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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac363, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072695

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy after debridement and implant retention (DAIR) for periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) is debated. Furthermore, the best antibiotic regimens for staphylococcal PJI are also unclear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of antibiotic therapy duration on the risk of failure. We assessed the utility of rifampin-based regimens for staphylococcal PJI managed with DAIR. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 18 years and older diagnosed with hip and knee PJI who underwent DAIR between January 1, 2008 and 31 December 31, 2018 at Mayo Clinic, USA. The outcome was failure of DAIR. For statistical analysis, joint-stratified Cox regression models adjusted for age, sinus tract, symptom duration, and primary/revision arthroplasty were performed. Results: We examined 247 cases of PJI with a median follow-up of 4.4 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.3-7) after DAIR. The estimated 5-year cumulative incidence of failure was 28.1% (n = 65). There was no association between the duration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics (median 42 days; IQR, 38-42) and treatment failure (P = .119). A shorter duration of subsequent oral antibiotic therapy was associated with a higher risk of failure (P = .005; eg, 90-day vs 1-year duration; hazard ratio [HR], 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.25). For staphylococcal knee PJI, both the use and longer duration of a rifampin-based regimen were associated with a lower risk of failure (both P = .025). There was no significant association between fluoroquinolone (FQ) use and failure (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, .31-1.24; P = .172). Conclusions: The duration of initial IV antibiotic therapy did not correlate with treatment failure in this cohort of patients. Rifampin use is recommended for staphylococcal knee PJI. There was no apparent benefit of FQ use in staphylococcal PJI.

2.
IDCases ; 29: e01603, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039152

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis commonly presents as an asymptomatic or self-limited infection in immunocompetent patients, but immunocompromised hosts may present with severe and disseminated disease. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male with history of ulcerative colitis receiving long-term TNF-alpha inhibitor therapy who presented with six months of diarrhea and recently fever and hematochezia. On admission, he was febrile and hypotensive, with initial workup revealing pancytopenia and imaging reporting pulmonary infiltrates, pancolitis, and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Disseminated histoplasmosis was ultimately diagnosed after examination of the colonic biopsy. Bone marrow biopsy was also consistent with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis but also demonstrated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The patient was ultimately treated with amphotericin B, intravenous immunoglobulin, etoposide, and corticosteroids.

3.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 5(1): e105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757679

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) created major disruptions at academic centers and healthcare systems globally. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) fund hubs supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provideinfrastructure and leadership for clinical and translational research at manysuch institutions. Methods: We surveyed CTSA hubs and received responses from 94% of them regarding the impact of the pandemic and the processes employed for the protection of research personnel and participants with respect to the conduct of research, specifically for studies unrelated to COVID-19. Results: In this report, we describe the results of the survey findings in the context of the current understanding of disease transmission and mitigation techniques. Conclusions: We reflect on common practices and provide recommendations regarding lessons learned that will be relevant to future pandemics, particularly with regards to staging the cessation and resumption of research activities with an aim to keep the workforce, research participants, and our communities safe in future pandemics.

4.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(7): e640, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To assess the risk for COVID-19 of police officers, we are studying the seroprevalence in a cohort. The baseline cross-sectional investigation was performed before a vaccination campaign in January/February 2021, and demonstrated a seroprevalence of 12.9%. Here, we demonstrate serosurveillance results after a vaccination campaign. METHODS: The cohort consists of 1022 study participants. The 3- and 6-month follow-up visits were performed in April/May and September 2021. Data on infection and vaccination rates were obtained via measuring antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein and spike protein and online questionnaires. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 41 (SD 8.8) years, 72% were male and 76% had no comorbidity. Seroconversion was identified in 1.05% of the study population at the 3-month visit and in 0.73% at the 6-month visit, resulting in an infection rate of 1.8% over a time period of 6 months. In comparison, the infection rate in the general population over the same time period was higher (3.18%, p = .018). At the 6-month visit, 77.8% of participants reported being vaccinated once and 70.5% twice; 81% had an anti-S antibody titer of >250 U/ml and 87.1% of ≥2 U/ml. No significant association between infection and job role within the department, working region, or years of experience in the job was found. Anti-spike antibody titers of vaccinated study participants showed a calculated decreasing trend 150-200 days after the second vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: These data confirm the value of the vaccination campaign in an exposed group other than healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Police , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e347-e349, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352091

ABSTRACT

We report the utility of rapid antigen tests (RAgT) in a cohort of US healthcare personnel with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who met symptom criteria to return to work at day 5 or later of isolation. In total, 11.9% of initial RAgT were negative. RAgT can be helpful to guide return to work decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(8): 1066-1075, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many postmortem studies address the cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 and provide valuable information, but are limited by their small sample size. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to better understand the various aspects of the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 by pooling data from a large number of autopsy studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched the online databases Ovid EBM Reviews, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science for concepts of autopsy or histopathology combined with COVID-19, published between database inception and February 2021. We also searched for unpublished manuscripts using the medRxiv services operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were considered eligible for inclusion if they reported human postmortem cardiovascular findings among individuals with a confirmed SARS coronavirus type 2 (CoV-2) infection. PARTICIPANTS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients with post-mortem cardiovascular findings. INTERVENTIONS: None. METHODS: Studies were individually assessed for risk of selection, detection, and reporting biases. The median prevalence of different autopsy findings with associated interquartile ranges (IQRs). RESULTS: This review cohort contained 50 studies including 548 hearts. The median age of the deceased was 69 years. The most prevalent acute cardiovascular findings were myocardial necrosis (median: 100.0%; IQR, 20%-100%; number of studies = 9; number of patients = 64) and myocardial oedema (median: 55.5%; IQR, 19.5%-92.5%; number of studies = 4; number of patients = 46). The median reported prevalence of extensive, focal active, and multifocal myocarditis were all 0.0%. The most prevalent chronic changes were myocyte hypertrophy (median: 69.0%; IQR, 46.8%-92.1%) and fibrosis (median: 35.0%; IQR, 35.0%-90.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the myocardium with median prevalence of 60.8% (IQR 40.4-95.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review confirmed the high prevalence of acute and chronic cardiac pathologies in COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 cardiac tropism, as well as the low prevalence of myocarditis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Aged , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Bone Jt Infect ; 7(1): 23-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136714

ABSTRACT

Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) is a potentially fatal infection which has seen a gradual increase in its incidence over the past decades. The infection is insidious, presenting with symptoms of back pain. Fever is present in about 60 % of patients. Prompt diagnosis of NVO is important to prevent the development of complications. Numerous laboratory and imaging tools can be deployed to accurately establish the diagnosis. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance, nuclear imaging, and computed tomography are essential in diagnosing NVO but can also be useful in image-guided biopsies. Laboratory tools include routine blood tests, inflammatory markers, and routine culture techniques of aspirated specimens. Recent advances in molecular techniques can assist in identifying offending pathogen(s). In this review, we detail the arsenal of techniques that can be utilized to reach a diagnosis of NVO.

8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(5): 657-666, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome is now recognized as a complex systemic disease that is associated with substantial morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of persistent symptoms and signs at least 12 weeks after acute COVID-19 at different follow-up periods. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted up to October 2021 in Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, and PubMed. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Articles in English that reported the prevalence of persistent symptoms among individuals with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and included at least 50 patients with a follow-up of at least 12 weeks after acute illness. METHODS: Random-effect meta-analysis was performed to produce a pooled prevalence for each symptom at four different follow-up time intervals. Between-study heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic and was explored via meta-regression, considering several a priori study-level variables. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for prevalence studies and comparative studies, respectively. RESULTS: After screening 3209 studies, a total of 63 studies were eligible, with a total COVID-19 population of 257 348. The most commonly reported symptoms were fatigue, dyspnea, sleep disorder, and difficulty concentrating (32%, 25%, 24%, and 22%, respectively, at 3- to <6-month follow-up); effort intolerance, fatigue, sleep disorder, and dyspnea (45%, 36%, 29%, and 25%, respectively, at 6- to <9-month follow-up); fatigue (37%) and dyspnea (21%) at 9 to <12 months; and fatigue, dyspnea, sleep disorder, and myalgia (41%, 31%, 30%, and 22%, respectively, at >12-month follow-up). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity for all reported symptom prevalences. Meta-regressions identified statistically significant effect modifiers: world region, male sex, diabetes mellitus, disease severity, and overall study quality score. Five of six studies including a comparator group consisting of COVID-19-negative cases observed significant adjusted associations between COVID-19 and several long-term symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review found that a large proportion of patients experience post-acute COVID-19 syndrome 3 to 12 months after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19. However, available studies of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome are highly heterogeneous. Future studies need to have appropriate comparator groups, standardized symptom definitions and measurements, and longer follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(1): 53-58, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969277

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Fungal and mycobacterial periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare events. Clinicians are wary of missing these diagnoses, often leading to the routine ordering of fungal and mycobacterial cultures on periprosthetic specimens. Our goal was to examine the utility of these cultures and explore a modern bacterial culture technique using bacterial blood culture bottles (BCBs) as an alternative. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with hip or knee PJI between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019, at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, USA. We included patients aged 18 years or older who had fungal, mycobacterial, or both cultures performed together with bacterial cultures. Cases with positive fungal or mycobacterial cultures were reviewed using the electronic medical record to classify the microbiological findings as representing true infection or not. RESULTS: There were 2,067 episodes of PJI diagnosed within the study period. A total of 3,629 fungal cultures and 2,923 mycobacterial cultures were performed, with at least one of these performed in 56% of episodes (n = 1,157). Test positivity rates of fungal and mycobacterial cultures were 5% (n = 179) and 1.2% (n = 34), respectively. After a comprehensive review, there were 40 true fungal and eight true mycobacterial PJIs. BCB were 90% sensitive in diagnosing true fungal PJI and 100% sensitive in detecting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). Fungal stains were performed in 27 true fungal PJI but were only positive in four episodes (14.8% sensitivity). None of the mycobacterial stains was positive. CONCLUSION: Routine fungal and mycobacterial stains and cultures should not be performed as they have little clinical utility in the diagnosis of PJI and are associated with significant costs. Candida species and RGM are readily recovered using BCB. More research is needed to predict rare non-Candida fungal and slowly growing mycobacterial PJI that warrant specialized cultures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(1):53-58.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Mycobacterium Infections/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab524, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protests and police fieldwork provide a high-exposure environment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. In this cross-sectional analysis, we investigated the seroprevalence among a police cohort, and sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors associated with seropositivity. METHODS: Study participants were invited for serological testing of SARS-CoV-2 and to complete online questionnaires. Serum neutralization titers toward the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (expressing D614G) and the Alpha and Beta variants were measured in seropositive study participants. RESULTS: A total of 978 police personnel representing 35% of the entire staff participated from February to March 2021. The seroprevalence was 12.9%. It varied by geographic region, ranged from 9% to 13.5% in 3 regions, including the city; and was 22% in Bernese Seeland/Jura with higher odds for seropositivity (odds ratio [OR], 2.38 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.28-4.44], P=.006). Job roles with mainly office activity were associated with a lower risk of seropositivity (OR, 0.33 [95% CI, .14-.77], P=.010). Self-reported compliance with mask wearing during working hours was 100%; 45% of seropositive vs 5% of seronegative participants (P<.001) reported having had contact with a proven coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case living in the same household prior to serological testing. The level of serum antibody titers correlated with neutralization capacity. Antibodies derived from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection effectively neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, but were less effective against the Alpha and Beta variants. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies of police officers was comparable to that reported in the general population, suggesting that the personal protective equipment of the police is effective, and that household contacts are the leading transmission venues. The level of serum antibody titers, in particular that of anti-spike antibodies, correlated well with neutralization capacity. Low antibody titers acquired from natural infection were not effective against variants. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04643444.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260568, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is an emerging healthcare burden. The risk factors associated with PACS remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of new or persistent symptoms in COVID-19 patients post hospital discharge and identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Our prospective cohort comprised of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May and July 2020. The patients were interviewed through phone calls by trained physicians from 6 weeks up to 6 months post hospital discharge. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to examine for predictors associated with persistence of symptoms and non-return to baseline health. RESULTS: 222 COVID-19 patients responded to follow-up phone interviews after a median of 122 days post discharge. The majority of patients were men (77%) with mean age of 52.47 (± 13.95) years. 56.3% of patients complained of persistent symptoms; 66 (29.7%) experiencing them for >21 days and 64 (28.8%) reporting not having returned to their baseline health. Furthermore, 39 patients (17.6%) reported visiting an emergency room post discharge for COVID-19-related symptoms while 16 (7.2%) had required re-hospitalization. Shortness of breath (40.1%), cough (27.5%) and fatigue (29.7%) were the most frequently reported symptoms at follow-up. After multivariable adjustments, female gender, pre-existing hypertension and length of hospital stay were associated with an increased risk of new or persistent symptoms. Age, pre-existing lung disease and emergency room visits increased the likelihood of not fully recovering from acute COVID-19. Patients who were treated with interferon ß-1b based triple antiviral therapy during hospital stay were less likely to experience new or persistent symptoms and more likely to return to their baseline health. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 survivors continued to suffer from dyspnea, cough and fatigue at 4 months post hospital discharge. Several risk factors could predict which patients are more likely to experience PACS and may benefit from individualized follow-up and rehabilitation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 21-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is an emerging healthcare burden. We therefore aimed to determine predictors of different functional outcomes after hospital discharge in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: An ambidirectional cohort study was conducted between May and July 2020, in which PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients underwent a standardized telephone assessment between 6 weeks and 6 months post discharge. We excluded patients who died, had a mental illness or failed to respond to two follow-up phone calls. The medical research council (MRC) dyspnea scale, metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score for exercise tolerance, chronic fatigability syndrome (CFS) scale and World Health Organization-five well-being index (WHO-5) for mental health were used to evaluate symptoms at follow-up. RESULTS: 375 patients were contacted and 153 failed to respond. The median timing for the follow-up assessment was 122 days (IQR, 109-158). On multivariate analyses, female gender, pre-existing lung disease, headache at presentation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, critical COVID-19 and post-discharge ER visit were predictors of higher MRC scores at follow-up. Female gender, older age >67 years, arterial hypertension and emergency room (ER) visit were associated with lower MET exercise tolerance scores. Female gender, pre-existing lung disease, and ER visit were associated with higher risk of CFS. Age, dyslipidemia, hypertension, pre-existing lung disease and duration of symptoms were negatively associated with WHO-5 score. CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors were associated with an increased risk of PACS. Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who are at risk for PACS may benefit from a targeted pre-emptive follow-up and rehabilitation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Young Adult
13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(11): 2856-2860, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736612

ABSTRACT

Although there have been several case reports and simulation models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission associated with air travel, there are limited data to guide testing strategy to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission onboard commercial aircraft. Among 9853 passengers with a negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test performed within 72 hours of departure from December 2020 through May 2021, five (0.05%) passengers with active SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified with rapid antigen tests and confirmed with rapid molecular test performed before and after an international flight from the United States to Italy. This translates to a case detection rate of 1 per 1970 travelers during a time of high prevalence of active infection in the United States. A negative molecular test for SARS-CoV-2 within 72 hours of international airline departure results in a low probability of active infection identified on antigen testing during commercial airline flight.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Italy , Risk Assessment , United States
14.
J Bone Jt Infect ; 6(8): 363-366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646729

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this viewpoint is to provide a framework that is used within the Mayo Clinic to align recommendations from infectious disease experts, dental specialists, and orthopedic surgeons with regards to need for antibiotic prophylaxis prior to invasive dental procedures.

17.
Am J Med Sci ; 363(2): 140-146, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to assess the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: A retrospective institutional review was conducted at Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Patients aged ≥18 years with SAB who developed NVO from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2020 were included and 3-month follow-up data were abstracted. Data pertaining to patient demographics, risk factors and outcomes were recorded using REDCap. A 1:2 nested case-control analysis was performed, and controls were matched according to age, sex and year of SAB diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients had NVO. A majority (60.2%) of patients was male, with a median age of 62.0 years. Thirty-one (30.1%) cases were caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The lumbar spine was most commonly (57.6%) and the most commonly reported comorbid conditions included diabetes mellitus (36.9%) and coronary artery disease (27.2%). Mortality at three-month follow-up was 18.6%. Nested case-control analysis revealed that injection drug use (IDU) and tobacco consumption were significant risk factors associated with NVO, while chronic hemodialysis and chronic liver disease (CLD) were associated with a decreased risk of NVO. CONCLUSIONS: Atherosclerotic vascular disease was prominent in our contemporary cohort with NVO in the setting of SAB. Diabetes mellitus, tobacco consumption, older age and male sex likely contributed to this profile. Because IDU was associated with NVO, an increased number of cases should be anticipated among patients with IDU given the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Osteomyelitis , Staphylococcal Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab284, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins up-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), while also exhibiting pleiotropic antiviral, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Uncertainties exist about their effect on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We sought to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to examine the association between prior statin use and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and the preprint server medRxiv from inception to December 2020. We assessed the quality of eligible studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa quality scale. We pooled adjusted relative risk (aRRs) of the association between prior statin use and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model and assessed heterogeneity using the I 2 index. RESULTS: Overall, 19 (16 cohorts and 3 case-control) studies were eligible, with a total of 395 513 patients. Sixteen of 19 studies had low or moderate risk of bias. Among 109 080 patients enrolled in 13 separate studies, prior statin use was associated with a lower risk of mortality (pooled aRR, 0.65 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .56-.77], I 2 = 84.1%) and a reduced risk of severe COVID-19 was also observed in 48 110 patients enrolled in 9 studies (pooled aRR, 0.73 [95% CI, .57-.94], I 2 = 82.8%), with no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative evidence suggests that prior statin use is associated with lower risks of mortality or severe disease in patients with COVID-19. These data support the continued use of statins medications in patients with an indication for lipid-lowering therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 255-259, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of the microbiological aetiology of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is essential to its management. Contemporary literature from the United States on this topic is lacking. This study aimed to identify the most common microorganisms associated with types of arthroplasty, the timing of infection, and clues to polymicrobial infection. METHODS: We performed an analytical cross-sectional study of patients 18 years of age or older with hip or knee PJI diagnosed at our institution between 2010 and 2019. PJI was defined using the criteria adapted from those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Cases included PJI associated with primary or revision arthroplasty and arthroplasty performed at our institution or elsewhere. RESULTS: A total of 2067 episodes of PJI in 1651 patients were included. Monomicrobial infections represented 70% of episodes (n = 1448), with 25% being polymicrobial (n = 508) and the rest (5%, n = 111) culture-negative. The most common group causing PJI was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (other than S. ludgunensis) (37%, n = 761). The distribution of most common organisms was similar regardless of arthroplasty type. The S. aureus complex, Gram-negative bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria (other than Cutibacterium species) were more likely to be isolated than other organisms in the first year following index arthroplasty (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.4-2.2; OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0; and OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2, respectively). The proportion of culture-negative PJIs was higher in primary than revision arthroplasty (6.5% versus 3%, p 0.0005). The presence of a sinus tract increased the probability of the isolation of more than one microorganism by almost three-fold (OR 2.6, 95%CI 2.0-3.3). CONCLUSIONS: Joint age, presence of a sinus tract, and revision arthroplasties influenced PJI microbiology.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus
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