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1.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103703, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517130
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1040.e7-1040.e10, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess differences in patients' profiles in the first two surges of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: We prospectively collected data from all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. All the patients were diagnosed through nasopharyngeal swab PCR. The first surge spanned from 1st March to 13th August 2020, while surge two spanned from 14th August to 8th December 2020. RESULTS: There were 2479 and 852 patients with microbiologically proven SARS-CoV-2 infection in surges one and two, respectively. Patients from surge two were significantly younger (median age 52 (IQR 35) versus 59 (40) years, respectively, p < 0.001), had fewer comorbidities (379/852, 44.5% versus 1237/2479, 49.9%, p 0.007), and there was a shorter interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis (median 3 (5) versus 4 (5) days, p < 0.001). All-cause in-hospital mortality significantly decreased for both the whole population (24/852, 2.8% versus 218/2479, 8.8%, p < 0.001) and hospitalized patients (20/302, 6.6% versus 206/1570, 13.1%, p 0.012). At adjusted logistic regression analysis, predictors of in-hospital mortality were older age (per year, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.079, 95%CI 1.063-1.094), male sex (aOR 1.476, 95%CI 1.079-2.018), having comorbidities (aOR 1.414, 95%CI 0.934-2.141), ICU admission (aOR 3.812, 95%CI 1.875-7.751), mechanical ventilation (aOR 2.076, 95%CI 0.968-4.454), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during surge one (with respect to surge two) (aOR 2.176, 95%CI 1.286-3.680). CONCLUSIONS: First-wave SARS-CoV-2-infected patients had a more than two-fold higher in-hospital mortality than second-wave patients. The causes are likely multifactorial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108631, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919716

ABSTRACT

Although the starting event in COVID-19 is a viral infection some patients present with an over-exuberant inflammatory response, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since IL-6 plays a critical role in the inflammatory response, we assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in this single-centre, observational study in all Covid-19 in-patient with a proven SARS-CoV-2 rapidly progressing infection to prevent ALI and ARDS. 104 patients with COVID-19 treated with TCZ had a lower mortality rate (5·8%) compared with the regional mortality rate (11%), hospitalized patient's mortality (10%), and slightly lower than hospitalized patients treated with our standard of care alone (6%). We found that TCZ rapidly decreased acute phase reactants, ferritin and liver release of proteins. D-Dimer decreased slowly. We did not observe specific safety concerns. Early administration of IL6-R antagonists in COVID-19 patients with impending hyperinflammatory response, may be safe and effective treatment to prevent, ICU admission and further complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 557, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800714

ABSTRACT

Objective: We set out to analyze the incidence and predictive factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Methods: We prospectively collected data from all consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, a university hospital in Barcelona, between March 9 and April 15, 2020. Patients with suspected PE, according to standardized guidelines, underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Results: A total of 1,275 patients with Covid-19 were admitted to hospital. CTPA was performed on 76 inpatients, and a diagnosis of PE was made in 32 (2.6% [95%CI 1.7-3.5%]). Patients with PE were older, and they exhibited lower PaO2:FiO2 ratios and higher levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP). They more often required admission to ICU and mechanical ventilation, and they often had longer hospital stays, although in-hospital mortality was no greater than in patients without PE. High CRP and D-dimer levels at admission (≥150 mg/L and ≥1,000 ng/ml, respectively) and a peak D-dimer ≥6,000 ng/ml during hospital stay were independent factors associated with PE. Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin did not appear to prevent PE. Increased CRP levels correlated with increased D-dimer levels and both correlated with a lower PaO2:FiO2. Conclusions: The 2.6% incidence of PE in Covid-19 hospitalized patients is clearly high. Higher doses of thromboprophylaxis may be required to prevent PE, particularly in patients at increased risk, such as those with high levels of CRP and D-dimer at admission. These findings should be validated in future studies.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102887, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684307

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be envisaged as the dynamic interaction between four vicious feedback loops chained or happening at once. These are the viral loop, the hyperinflammatory loop, the non-canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis loop, and the hypercoagulation loop. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 lights the wick by infecting alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and downregulating the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang-1-7)/Mas1R axis. The viral feedback loop includes evading the host's innate response, uncontrolled viral replication, and turning on a hyperactive adaptative immune response. The inflammatory loop is composed of the exuberant inflammatory response feeding back until exploding in an actual cytokine storm. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas1R axis leaves the lung without a critical defense mechanism and turns the scale to the inflammatory side of the RAS. The coagulation loop is a hypercoagulable state caused by the interplay between inflammation and coagulation in an endless feedback loop. The result is a hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state producing acute immune-mediated lung injury and eventually, adult respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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