Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac219, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931882

ABSTRACT

Background: The Adaptive COVID Treatment Trial-2 (ACTT-2) found that baricitinib in combination with remdesivir therapy (BCT) sped recovery in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients vs remdesivir monotherapy (RMT). We examined how BCT affected progression throughout hospitalization and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies. Methods: We characterized the clinical trajectories of 891 ACTT-2 participants requiring supplemental oxygen or higher levels of respiratory support at enrollment. We estimated the effect of BCT on cumulative incidence of clinical improvement and deterioration using competing risks models. We developed multistate models to estimate the effect of BCT on clinical improvement and deterioration and on utilization of respiratory therapies. Results: BCT resulted in more linear improvement and lower incidence of clinical deterioration compared with RMT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95). The benefit was pronounced among participants enrolled on high-flow oxygen or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. In this group, BCT sped clinical improvement (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.51) while slowing clinical deterioration (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.02), which reduced the expected days in ordinal score (OS) 6 per 100 patients by 74 days (95% CI, -8 to 154 days) and the expected days in OS 7 per 100 patients by 161 days (95% CI, 46 to 291 days) compared with RMT. BCT did not benefit participants who were mechanically ventilated at enrollment. Conclusions: Compared with RMT, BCT reduces the clinical burden and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies for patients requiring low-flow oxygen or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation compared with RMT and may thereby improve care for this patient population.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741618

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Migrants, especially those in temporary accommodations like camps and shelters, might be a vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic, but little is known about the impact of the pandemic in these settings in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and RNA prevalence, the correlates of seropositivity (emphasising socially determined conditions), and the socioeconomic impacts of the pandemic among migrants living in shelters in Tijuana, a city on the Mexico-US border. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, non-probability survey of migrants living in shelters in Tijuana in November-December 2020 and February-April 2021. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided anterior nasal swab and blood samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies (IgG and IgM), respectively. We explored whether SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with sociodemographic and migration-related variables, access to sanitation, protective behaviours and health-related factors. RESULTS: Overall, 481 participants were enrolled, 67.7% from Northern Central America, 55.3% women, mean age 33.2 years. Seven (1.5%) participants had nasal swabs positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 53.0% were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. Avoiding public transportation (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90) and months living in Tijuana (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10) were associated with seropositivity. Sleeping on the streets or other risky places and having diabetes were marginally associated with seropositivity. Most participants (90.2%) had experienced some socioeconomic impact of the pandemic (eg, diminished income, job loss). CONCLUSION: Compared with results from other studies conducted in the general population in Mexico at a similar time, migrants living in shelters were at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2, and they suffered considerable adverse socioeconomic impacts as a consequence of the pandemic. Expanded public health and other social support systems are needed to protect migrants from COVID-19 and reduce health inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1260-1264, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702505

ABSTRACT

This post hoc analysis of the Adaptive Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Trial-1 (ACTT-1) shows a treatment effect of remdesivir (RDV) on progression to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death. Additionally, we create a risk profile that better predicts progression than baseline oxygen requirement alone. The highest risk group derives the greatest treatment effect from RDV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab383, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graduate Medical Education training programs transitioned to all-virtual recruitment in 2020. Limited data have been published regarding the consequences of this transition. We aimed to understand (1) infectious diseases (ID) fellowship programs' recruitment efforts and the effect of virtual recruitment on application and interview numbers and (2) the number of programs to which matched applicants applied and interviewed and applicants' perspectives on virtual recruitment. METHODS: In 2020-2021, we surveyed all US ID fellowship program directors (PDs) and matched applicants. Descriptive data analysis was performed on quantitative survey items. Free-text responses were analyzed through a quantitative content analysis approach. RESULTS: The PD response rate was 68/158 (43%); the applicant response rate was at least 23% (85/365). PDs reported a 27% increase in mean number of applications received and a 45% increase in mean number of applicants interviewed compared with the previous year. Applicants especially valued the online program structure information, PD program overview videos, didactic and curriculum content, and fellow testimonials and profiles. Most applicants preferred interviews lasting no more than 40 minutes and interview days lasting no more than 5 hours. Nearly all (60/64, 94%) PDs adequately learned about candidates; most (48/64, 75%) felt unable to showcase their program as well as when in-person. Most PDs (54/64, 84%) and applicants (56/73, 77%) want an option for virtual recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual recruitment enabled programs to accommodate more applicants and highlighted applicants' preferences for programs' augmented online presences and time-limited interview days. Most programs and applicants want an option for virtual interviews.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1260-1264, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352150

ABSTRACT

This post hoc analysis of the Adaptive Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Trial-1 (ACTT-1) shows a treatment effect of remdesivir (RDV) on progression to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death. Additionally, we create a risk profile that better predicts progression than baseline oxygen requirement alone. The highest risk group derives the greatest treatment effect from RDV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa583, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069289

ABSTRACT

One of the many challenges that has befallen the Infectious Diseases and Graduate Medical Education communities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the maintenance of continued effective education and training of the future leaders of our field. With the remarkable speed and innovation that has characterized the responses to this pandemic, educators everywhere have adapted existing robust and safe learning environments to meet the needs of our learners. This paper will review distinct aspects of education and training of the Infectious Diseases fellows we believe the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted most, including mentoring, didactics, and wellness. We anticipate that several strategies developed in this context and described herein will help to inform training and best practices during the pandemic and beyond.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): 2225-2240, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889502

ABSTRACT

In this article, the editors of Clinical Infectious Diseases review some of the most important lessons they have learned about the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify essential questions about COVID-19 that remain to be answered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1651-1669, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865967

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the use of antiretroviral drugs, including new drugs and formulations, for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection continue to guide optimal practices. Objective: To evaluate new data and incorporate them into current recommendations for initiating HIV therapy, monitoring individuals starting on therapy, changing regimens, preventing HIV infection for those at risk, and special considerations for older people with HIV. Evidence Review: New evidence was collected since the previous International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA recommendations in 2018, including data published or presented at peer-reviewed scientific conferences through August 22, 2020. A volunteer panel of 15 experts in HIV research and patient care considered these data and updated previous recommendations. Findings: From 5316 citations about antiretroviral drugs identified, 549 were included to form the evidence basis for these recommendations. Antiretroviral therapy is recommended as soon as possible for all individuals with HIV who have detectable viremia. Most patients can start with a 3-drug regimen or now a 2-drug regimen, which includes an integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Effective options are available for patients who may be pregnant, those who have specific clinical conditions, such as kidney, liver, or cardiovascular disease, those who have opportunistic diseases, or those who have health care access issues. Recommended for the first time, a long-acting antiretroviral regimen injected once every 4 weeks for treatment or every 8 weeks pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability. For individuals at risk for HIV, preexposure prophylaxis with an oral regimen is recommended or, pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability, with a long-acting injection given every 8 weeks. Monitoring before and during therapy for effectiveness and safety is recommended. Switching therapy for virological failure is relatively rare at this time, and the recommendations for switching therapies for convenience and for other reasons are included. With the survival benefits provided by therapy, recommendations are made for older individuals with HIV. The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic poses particular challenges for HIV research, care, and efforts to end the HIV epidemic. Conclusion and Relevance: Advances in HIV prevention and management with antiretroviral drugs continue to improve clinical care and outcomes among individuals at risk for and with HIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Age Factors , Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Costs , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Substitution/standards , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polypharmacy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States , Viral Load/genetics
10.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 222(Supplement_1):S52-S62, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) are at risk for accelerated development of physical function impairment and frailty;both associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and death. Identifying factors associated with physical function impairment and frailty can help target interventions. METHODS: The REPRIEVE trial enrolled participants 40-75 years of age, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/mm3, and with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of those concurrently enrolled in the ancillary study PREPARE at enrollment. RESULTS: Among the 266 participants, the median age was 51 years;81% were male, and 45% were black, and 28% had hypertension. Body mass index (BMI;calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25 to <30 in 38% and ≥30 in 30%, 33% had a high waist circumference, 89% were physically inactive, 37% (95% confidence interval, 31%, 43%) had physical function impairment (Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤10), and 6% (4%, 9%) were frail and 42% prefrail. In the adjusted analyses, older age, black race, greater BMI, and physical inactivity were associated with physical function impairment;depression and hypertension were associated with frailty or prefrailty. CONCLUSIONS: Physical function impairment was common among middle-aged PWH;greater BMI and physical inactivity are important modifiable factors that may prevent further decline in physical function with aging. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL