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1.
Artificial Organs ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1807015

ABSTRACT

Background Despite increasing knowledge about the optimal treatment for patients with severe COVID-19, data from different cohorts suggested that survival of patients treated with ECMO seemed to decline over the course of the pandemic. Methods In this non-interventional retrospective single-center registry study we analyzed all consecutive patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and supported with VV ECMO in our center during the first three waves of the pandemic. From March, 2020 through June, 2021 59 patients have been included. Results Overall 90-day survival was 32%. Besides changes in drug treatment for COVID-19 and a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio before ECMO initiation during the third wave, all other patient baseline characteristics were similar during the three waves. Survival rate was highest during the first wave and lowest during the third wave, yet, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions VV ECMO has shown to be a feasible and safe support option for patients with severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19. The results from this single-center study confirm findings from other cohorts showing declining survival rates of patients treated with VV ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, the specific reasons for this finding remain unclear.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 755-762, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify the benefit of cytokine adsorption in patients with COVID-19 supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: We did a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial to investigate cytokine adsorption in adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ECMO. Patients with COVID-19 selected for ECMO at the Freiburg University Medical Center (Freiburg, Germany) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive cytokine adsorption using the CytoSorb device or not. Randomisation was computer-generated, allocation was concealed by opaque, sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. The CytoSorb device was incorporated into the ECMO circuit before connection to the patient circuit, replaced every 24 h, and removed after 72 h. The primary endpoint was serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration 72 h after initiation of ECMO analysed by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints included 30-day survival. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04324528) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00021300) and is closed. FINDINGS: From March 29, 2020, to Dec 29, 2020, of 34 patients assessed for eligibility, 17 (50%) were treated with cytokine adsorption and 17 (50%) without. Median IL-6 decreased from 357·0 pg/mL to 98·6 pg/mL in patients randomly assigned to cytokine adsorption and from 289·0 pg/mL to 112·0 pg/mL in the control group after 72 h. One patient in each group died before 72 h. Adjusted mean log IL-6 concentrations after 72 h were 0·30 higher in the cytokine adsorption group (95% CI -0·70 to 1·30, p=0·54). Survival after 30 days was three (18%) of 17 with cytokine adsorption and 13 (76%) of 17 without cytokine adsorption (p=0·0016). INTERPRETATION: Early initiation of cytokine adsorption in patients with severe COVID-19 and venovenous ECMO did not reduce serum IL-6 and had a negative effect on survival. Cytokine adsorption should not be used during the first days of ECMO support in COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adsorption , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1168-1172, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285012

ABSTRACT

ECMO support is particularly resource-intensive and should be provided in highly specialized centers. Occasionally, ECMO needs to be initiated in non-ECMO centers by mobile ECMO retrieval teams. Subsequently, patients must be transferred on ECMO to the ECMO center. We report single-center data from out-of-center initiations of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic. From March 2020 through February 2021, nine patients were connected to ECMO before transfer to our center. Median travel distance (IQR) from the referring hospital to our center was 66 km (20-92), median land travel time (IQR) was 51 minutes (26-92). Personal protective equipment was available for all team members and used throughout the missions. No infections of team members with SARS-CoV-2 occurred. Three patients survived until hospital discharge. Median duration of ECMO (IQR) was 18 days (2-78) in survivors and 19 days (9-42) in non-survivors, respectively. Out-of-center initiation of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible and safe for patients and staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Mobile Health Units , Transportation of Patients , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121711

ABSTRACT

The role of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (V-V ECMO) in severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still under debate and conclusive data from large cohorts are scarce. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of patients that benefit most from this highly invasive and resource-demanding therapy are yet to be defined. In this study, we assess survival in an international multicenter cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V-V ECMO and evaluate the performance of several clinical scores to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated retrospective non-interventional international multicenter registry study (NCT04405973, first registered 28 May 2020). In 127 patients treated with V-V ECMO at 15 centers in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the United States, we calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score, Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score, Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V­V ECMO (PRESERVE) Score, and 30-day survival. RESULTS: In our study cohort which enrolled 127 patients, overall 30-day survival was 54%. Median SOFA, SAPS II, APACHE II, RESP, and PRESERVE were 9, 36, 17, 1, and 4, respectively. The prognostic accuracy for all these scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic-AUROC) ranged between 0.548 and 0.605. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scores for the prediction of mortality cannot be recommended for treatment decisions in severe COVID-19 ARDS undergoing V-V ECMO; nevertheless, scoring results below or above a specific cut-off value may be considered as an additional tool in the evaluation of prognosis. Survival rates in this cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V­V ECMO were slightly lower than those reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO.

6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(2): 301-307, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640446

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting disease COVID-19 causes pulmonary failure including severe courses requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). Coagulopathy is a known complication of COVID-19 leading to thrombotic events including pulmonary embolism. It is unclear if the coagulopathy also increases thrombotic circuit complications of the ECMO. Aim of the present study therefor was to investigate the rate of V-V ECMO complications in COVID-19. We conducted a retrospective registry study including all patients on V-V ECMO treated at our centre between 01/2018 and 04/2020. COVID-19 cases were compared non- COVID-19 cases. All circuit related complications resulting in partial or complete exchange of the extracorporeal system were registered. In total, 66 patients were analysed of which 11 (16.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. The two groups did not differ in clinical parameters including age (COVID-19 59.4 vs. non-COVID-19 58.1 years), gender (36.4% vs. 40%), BMI (27.8 vs. 24.2) and severity of illness as quantified by the RESP Score (1pt. vs 1pt.). 28 days survival was similar in both groups (72.7% vs. 58.2%). While anticoagulation was similar in both groups (p = 0.09), centrifugal pump head thrombosis was more frequent in COVID-19 (9/11 versus 16/55 p < 0.01). Neither the time to first exchange (p = 0.61) nor blood flow at exchange (p = 0.68) did differ in both groups. D-dimer levels prior to the thrombotic events were significantly higher in COVID-19 (mean 15.48 vs 26.59, p = 0.01). The SARS-CoV-2 induced infection is associated with higher rates of thrombotic events of the extracorporeal system during V-V ECMO therapy.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality
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