We aimed to assess the factors associated with not receiving a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine booster dose in adults from LAC. METHODS: We analyzed a secondary database compiled by the University of Maryland and Facebook assessing the global impact of COVID-19. We included Facebook users over 18 years of age who resided in LAC and responded to the survey between February 13, 2022, and March 14, 2022. We evaluated sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, food, and economic insecurity, mental health, and vaccination-related practices. We calculated crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The sample included 154,841 adults from 20 LAC countries. 33.7% (n = 46,459) reported not receiving the COVID-19 booster vaccine. Being under 75 years old, having a college, high school, pre-university, primary, or lower education, having no or 1 to 2 comorbidities, living in a town, having food insecurity, depressive symptoms, and having had COVID-19, were associated with a higher prevalence of not receiving the booster dose. In contrast, being female or non-binary and having anxiety symptoms were associated with a lower prevalence of not receiving the booster dose. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately three out of 10 adults surveyed in LAC reported not having received the booster vaccine. Authorities must design campaigns that promote receiving a booster dose considering the factors found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prevalence , Latin America/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology
13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(8)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987973

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and infectious diseases. Through this study, we investigated the CAR values with respect to the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to retrieve studies that evaluated CAR values upon hospital admission in relation to the severity or mortality of COVID-19 patients. We adopted a random-effect model to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Quality assessment was appraised using a Newcastle-Ottawa scale and publication bias was assessed using the Begg-test and funnel plot. We equally performed a subgroup analysis using study location and a sensitivity analysis only with studies with low risk of bias. We analyzed 32 studies (n = 12445). Severe COVID-19 patients had higher on-admission CAR values than non-severe COVID-19 patients (MD: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.03; p < 0.001; I2 = 89%). Non-survivor patients with COVID-19 had higher CAR values than survivor patients (MD: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.95-3.23; p < 0.001; I2 = 92%). In sensitivity analysis, the relationship remained with a decreasing of heterogeneity for severity (MD: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.40; p < 0.001; I2 = 13%) and for mortality (MD: 2.99; 95% CI: 2.47-3.51; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%). High CAR values were found in COVID-19 patients who developed severe disease or died.

14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(8)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969488

ABSTRACT

Fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) and blood urea nitrogen-to-albumin ratio (BAR) are inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with clinical outcomes of multiple diseases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of these biomarkers with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients. A systematic search was performed in five databases. Observational studies that reported the association between FAR and BAR values with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients were included. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses, and effects were expressed as Odds Ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Publication bias was assessed using the Begg test, while the quality assessment was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. A total of 21 studies (n = 7949) were included. High FAR values were associated with a higher risk of severity (OR: 2.41; 95% CI 1.41-4.12; p < 0.001) and mortality (OR: 2.05; 95% CI 1.66-2.54; p < 0.001). High BAR values were associated with higher risk of mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI 2.11-10.15; p < 0.001). However, no statistically significant association was found between BAR values and the risk of severity (OR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.83-1.63; p = 0.38). High FAR and BAR values were associated with poor clinical outcomes.

15.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966900

ABSTRACT

We aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Colombia and Peru. We performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc). We Included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between May 20, and November 5, 2021. We Included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. We estimated crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95 %CI. We analyzed a sample of 44,678 adults from Colombia and 24,302 from Peru. The prevalence of parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 was 7.41 % (n = 3,274) for Colombia and 6.64 % (n = 1,464) for Peru. In Colombia, age above 35 years old, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children and adolescents against COVID-19. In Peru, female gender, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, anxiety symptoms, having a chronic condition or more comorbidities, having had COVID-19, and being vaccinated were associated with a higher probability of vaccinating children against COVID-19. Living in a town, a village, or a rural area was associated with a higher prevalence of non-intention to vaccinate children and adolescents against COVID-19. About 9 out of 10 parents in Colombia and Peru intend to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19. This intention is associated with some factors which are similar between the two countries, as well as other factors and variations among the different regions of each country.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957475

ABSTRACT

To determine the factors associated with not receiving the booster dose for COVID-19 in Peru, a cross-sectional study by secondary analysis of a University of Maryland and Facebook survey database assessing the global impact of COVID-19 was conducted. Data of Peruvian users of this social network over 18 years of age who answered the survey between 13 February 2022 and 14 April 2022 were analyzed. We evaluated the association between sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and history of COVID-19 with having received a booster dose for COVID-19. Crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. A sample of 20,814 adults, 21.5% of whom reported not receiving the booster dose, was analyzed. People under 75 years of age had a higher prevalence of not having received the booster dose. Likewise, having a university education (aPR = 1.03; 95%CI: 1.02-1.05), secondary, or pre-university education (aPR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.05-1.09), or having a primary level or less (aPR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.05-1.18), were associated with a higher prevalence of not receiving the booster, compared to individuals with a postgraduate education. Being employed (aPR = 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.02), having had COVID-19 (aPR = 1.03; 95%CI: 1.01-1.04) and living in a town (aPR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.07) or in a rural area (aPR = 1.06; 95%CI: 1.03-1.10), compared to living in the city, had a similar association. On the contrary, the female gender was associated with a lower prevalence of not receiving the booster (aPR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.96-0.99). Sociodemographic characteristics and a history of having had COVID-19 were associated with the probability of not having received the booster dose for COVID-19 in the Peruvian population.

17.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904476

ABSTRACT

Background The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has been one of the regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with countries presenting some of the highest numbers of cases and deaths from this disease in the world. Despite this, vaccination intention is not homogeneous in the region, and no study has evaluated the influence of the mass media on vaccination intention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of mass media to learn about COVID-19 and the non-intention of vaccination against COVID-19 in LAC countries. Methods An analysis of secondary data from a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey was conducted in collaboration with Facebook on people's beliefs, behaviors, and norms regarding COVID-19. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between the use of mass media and non-vaccination intention using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with logarithmic link. Results A total of 350,322 Facebook users over the age of 18 from LAC countries were included. 50.0% were men, 28.4% were between 18 and 30 years old, 41.4% had a high school education level, 86.1% lived in the city and 34.4% reported good health condition. The prevalence of using the mass media to learn about COVID-19 was mostly through mixed media (65.8%). The non-intention of vaccination was 10.8%. A higher prevalence of not intending to be vaccinated against COVID-19 was found in those who used traditional media (aPR = 1.36;95%CI: 1.29–1.44;p < 0.001) and digital media (aPR = 1.70;95%CI: 1.24–2.33;p = 0.003) compared to those using mixed media. Conclusion We found an association between the type of mass media used to learn about COVID-19 and the non-intention of vaccination. The use of only traditional or digital information sources were associated with a higher probability of non-intention to vaccinate compared to the use of both sources.

18.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884358

ABSTRACT

Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between the consumption of herbal supplements or homeopathic remedies to prevent COVID-19 and the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the LAC region. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey with Facebook to assess COVID-19 beliefs, behaviours, and norms. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with the log link function. The prevalence of the use of products to prevent COVID-19 was the following: consumption of herbal supplements (7.2%), use of homeopathic remedies (4.8%), and consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (11.8%). An association was found between using herbal supplements (19.0% vs. 12.8%; aPR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.30-1.58), the use of homeopathic remedies (20.3% vs. 12.3%; aPR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25-1.98), and the consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (18.9% vs. 11.9%; aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.50-1.61) and non-intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. In the LAC population, there is an association between using herbal supplements, using homeopathic remedies and consuming garlic, ginger, and lemon to prevent infection by COVID-19 and non-intention to vaccinate against this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to design targeted strategies for groups that consume these products as preventive measures against COVID-19 to increase vaccination coverage and expand the information regarding transmission and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09457, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851166

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: The albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) has been used to predict severity and mortality in infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of the AGR in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. We included observational studies assessing the association between the AGR values upon hospital admission and severity or all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. In the meta-analyses we used random effect models. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The effect measures were expressed as mean difference (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We performed Egger's test and funnel plots to assess the publication bias. Results: The included studies had a total of 11356 patients corresponding to 31 cohort studies. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower AGR values than non-severe COVID-19 patients (mean difference (MD), -0.27; 95% IC, -0.32 to -0.22; p < 0.001; I2 = 88%). Non-survivor patients with COVID-19 had lower AGR values than survivor patients (MD, -0.29; 95% IC, -0.35 to -0.24; p < 0.001; I2 = 79%). In the sensitivity analysis, we only included studies with low risk of bias, which decreased the heterogeneity for both outcomes (severity, I2 = 20%; mortality, I2 = 5%). Conclusions: Low AGR values upon hospital admission were found in COVID-19 patients with a worse prognosis.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL