Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969126

ABSTRACT

Since the identification of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a huge effort in terms of diagnostic strategies has been deployed. To date, serological assays represent a valuable tool for the identification of recovered COVID-19 patients and for the monitoring of immune response elicited by vaccination. However, the role of T-cell response should be better clarified and simple and easy to perform assays should be routinely introduced. The main aim of this study was to compare a home-made assay for whole blood stimulation with a standardized ELISpot assay design in our laboratory for the assessment of spike-specific T-cell response in vaccinated subjects. Even if a good correlation between the assays was reported, a higher percentage of responder subjects was reported for immunocompromised subjects with ELISpot assay (56%) than home-made whole blood stimulation assay (33%). Additionally, three commercial assays were compared with our home-made assay, reporting a good agreement in terms of both positive and negative results.

2.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse humoral and cellular immune response to messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GCA receiving two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were assessed at baseline and three weeks from the second vaccine dose. Healthy subjects (n = 51) were included as controls (HC). Humoral response was assessed with Spike-specific IgG antibody response (S-IgG) and neutralising antibodies (NtAb). Specific T cell response was assessed by Enzyme linked immunospot (ELISpot). RESULTS: Of 56 included patients with GCA, 44 were eligible after exclusion of previous evidence of COVID-19 and incomplete follow-up. A significant proportion of patients with GCA (91%) demonstrated antibody (S-IgG) response, however this was significantly lower than HC (100%); p< 0.0001. Neutralising activity was not detected in 16% of patients with GCA. Antibody titres (S-IgG and NtAb) were significantly lower compared with HC. Humoral response (S-IgG and NtAb) was significantly hampered by treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Cellular response was lacking in 30% of patients with GCA (vs 0% in HC); p< 0.0001. Cellular response was significantly influenced by the levels of baseline peripheral T-lymphocytes and by glucocorticoid treatment. Treatment with tocilizumab did not affect any level of the immune response elicited by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with GCA apparently achieve a robust antibody seroconversion, there is a significant impairment of the neutralising activity. MTX significantly reduced all levels of the humoral response. Up to one third of patients do not develop a cellular immune protection in response to COVID-19 vaccination.

3.
Diagnostics ; 12(6):1509, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1893866

ABSTRACT

Since the identification of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a huge effort in terms of diagnostic strategies has been deployed. To date, serological assays represent a valuable tool for the identification of recovered COVID-19 patients and for the monitoring of immune response elicited by vaccination. However, the role of T-cell response should be better clarified and simple and easy to perform assays should be routinely introduced. The main aim of this study was to compare a home-made assay for whole blood stimulation with a standardized ELISpot assay design in our laboratory for the assessment of spike-specific T-cell response in vaccinated subjects. Even if a good correlation between the assays was reported, a higher percentage of responder subjects was reported for immunocompromised subjects with ELISpot assay (56%) than home-made whole blood stimulation assay (33%). Additionally, three commercial assays were compared with our home-made assay, reporting a good agreement in terms of both positive and negative results.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884445

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has severely impacted on public health, mainly on immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. Vaccination represents a valuable tool for the prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines has been evaluated in transplanted patients. In this study, we investigated the role of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients, analyzing both humoral and cell-mediated responses. We observed an increased immune response after the third dose of the vaccine, especially in terms of Spike-specific T cell response. The level of seroconversion remained lower than 50% even after the administration of the third dose. Mycophenolate treatment, steroid administration and age seemed to be associated with a poor immune response. In our cohort, 11/45 patients experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection after the third vaccine dose. HLA antibodies appearance was recorded in 7 out 45 (15.5%) patients, but none of the patients developed acute renal rejection. Further studies for the evaluation of long-term immune responses are still ongoing, and the impact of a fourth dose of the vaccine will be evaluated.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315452

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 vaccine was introduced in Italy on 27th December 2020 and healthcare workers were rapidly vaccinated. In this study, we demonstrated that one vaccine dose was sufficient for eliciting a sustained humoral and cell-mediated response in SARS-CoV-2 experienced healthcare workers but had a lower effect in SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects. However, 98% naïve subjects developed both neutralizing antibodies and Spike-specific T-cells after the second dose. Moreover, the antibody and T-cell responses were effective against viral variants since a partial reduction in antibody response was observed only against the South-African variant in SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, while the T-cell response was less affected.

6.
iScience ; 25(2): 103743, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611783

ABSTRACT

Information concerning the longevity of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection may have considerable implications for durability of immunity induced by vaccines. Here, we monitored the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in COVID-19 patients followed up to 15 months after symptoms onset. Following a peak at day 15-28 postinfection, the IgG antibody response and plasma neutralizing titers gradually decreased over time but stabilized after 6 months. Compared to G614, plasma neutralizing titers were more than 8-fold lower against variants Beta, Gamma, and Delta. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cells persisted in the majority of patients up to 15 months although a significant decrease in specific T cells, but not B cells, was observed between 6 and 15 months. Antiviral specific immunity, especially memory B cells in COVID-19 convalescent patients, is long-lasting, but some variants of concern may at least partially escape the neutralizing activity of plasma antibodies.

7.
Microorganisms ; 9(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580570

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in immunocompromised patients remains to be further explored. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity elicited by complete vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). A cohort of 110 SOTRs from Northern Italy were vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and prospectively monitored at baseline and after 42 days. Both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered subjects were included. Humoral response elicited by vaccination, including SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs), was evaluated; additionally, ex-vivo ELISpot assay was performed for the quantification of Spike-specific T-cell response. Results were compared with those obtained in a cohort of healthy subjects. In a subset of patients, humoral and T-cell responses against delta variant were also evaluated. Less than 20% of transplanted subjects developed a positive humoral and cell-mediated response after complete vaccination schedule. Overall, median levels of immune response elicited by vaccination were significantly lower with respect to controls in SARS-CoV-2 naïve transplant, but not in SARS-CoV-2 recovered transplanted patients. Additionally, a significant impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated response was observed in mycophenolate-treated patients. Positive delta-SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs levels were detected in almost all the SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects but not in previously uninfected patients. Our study supports previous observations of a low level of seroconversion after vaccination in transplanted patients.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295856

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p=0.001). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.

10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 301.e1-301.e8, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474453

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the humoral and cell-mediated response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) elicited by the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-experienced and -naive subjects against a reference strain and SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS: The humoral response (including neutralizing antibodies) and T-cell-mediated response elicited by BNT162b2 vaccine in 145 healthcare workers (both naive and positive for previous SARS-CoV-2 infection) were evaluated. In a subset of subjects, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants on antibody level and cell-mediated response was also investigated. RESULTS: Overall, 125/127 naive subjects (98.4%) developed both neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells after the second dose of vaccine. Moreover, the antibody and T-cell responses were effective against viral variants since SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs were still detectable in 55/68 (80.9%) and 25/29 (86.2%) naive subjects when sera were challenged against ß and δ variants, respectively. T-cell response was less affected, with no significant difference in the frequency of responders (p 0.369). Of note, two doses of vaccine were able to elicit sustained neutralizing antibody activity against all the SARS-CoV-2 variants tested in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccine elicited a sustained humoral and cell-mediated response in immunocompetent subjects after two-dose administration of the vaccine, and the response seemed to be less affected by SARS-CoV-2 variants, the only exceptions being the ß and δ variants. Increased immunogenicity, also against SARS-CoV-2 variant strains, was observed in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects. These results suggest that triple exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens might be proposed as valuable strategy for vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6032, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p = 0.01). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438507

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality have been often attributed to an exaggerated immune response. The role of cytokines and chemokines in COVID-19 and their contributions to illness severity are known, and thus their profiling from patient bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples would help in understanding the disease progression. To date, limited studies have been performed on COVID-19 BAL samples, as the manipulation of such specimens (potentially containing live viruses) requires several laboratorial precautions, such as personnel training and special equipment, a requirement that not all laboratories can fulfil. Here, we assessed two fast and easily applicable methods (ultrafiltration and ultraviolet-C irradiation) for their impact on viral load removal or inactivation, respectively and on cytokine profiles preservation. Eight samples of BAL fluids from SARS-CoV2 patients with high viral load were tested. For both methods, complete removal was confirmed by lack of viral replication in Vero E6 cells and by RT-qPCR. Although both methods showed to remove completely the active SARS-CoV2 viral load, only UVC treatment has little or no quantitative effect on total cytokines/chemokines measurements, however cytokines profile and relative ratios are preserved or minimally altered when compared data obtained by the two different decontamination methods. Sample preparation and manipulation can greatly affect the analytical results; therefore, understanding if changes occurred after sample processing is of outmost importance for reliable data and can be useful to improve clinical practice.

13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1029-1034, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response characterization represents a crucial issue for defining the role of immune protection against COVID-19. The aim of the study was to assess the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in a cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients and in a group of unexposed subjects. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 87 COVID-19 convalescent subjects (range 7-239 days after symptom onset) and 33 unexposed donors by ex vivo ELISpot assay. Follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was performed in ten subjects up to 12 months after symptom onset. The role of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was characterized in a group of COVID-19 convalescent subjects. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies were determined in serum samples. RESULTS: In 14/33 (42.4%) unexposed donors and 85/87 (97.7%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects a positive result for at least one SARS-CoV-2 antigen was observed. A positive response was observed up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection (median 246 days after symptom onset; range 118-362 days). Of note, SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response seems to be mainly mediated by CD4 T cells. A weak positive correlation was observed between Spike-specific T-cell response and neutralizing antibody titre (p 0.0028; r2 = 0.2891) and positive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was observed in 8/9 (88.9%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. DISCUSSION: Cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in uninfected patients may be due to previous infections with other common coronaviruses. Our data suggest that long-term SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response might accompany a waning humoral response.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Med (N Y) ; 2(3): 281-295.e4, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring the adaptive immune responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides useful information for the development of vaccination strategies against this virus and its emerging variants. We thus profiled the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) levels and specific memory B and T cell responses in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A total of 119 samples from 88 convalescent donors who experienced mild to critical disease were tested for the presence of elevated anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain Ab levels over a period of 8 months. In addition, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Abs and specific memory B and T cell responses were tested in a subset of samples. FINDINGS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs were present in 85% of the samples collected within 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Levels of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgA Abs declined after 1 month, while levels of specific IgG Abs and plasma neutralizing activities remained relatively stable up to 6 months after diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were still present, although at a significantly lower level, in 80% of the samples collected at 6-8 months after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cell responses developed with time and were persistent in all of the patients followed up for 6-8 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that protective adaptive immunity following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 may persist for at least 6-8 months, regardless of disease severity. Development of medium- or long-term protective immunity through vaccination may thus be possible. FUNDING: This project was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ATAC, no. 101003650), the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Finalizzata grant no. GR-2013-02358399), the Center for Innovative Medicine, and the Swedish Research Council. J.A. was supported by the SciLifeLab/KAW national COVID-19 research program project grant 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 299-302, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060235

ABSTRACT

Real-time reverse transcription PCR is currently the most sensitive method to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Defining whether a patient could be contagious or not contagious in the presence of residual SARS-CoV-2 RNA is of extreme importance in the context of public health. In this prospective multicenter study, virus isolation was prospectively attempted in 387 nasal swabs from clinically recovered patients showing low viral load (quantification cycle, Cq, value greater than 30). The median Cq value was 36.8 (range 30.0-39.4). Overall, a cytopathic effect was detected in nine samples, corresponding to a culture positivity rate of 2.3% (9/387). The results of this study help to dissect true virus replication and residual viral RNA detection in recovered patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Viral Load , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL