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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(2)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have proven to be at risk for developing invasive fungal infections. However, the incidence and impact of possible/probable COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in severe COVID-19 patients varies between cohorts. We aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a regional cohort of COVID-19 intensive care patients. METHODS: We performed a regional, multicentre, retrospective cohort study in the intensive care units (ICUs) in North Brabant, The Netherlands. We included adult patients with rt-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Demographics, clinical course, biomarker value, and treatment outcomes were compared between the groups with possible/probable CAPA from the main study centre and the regional centres, and without signs of CAPA from the main study centre as controls. The primary aim was to assess the regional impact of possible/probable CAPA in COVID-19 ICU patients, measured as all-cause mortality at 30 days after ICU admission. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for developing CAPA, based on underlying host factors and to identify the value of the mycological arguments for the diagnosing of CAPA. RESULTS: Between 1 March and 30 April 2020, we included 123 patients with severe COVID-19: 29 patients (30.9%) in the main ICU with possible/probable CAPA, and 65 (69.1%) with no signs of CAPA; 29 patients in the regional ICUs with signs of CAPA. Patients' characteristics and risk factors did not differ for CAPA and non-CAPA patients. Patients with COPD and/or chronic steroid medication developed CAPA more frequently, although this was not statistically significant. CAPA patients were admitted to the ICU earlier, had lower PF-ratios, and more often required renal replacement therapy. All-cause 30-day mortality was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with possible/probable CAPA 39.7% (23/58) compared to patients without evidence for CAPA 16.9% (11/65) (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.4-7.4] p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of possible and probable CAPA in critically ill COVID-19 patients is alarming. The increase in 30-day mortality in CAPA highlights the need for active surveillance and management strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0122921, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522903

ABSTRACT

The literature regarding COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has shown conflicting observations, including survival of CAPA patients not receiving antifungal therapy and discrepancy between CAPA diagnosis and autopsy findings. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CAPA, we performed a case-control study in which we compared Aspergillus test profiles in CAPA patients and controls in relation to intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. This was a multinational case-control study in which Aspergillus test results, use of antifungal therapy, and mortality were collected from critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were classified using the 2020 European Confederation for Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ECMM/ISHAM) consensus case definitions. We analyzed 219 critically ill COVID-19 cases, including 1 proven, 38 probable, 19 possible CAPA cases, 21 Aspergillus-colonized patients, 7 patients only positive for serum (1,3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG), and 133 cases with no evidence of CAPA. Mortality was 53.8% in CAPA patients compared to 24.1% in patients without CAPA (P = 0.001). Positive serum galactomannan (GM) and BDG were associated with increased mortality compared to serum biomarker-negative CAPA patients (87.5% versus 41.7%, P = 0.046; 90.0% versus 42.1%, P = 0.029, respectively). For each point increase in GM or 10-point BDG serum concentration, the odds of death increased (GM, odds ratio [OR] 10.208, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.621 to 64.291, P = 0.013; BDG, OR, 1.247, 95% CI, 1.029 to 1.511, P = 0.024). CAPA is a complex disease, probably involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion, and angioinvasion. Serum biomarkers are useful for staging CAPA disease progression and, if positive, indicate angioinvasion and a high probability of mortality. There is need for a biomarker that distinguishes between respiratory tract colonization and tissue-invasive CAPA disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Aspergillus , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Euro Surveill ; 26(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266639

ABSTRACT

We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1878-1884, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally. Currently, literature of SARS-CoV-2 in neonates is scarce. We present a case of a neonate with a high viral load and prolonged virus shedding. METHODS: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, laboratory data and follow-up information and the treatment of a neonate with COVID-19 were recorded. RESULTS: A 7-day-old boy was admitted to the hospital with fever, lethargy and apnoea. He was found SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive with an exceptionally high viral load in nasopharyngeal swab and stool. The father and two maternity nurses at home had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA as well. Sequencing showed all strains belonged to the same cluster. The father was asymptomatic and the maternity nurses developed symptoms after visiting. In the mother, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be found. Six days after admission, the neonate was discharged after clinical improvement with oral antibiotics because of a possible pyelonephritis. Monitoring the course of this infection showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in the nasopharynx until day 19 and in stool until day 42 after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that neonates can have a high viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and can shed the virus for over one month in stool. Despite the high viral load in the neonate, the mother and a sibling did not get infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(11): 1273-1280, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 10 days after the first reported case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Netherlands (on Feb 27, 2020), 55 (4%) of 1497 health-care workers in nine hospitals located in the south of the Netherlands had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We aimed to gain insight in possible sources of infection in health-care workers. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study at three of the nine hospitals located in the south of the Netherlands. We screened health-care workers at the participating hospitals for SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on clinical symptoms (fever or mild respiratory symptoms) in the 10 days before screening. We obtained epidemiological data through structured interviews with health-care workers and combined this information with data from whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples taken from health-care workers and patients. We did an in-depth analysis of sources and modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in health-care workers and patients. FINDINGS: Between March 2 and March 12, 2020, 1796 (15%) of 12 022 health-care workers were screened, of whom 96 (5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We obtained complete and near-complete genome sequences from 50 health-care workers and ten patients. Most sequences were grouped in three clusters, with two clusters showing local circulation within the region. The noted patterns were consistent with multiple introductions into the hospitals through community-acquired infections and local amplification in the community. INTERPRETATION: Although direct transmission in the hospitals cannot be ruled out, our data do not support widespread nosocomial transmission as the source of infection in patients or health-care workers. FUNDING: EU Horizon 2020 (RECoVer, VEO, and the European Joint Programme One Health METASTAVA), and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genetic Variation , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e209673, 2020 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327117

ABSTRACT

Importance: On February 27, 2020, the first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the Netherlands. During the following weeks, at 2 Dutch teaching hospitals, 9 health care workers (HCWs) received a diagnosis of COVID-19, 8 of whom had no history of travel to China or northern Italy, raising the question of whether undetected community circulation was occurring. Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of COVID-19 among HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2 teaching hospitals in the southern part of the Netherlands in March 2020, during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care workers employed in the participating hospitals who experienced fever or respiratory symptoms were asked to voluntarily participate in a screening for infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data analysis was performed in March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was determined by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on oropharyngeal samples. Structured interviews were conducted to document symptoms for all HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: Of 9705 HCWs employed (1722 male [18%]), 1353 (14%) reported fever or respiratory symptoms and were tested. Of those, 86 HCWs (6%) were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (median age, 49 years [range, 22-66 years]; 15 [17%] male), representing 1% of all HCWs employed. Most HCWs experienced mild disease, and only 46 (53%) reported fever. Eighty HCWs (93%) met a case definition of fever and/or coughing and/or shortness of breath. Only 3 (3%) of the HCWs identified through the screening had a history of travel to China or northern Italy, and 3 (3%) reported having been exposed to an inpatient with a known diagnosis of COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: Within 2 weeks after the first Dutch case was detected, a substantial proportion of HCWs with self-reported fever or respiratory symptoms were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, likely as a result of acquisition of the virus in the community during the early phase of local spread. The high prevalence of mild clinical presentations, frequently not including fever, suggests that the currently recommended case definition for suspected COVID-19 should be used less stringently.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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