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1.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720954687, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease which usually presents with respiratory symptoms. This virus is disseminated through respiratory droplets, and, therefore, individuals residing in close quarters are at a higher risk for the acquisition of infection. The prison population is at a significantly increased risk for infection. METHODS: Prisoners from the Montford Correctional facility in Lubbock, Texas, hospitalized in the medical intensive care unit at University Medical Center between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020 were compared to community-based patients hospitalized in the same medical intensive care unit. Clinical information, laboratory results, radiographic results, management requirements, and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 15 community-based patients with a mean age of 67.4 ± 15.5 years were compared to 5 prisoners with a mean age of 56.0 ± 9.0 years. All prisoners were men; 10 community-based patients were men. Prisoners presented with fever, dyspnea, and GI symptoms. The mean number of comorbidities in prisoners was 2.4 compared to 1.8 in community-based patients. Prisoners had significantly lower heart rates and respiratory rates at presentation than community-based patients. The mean length of stay in prisoners was 12.6 ± 8.9 days; the mean length of stay in community-based patients was 8.6 ± 6.5. The case fatality rate was 60% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prisoners were younger than community-based patients but required longer lengths of stay and had the same mortality rate. This study provides a basis for comparisons with future studies which could involve new treatment options currently under study.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Texas/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720971390, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has a major impact on first responders. Scarce personal protective equipment (PPE) has forced them to conserve and reuse some of their PPE. The efficacy of these practices in preventing transmission of COVID-19 from patients to first responders is unclear. There are limited data on the prevalence of antibodies specific for COVID-19 exposure in these front-line workers. AIM: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of positive immunoglobulin G antibody specific to COVID-19 among first responders in Lubbock, Texas. METHODS: Blood samples were collected on 683 asymptomatic first responders who work in Lubbock, Texas and the surrounding area, after informed consents were signed. IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2 was measured using Abbott's SARS-CoV-2 IgG Reagent Kit in combination with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG Calibrator Kit on the Abbott's ARCHITECT i1000SR analyzer. RESULTS: The prevalence of IgG specific antibodies to COVID-19 was 0.73%, five of the 683 participants tested positive. Four of those who tested positive had no known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure without adequate PPE. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IgG specific antibodies to COVID-19 was much lower than expected in our study population despite high sensitivity and specificity of the test reagent. The most likely explanations for this finding include limited exposure, inadequate time for a IgG response, possible clearance of COVID-19 infection locally by the respiratory tract IgA defense system without eliciting a systemic IgG response, and short persistence of IgG antibodies in mild or asymptomatic cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Emergency Responders , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cities , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720970717, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901799

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic subclinical infections to severe acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Patients admitted to the hospital have increased mortality rates and patients requiring intensive care have significantly increased mortality rates. Multiple factors influence these outcomes. This study used simple demographic information available on admission to evaluate possible associations between these variables and outcomes, including mortality and length of stay. Clinical outcomes in 63 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in West Texas were reviewed. Older patients, patients admitted from nursing homes, and patients admitted to medical intensive care units had increased mortality. Unadjusted analysis indicated that males had increased mortality. Adjusted analysis indicated that males spent nearly 5 days longer in the hospital than females. In summary, age, chronic illness requiring nursing home placement, and acute severe illness requiring intensive care unit admission identify patients with worse prognoses. In addition, males will likely have a longer length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Texas/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 34(1): 76-80, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845761

ABSTRACT

Health care under the jurisdiction of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice has evolved over time to provide prisoners greater access to medical care, including psychiatric care and substance abuse assistance. Mental illness and chronic conditions, such as hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and heart disease, are common in prisoners in Texas and across the nation and increase the cost of health care. The average annual health care cost per prisoner in Texas was $4077 in 2015. Although the Texas prison system has undergone changes, such as the use of telemedicine and protocols for preventive measures, to address the varying medical needs of prisoners in correctional facilities, there is still considerable criticism regarding prison policies and incomplete access to medical care. In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has added significant stress to correctional health care in Texas and highlights the importance of organized health care for prisoners. This report reviews the history and evolution of health care delivery in Texas's correctional facilities, outlines ongoing efforts to improve medical care in prison facilities, and describes current policies to limit COVID-19 infections in Texas prisons.

5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720958533, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hyperglycemia during hospitalization, especially during ICU hospitalizations, often have worse outcomes, even if they do not have a premorbid diagnosis of diabetes. High glucose levels can provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of a disease and can contribute to tissue injury. Some patients with COVID-19 have hyperglycemia during hospitalizations. METHODS: The Infectious Disease and Control office at University Medical Center in Lubbock, Texas, provided a list of patients with a COVID-19 infection hospitalized between March 1 and May 15, 2020. The medical records were reviewed to collect information on age, gender, history of diabetes, and glucose levels on admission and through the first 7 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: This study included 63 patients with a mean age of 62.1 ± 14.1 years. Thirty-five patients (55.6%) were males. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30.2%. The mean admission glucose level was 129.4 ± 57.1 mg/dL in patients who survived (N = 47) and 189.6 ± 112.2 mg/dL in patients who died during hospitalization (N = 16, P = .007). An admission glucose greater than 180 mg/dL predicted mortality in a model adjusted for a diabetes, age, and male gender. The mean differences between the maximum and minimum glucose levels calculated over the first 7 days of hospitalization were 112.93 ± 115.4 (N = 47) in patients who survived and were 240.5 ± 97.7 (N = 15) in patients who died during hospitalization (P = .0003). A difference between the maximum and minimum glucose level greater than 105 mg/dL was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who died during hospitalization for COVID-19 had higher admission glucose levels than patients who survived. Larger differences between maximum and minimum glucose levels during the first 7 days of hospitalization were associated with increased mortality. These results suggest that high glucose levels identify patients at increased risk for mortality and warrant more study.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Texas/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
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