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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822453

ABSTRACT

Information on the effects of a heterologous booster in adult patients first vaccinated with the BBIBP-CorV vaccine is limited. This prospective cohort study evaluated the humoral response of 152 healthcare workers (HCWs) from a private laboratory in Lima (Peru) before and after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine, with a seven-month interval since the BBIBP-CorV doses. We employed the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody (NAbs) assays to evaluate anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs, respectively. Of the 152 HCWs, 79 (51.98%) were previously infected (PI) with SARS-CoV-2 and 73 (48.02%) were not previously infected (NPI). The proportion of HCWs with positive NAbs, seven months after the BBIBP-CorV immunization, was 49.31% in NPI and 92.40% in PI. After the booster, this ratio increased to 100% in both groups. The anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs in the HCWs' NPI increased by 32.7 and 3.95 times more, respectively. In HCWs' PI, this increment was 5 and 1.42 times more, respectively. There was no statistical association between the history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and the titer of anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs after the booster. The humoral immunity presented a robust increase after receiving the BNT162b2 booster and was more pronounced in NPI.

2.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(5):66, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1810212

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by BBIBP-CorV between HCW previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (PI) and not previously infected (NPI), employing the Elecsys®anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit at intervals of 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in HCW 21 days after full vaccination was 100% in PI and 91.60% in NPI. We observed a progressive decrease in antibody levels over time in both groups. Comparing HCW PI with NPI, PI had a 10.9, 14.3, and 8.6-fold higher antibody titer with the Elecsys®anti-SARS-CoV-2 S at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p< 0.001) and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. Using the percent of signal inhibition (PSI) of the antibody neutralization cPass™, HCW PI showed a level of 1.3, 2.0, and 3.1 times more antibodies, at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p < 0.001), and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. We determined a progressive decrease in humoral immunity over time, particularly higher in those NPI.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 727034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775790

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have suggested that the pandemic impact on mental health could vary according to gender. We aimed to evaluate the gender influence in the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries in the first stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis employing the Facebook-COVID-19 Symptom Survey developed by the University of Maryland. We categorized gender as men, women, and non-binary. The outcomes were the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms, measured with two adapted questions extracted from the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We used generalized linear models from the Poisson family, considering the survey's complex sampling. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and explored interactions with gender using the adjusted Wald test. Results: We included 1,338,320 adults from LAC countries; 48.0, 50.6, and 1.4% were men, women, and non-binary participants, respectively. The overall prevalence of anxiety or depressive symptoms was 44.8 and 46.6%, respectively. We found interactions between gender and the rest of the independent variables. In the non-binary group, the association between age and anxiety symptomatology was lost after an age of 55 years. Furthermore, whereas living in a town was associated with a lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptomatology in men and women, this did not happen among non-binary individuals. Compliance with physical distancing was associated with a lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptomatology among women (anxiety: PRa = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97-0.99; p < 0.001, depression: PRa = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.95-0.97; p < 0.001) and only anxiety in non-binary participants (anxiety: PRa = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.88-0.98; p = 0.005). This was not evidenced among men participants (anxiety: PRa = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.96-1.01; p = 0.199, depression: PRa = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.96-1.00; p = 0.084). In addition, compliance with handwashing was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety symptomatology among men (PRa = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; p < 0.001) and women participants (PRa = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.05; p = 0.016). Conclusion: Approximately 4 out of 10 participants had anxiety or depressive symptoms. Women and non-binary gender people had more symptoms of anxiety or depression. The factors associated with these symptoms varied according to gender. It is essential to evaluate gender-related strategies to improve mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 11, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has created a shortage of supplies of reagents for its detection throughout the world, especially in Latin America. The pooling of samples consists of combining individual patient samples in a block and analyzing the group as a particular sample. This strategy has been shown to reduce the burden of laboratory material and logistical resources by up to 80%. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the pool of samples analyzed by RT-PCR to detect SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests was carried out. We individually evaluated 420 samples, and 42 clusters were formed, each one with ten samples. These clusters could contain 0, 1 or 2 positive samples to simulate a positivity of 0, 10 and 20%, respectively. RT-PCR analyzed the groups for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), the Youden index, the global and subgroup sensitivity and specificity were calculated according to their Ct values that were classified as high (H: ≤ 25), moderate (M: 26-30) and low (L: 31-35) concentration of viral RNA. RESULTS: From a total of 42 pools, 41 (97.6%) obtained the same result as the samples they contained (positive or negative). The AUC for pooling, Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1); 0.97 (95% CI, 0.90-1.03); 96.67% (95% CI; 88.58-100%) and 100% (95% CI; 95.83-100%) respectively. In the stratified analysis of the pools containing samples with Ct ≤ 25, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI; 90-100%), while with the pools containing samples with Ct ≥ 31, the sensitivity was 80% (95% CI, 34.94-100%). Finally, a higher median was observed in the Ct of the clusters, with respect to the individual samples (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The strategy of pooling nasopharyngeal swab samples for analysis by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR showed high diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328258

ABSTRACT

Background: Peru was one of the countries with the highest COVID-19 mortality worldwide during the first stage of the pandemic. It is then relevant to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in three hospitals in Peru in 2020, from March to May, 2020.  Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study. The population consisted of patients from three Peruvian hospitals hospitalized for a diagnosis of COVID-19 during the March-May 2020 period. Independent sociodemographic variables, medical history, symptoms, vital functions, laboratory parameters and medical treatment were evaluated. In-hospital mortality was assessed as the outcome. We performed Cox regression models (crude and adjusted) to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.  Results: We analyzed 493 hospitalized adults; 72.8% (n=359) were male and the mean age was 63.3 ± 14.4 years. COVID-19 symptoms appeared on average 7.9 ± 4.0 days before admission to the hospital, and the mean oxygen saturation on admission was 82.6 ± 13.8. While 67.6% (n=333) required intensive care unit admission, only 3.3% (n=16) were admitted to this unit, and 60.2% (n=297) of the sample died. In the adjusted regression analysis, it was found that being 60 years old or older (HR=1.57;95% CI: 1.14-2.15), having two or more comorbidities (HR=1.53;95% CI: 1.10-2.14), oxygen saturation between 85-80% (HR=2.52;95% CI: 1.58-4.02), less than 80% (HR=4.59;95% CI: 3.01-7.00), and being in the middle (HR=1.65;95% CI: 1.15-2.39) and higher tertile (HR=2.18;95% CI: 1.51-3.15) of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, increased the risk of mortality.  Conclusions: The risk factors found agree with what has been described in the literature and allow the identification of vulnerable groups in whom monitoring and early identification of symptoms should be prioritized in order to reduce mortality.

6.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(3): 381-390, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the intention to be vaccinated (ITV) against COVID-19 in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study using the survey conducted by the University of Maryland, USA, on Facebook. The dependent variable is the ITV. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated, with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using generalized linear models of the Poisson family, in order to evaluate the association of sociodemographic variables, compliance with community mitigation strategies, symptoms of COVID-19, mental health and acceptance of vaccination before the recommendation (AVR) by various actors and health authorities, with the ITV. RESULTS: Data from 17,162 adults were analyzed. The overall prevalence of the ITV was 74.9%. A lower prevalence of the ITV was associated with the female sex (PR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.94-0.97), living in a town (PR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) or village or other rural area (PR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93) and the AVR of politicians (PR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.87-0.92). Conversely, having COVID-19 symptoms (PR=1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), economic insecurity (PR=1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), fears of becoming seriously ill or that a family member becomes seriously ill from COVID-19 (PR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.36-1.64) and the AVR of family and friends (PR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.08-1.12), healthcare workers (PR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.26-1.32), World Health Organization (PR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.29-1.40) and government officials (PR=1.18; 95% CI: 1.15-1.22) was associated with a higher prevalence of the ITV. CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of the respondents had the ITV. There are potentially modifiable factors that could improve vaccine acceptance.


OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la intención de vacunación (IDV) contra la COVID-19 en el Perú. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico utilizando una encuesta realizada por la Universidad de Maryland, EUA, en Facebook. La variable dependiente fue la IDV. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP) crudas y ajustadas, con sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%), mediante modelos lineales generalizados de la familia Poisson para evaluar la asociación de variables sociodemográficas, el cumplimiento de estrategias comunitarias de mitigación, los síntomas de la COVID-19, la salud mental y la aceptación de la vacunación ante la recomendación (AVR) por diversos actores y autoridades sanitarias. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron los datos de 17 162 adultos. La prevalencia general de la IDV fue del 74,9%. Se asociaron a una menor prevalencia de la IDV ser de sexo femenino (RP = 0,95; IC95%: 0,94-0,97), vivir en un pueblo (RP = 0,95; IC95%: 0,91-0,99) o en una aldea u otra área rural (RP = 0,90; IC95%: 0,86-0,93) y la AVR de políticos (RP = 0,89; IC95%: 0,87-0,92). Contrariamente, tener síntomas de COVID-19 (RP = 1,06; IC95%: 1,03-1,09), inseguridad económica (RP = 1,04; IC95%: 1,01-1,06), miedo a enfermar o que un familiar enferme de COVID-19 (RP = 1,49; IC95%: 1,36-1,64) y la AVR de familiares y amigos (RP = 1,10; IC95%: 1,08-1,12), trabajadores de la salud (RP = 1,29; IC95%: 1,26-1,32), la Organización Mundial de la Salud (RP = 1,34; IC95%: 1,29-1,40) y funcionarios del gobierno (RP = 1,18; IC95%: 1,15-1,22) se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de IDV. CONCLUSIONES: Tres cuartas partes de los encuestados manifiestan IDV. Existen factores potencialmente modificables que podrían mejorar la aceptación de la vacuna.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Peru , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Prev Med Rep ; 25: 101665, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561272

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community mitigation strategies (CMS) have demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of transmission and incidence of COVID-19, especially in the population with symptoms associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of COVID-19 symptoms and adherence to CMS in Latin American adults. METHODS: We carried out a secondary analysis of a database developed by the University of Maryland and Facebook social network during the COVID-19 pandemic. We included Latin American adults that used the Facebook platform and participated in a survey conducted from April 23 to May 23, 2020. The principal outcome variable was reported compliance with the three main CMS (physical distancing, use of face masks, and hand washing). The exposure variable included symptoms suspicious for COVID-19 defined as the presence of three or more symptoms of an acute clinical case of COVID-19. We performed generalized linear models of the Poisson family with a logarithmic link function to evaluate the association between the presence of COVID-19 symptoms and reported compliance with CMS. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: We analyzed 1,310,690 adults from Latin America; 48.1% were male and 42.9% were under 35 years of age. The prevalence of suspicious symptoms of COVID-19 was 18.5% and reported compliance with the three CMS was 45.3%. The countries with the highest proportion of reported compliance with the three CMS were Peru, Bolivia and Panama, while those with the lowest reported compliance were Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras. In the adjusted model, people with suspicious symptoms for COVID-19 had a 14% lower compliance with the three CMS (aPR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.85-0.87; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of the participants complied with the CMS, and those presenting suspicious symptoms for COVID-19 had lower reported compliance with the three CMS.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512741

ABSTRACT

We aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA). We included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between 20 May 2021 and 14 July 2021. We included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. We estimated the crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95%CI. We analyzed a sample of 227,740 adults from 20 LAC countries. The prevalence of parents' non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 was 7.8% (n = 15,196). An age above 35 years old, educational level above college, compliance with physical distancing, use of masks, having economic insecurity, having had COVID-19, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, having a chronic condition or two or more comorbidities, and being vaccinated were associated with a lower prevalence of non-intention to vaccinate children and adolescents against COVID-19. Living in a town, a village, or a rural area was associated with a higher prevalence of non-intention to vaccinate children and adolescents against COVID-19. Approximately nine out of ten parents in LAC intended to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19. Our results allow for understanding parents' intentions to vaccinate children and adolescents and help promote and develop education strategies for national vaccination plans against COVID-19.

10.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Apolipoproteins are predictive biomarkers for cardiovascular, neoplasms and cerebrovascular diseases and are postulated as prognostic biomarkers in infectious diseases, as COVID-19. Thus, we assessed the prognosis value of apolipoproteins for COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using observational studies that reported the association between apolipoproteins and severity or mortality in COVID-19 patients. Newcastle-Ottawa was used for the quality assessment of included studies. Effects measurements were shown as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and Egger-test was developed for assessing the risk of bias publication. RESULTS: We analyzed 12 cohort studies (n = 3580). Patients with low ApoliproteinA1 (ApoA1) (OR 0.35; 95%CI 0.24 to 0.49; P < 0.001) and ApoliproteinB (ApoB) (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.69 to 0.87; P < 0.001) values had a higher risk of developing severe disease. ApoB/ApoA1 ratio showed no statistically significant association with higher odds of severity. Low ApoA1 levels were associated with higher odds of all-cause mortality (OR = 0.34; 95%CI 0.20 to 0.57; P < 0.001). ApoB values showed no statistically significant association with a high risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: We suggest that adequate levels of ApoA1 and ApoB can be a protective factor for severity in COVID-19, and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio did not show predictive utility for severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Heliyon ; 7(10): e08091, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) and its associated factors in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) early during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis of a survey conducted by Facebook and the University of Maryland. We included adults surveyed from April to May 2020. FI was measured by concerns about having enough to eat during the following week. Sociodemographic, mental health, and COVID-19-related variables were collected. We performed generalized Poisson regressions models considering the complex sampling design. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 1,324,272 adults; 50.5% were female, 42.9% were under 35 years old, 78.9% lived in a city, and 18.6% had COVID-19 symptoms. The prevalence of food insecurity in LAC was 75.7% (n = 1,016,841), with Venezuela, Nicaragua, and Haiti with 90.8%, 86.7%, and 85.5%, respectively, showing the highest prevalence. Gender, area of residence, presence of COVID-19 symptoms, and fear of getting seriously ill or that a family member gets seriously ill from COVID-19 were associated with a higher prevalence of food insecurity. In contrast, increasing age was associated with a lower prevalence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of food insecurity during the first stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in LAC was high and was associated with sociodemographic and COVID-19-related variables.

12.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 214-223, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of COVID-19 patients and to determine the factors associated with mortality during hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 inpatients. The clinical, laboratory and treatment data were obtained from the medical records of patients from the Hospital Nivel III Daniel Alcides Carrión in Tacna. For the survival analysis we used the Cox proportional hazards model, and we calculated crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We evaluated 351 patients; 74.1% of them were men. The most common comorbidities were obesity (31.6%), hypertension (27.1%) and diabetes mellitus (24.5%). The median time of hospitalization was 8 days (IQR: 4-15). From the total of patients, 32.9% died during follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of dying associated with the following: age ≥65 years, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.70-7.40); increase in lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.34-3.22); and oxygen saturation less than 90%, mainly when it was less than 80%, HR = 4.07 (95% CI: 2.10-7.88). In addition, the use of colchicine during treatment showed a protective effect, HR = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19 included being older than 65 years, having oxygen saturation less than 90%, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L; colchicine treatment could improve the prognosis of patients.


OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriales y de tratamiento de pacientes hospitalizados por la COVID-19 y determinar los factores asociados a la mortalidad hospitalaria. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por la COVID-19. Se extrajeron datos demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriales y de tratamiento de las historias clínicas de pacientes que ingresaron al Hospital III Daniel Alcides Carrión de Tacna. Para el análisis de supervivencia se empleó el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox y se calcularon los cocientes de riesgo instantáneos (HR) crudos y ajustados con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: Se evaluó a 351 pacientes, el 74,1% eran hombres; las comorbilidades más comunes fueron obesidad (31,6%), hipertensión (27,1%) y diabetes mellitus (24,5%). La mediana de tiempo de hospitalización fue 8 días (RIC: 4-15). El 32,9% falleció durante el seguimiento. El análisis multivariado mostró un aumento del riesgo de morir asociado a la edad ≥65 años, HR = 3,55 (IC 95%: 1,70-7,40); al incremento de lactato deshidrogenasa >720 U/L, HR = 2,08 (IC 95%: 1,34-3,22); y a la saturación de oxígeno por debajo del 90%, principalmente cuando fue menor al 80%, HR = 4,07 (IC 95%: 2,10-7,88). Además, el uso de colchicina en el tratamiento tuvo un efecto protector, HR = 0,46 (IC 95%: 0,23-0,91). CONCLUSIONES: Los factores asociados a muerte por la COVID-19 incluyeron ser mayor de 65 años, tener saturación de oxígeno menor de 90% y elevación del lactato deshidrogenasa >720 U/L; el tratamiento con colchicina podría mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 41: 102059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Determinants of vaccine acceptance are multifactorial, complex, and in most cases, context-dependent. We determined the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination intention (VI) and fear of its adverse effects (FAE) as well as their associated factors in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: We conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis of a database collected by the University of Maryland and Facebook. We included participants aged 18 and over from LAC surveyed, January 15 to February 1, 2021. We evaluated VI, FAE, sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 symptomatology, compliance with community mitigation strategies, food and economic insecurity, mental health evaluation and the influence in VI when recommended by different stakeholders. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95%CIs. RESULTS: We analyzed 472,521 responses by Latin American adults, finding a VI and FAE prevalence of 80.0% and 81.2%, respectively. We found that female and non-binary genders were associated with a lower probability of VI and a higher probability of FAE. Besides, living in a town, village or rural area and economic insecurity was associated with a higher FAE probability. The fears of becoming seriously ill, a family member becoming seriously ill from COVID-19 and having depressive symptoms were associated with a higher probability of VI and FAE. CONCLUSION: Eight out of 10 adults in LAC have VI and FAE. The factors identified are useful for the development of communication strategies to reduce FAE frequency. It is necessary to guarantee mass vaccination and support the return of economic activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14596, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an accessible and widely used biomarker. NLR may be used as an early marker of poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of the NLR in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Observational studies that reported the association between baseline NLR values (ie, at hospital admission) and severity or all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Random effects models and inverse variance method were used for meta-analyses. The effects were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Small study effects were assessed with the Egger's test. RESULTS: We analysed 61 studies (n = 15 522 patients), 58 cohorts, and 3 case-control studies. An increase of one unit of NLR was associated with higher odds of severity (OR 6.22; 95%CI 4.93 to 7.84; P < .001) and higher odds of all-cause mortality (OR 12.6; 95%CI 6.88 to 23.06; P < .001). In our sensitivity analysis, we found that 41 studies with low risk of bias and moderate heterogeneity (I2  = 53% and 58%) maintained strong association between NLR values and both outcomes (severity: OR 5.36; 95% CI 4.45 to 6.45; P < .001; mortality: OR 10.42 95% CI 7.73 to 14.06; P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Higher values of NLR were associated with severity and all-cause mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , Lymphocytes , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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