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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096121

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the temporal evolution of vaccination against COVID-19 in a Swiss oncological cohort. METHODS: History of complete vaccination (i.e. at least two vaccine doses) against COVID-19 of patients undergoing oncological 18F-FDG PET/CT between February and September 2021 (n = 2613) was taken. Vaccination rate was compared with age-matched national data from the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Subgroup differences in temporal evolution of vaccination rate were analyzed by fitting a generalized linear model and determined by significant interaction between, sex, oncological diagnosis, and month of examination. RESULTS: Rate of complete vaccination against COVID-19 steadily increased and reached 81 % in September 2021. The fraction of vaccinated patients in the oncological cohort was higher in the beginning and approached the fraction in the age-matched general Swiss population at the end of the study period. Month of exam (p < 0.001) was the only significant predictor of the vaccination rate. CONCLUSION: Vaccination rate against COVID-19 in a Swiss oncological cohort increased steadily from February to September 2021. Compared to the age-matched general population it was higher in the beginning and similar by the end of the study period. Ethics approval: Trial registration: BASEC 2021-00444, Ethikkommission Zürich (Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich), Switzerland, registered February 24th 2021.

2.
BJR Open ; 4(1): 20210084, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021422

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the frequency and intensity of [18F]-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-1007 axillary uptake in lymph nodes ipsilateral to COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in patients with prostate cancer referred for oncological [18F]-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/CT or PET/MR imaging. Methods: 126 patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MR imaging were retrospectively included. [18F]-PSMA activity (maximum standardized uptake value) of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes was measured and compared with the non-vaccinated contralateral side and with a non-vaccinated negative control group. [18F]-PSMA active lymph node metastases were measured to serve as quantitative reference. Results: There was a significant difference in maximum standardized uptake value in ipsilateral and compared to contralateral axillary lymph nodes in the vaccination group (n = 63, p < 0.001) and no such difference in the non-vaccinated control group (n = 63, p = 0.379). Vaccinated patients showed mildly increased axillary lymph node [18F]-PSMA uptake as compared to non-vaccinated patients (p = 0.03). [18F]-PSMA activity of of lymph node metastases was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to axillary lymph nodes of vaccinated patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest mildly increased [18F]-PSMA uptake after COVID-19 vaccination in ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. However, given the significantly higher [18F]-PSMA uptake of prostatic lymph node metastases compared to "reactive" nodes after COVID-19 vaccination, no therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma is to be expected. Advances in knowledge: No specific preparations or precautions (e.g. adaption of vaccination scheduling) need to be undertaken in patients undergoing [18F]-PSMA PET imaging after COVID-19 vaccination.

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30214, 2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We present an adolescent with cardiogenic shock due to ventricular tachycardia 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acute myocarditis or myocardial dysfunction is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but diagnosis may be difficult, even including endomyocardial biopsy. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old healthy adolescent was admitted to our hospital 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection with cardiogenic shock due to ventricular tachycardia. After cardioversion, antiarrhythmic treatment, ventilation, and inotropic support, the severely reduced myocardial function recovered completely within 2 weeks. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac catheterisation including right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed an increased number of CD68+ macrophages in the myocardium, but nested (RT-) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations revealed no viral or bacterial DNA/RNA. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with myocarditis leading to life-threatening arrhythmia and severe myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, which may be short lasting and completely recover. Although former SARS-Cov-2 infection might suggest SARS-CoV-2-associated myocarditis, definite histological diagnosis including nested PCR investigations remains difficult.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Adolescent , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30105, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the periods of time during and after the first wave of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic in Europe are compared, the associated COVID-19 mortality seems to have decreased substantially. Various factors could explain this trend, including changes in demographic characteristics of infected persons and the improvement of case management. To date, no study has been performed to investigate the evolution of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in Switzerland, while also accounting for risk factors. METHODS: We investigated the trends in COVID-19-related mortality (in-hospital and in-intermediate/intensive-care) over time in Switzerland, from February 2020 to June 2021, comparing in particular the first and the second wave. We used data from the COVID-19 Hospital-based Surveillance (CH-SUR) database. We performed survival analyses adjusting for well-known risk factors of COVID-19 mortality (age, sex and comorbidities) and accounting for competing risk. RESULTS: Our analysis included 16,984 patients recorded in CH-SUR, with 2201 reported deaths due to COVID-19 (13.0%). We found that overall in-hospital mortality was lower during the second wave of COVID-19 than in the first wave (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63- 0.78; p <0.001), a decrease apparently not explained by changes in demographic characteristics of patients. In contrast, mortality in intermediate and intensive care significantly increased in the second wave compared with the first wave (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49; p = 0.029), with significant changes in the course of hospitalisation between the first and the second wave. CONCLUSION: We found that, in Switzerland, COVID-19 mortality decreased among hospitalised persons, whereas it increased among patients admitted to intermediate or intensive care, when comparing the second wave to the first wave. We put our findings in perspective with changes over time in case management, treatment strategy, hospital burden and non-pharmaceutical interventions. Further analyses of the potential effect of virus variants and of vaccination on mortality would be crucial to have a complete overview of COVID-19 mortality trends throughout the different phases of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687290

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
9.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 710785, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581254

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the predictive value of symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, and SARS-CoV-2 exposure in household, school, and community setting for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in Swiss schoolchildren at two time points in 2020. Design: Serological testing of children in primary and secondary schools (aged 6-13 and 12-16 years, respectively) took place in June-July (T1) and October-November (T2) 2020, as part of the longitudinal, school-based study Ciao Corona in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history was collected with questionnaires to parents; information on school-level SARS-CoV-2 infections was collected with questionnaires to school principals. Community-level cumulative incidence was obtained from official statistics. We used logistic regression to identify individual predictors of seropositivity and assessed the predictive performance of symptom- and exposure-based prediction models. Results: A total of 2,496 children (74 seropositive) at T1 and 2,152 children (109 seropositive) at T2 were included. Except for anosmia (odds ratio 15.4, 95% confidence interval [3.4-70.7]) and headache (2.0 [1.03-3.9]) at T2, none of the individual symptoms were significantly predictive of seropositivity at either time point. Of all the exposure variables, a reported SARS-CoV-2 case in the household was the strongest predictor for seropositivity at T1 (12.4 [5.8-26.7]) and T2 (10.8 [4.5-25.8]). At both time points, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was greater for exposure-based (T1, 0.69; T2, 0.64) than symptom-based prediction models (T1, 0.59; T2, 0.57). Conclusions: In children, retrospective identification of past SARS-CoV-2 infections based on symptoms is imprecise. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is better predicted by factors of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, especially reported SARS-CoV-2 cases in the household. Predicting SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children in general is challenging, as few reliable predictors could be identified. For an accurate retrospective identification of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children, serological tests are likely indispensable. Trial registration number: NCT04448717.

10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30090, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574447

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-licensure surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is critical for detecting rare but severe AEFI. SmartVax software, using smartphone technology, actively solicits reports of AEFI via automated, opt-out SMS surveys to vaccine recipients in the days following immunisation. We report on a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptance of SmartVax in Switzerland. METHODS: Between February and September 2020, consecutive subjects immunised at an adult immunisation clinic and the employee health service at the University Hospital of Basel were screened. Participants included three subgroups: healthcare workers (HCW), subjects with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) and clients of the regular adult immunisation clinic. Three days after vaccination, participants received an SMS inquiring if they had any AEFI. In the case of an AEFI, subjects received an automated SMS with a link to an online survey assessing the type and temporal evolution of the AEFI. Descriptive statistics of response rate, time-to-response, frequency and type of AEFI by vaccine and clinical subgroup were performed. RESULTS: Of 293 subjects screened, 276 were included (46.6% routine vaccination check-up visits, 33.3% HCW, 20.1% IMID patients) receiving 625 vaccinations during 360 immunisation visits. The SMS response rate was high (90.3%), with a median time-to-respond of 47 minutes (interquartile range11-205). After 29.8% of immunisation visits at least one AEFI was reported. There were no differences in frequency or type of AEFI between the three clinical subgroups. The recombinant, adjuvanted zoster vaccine Shingrix® was associated with the highest rate of local and systemic reactions. CONCLUSION: Monitoring post-licensure vaccine safety using the active SMS-based surveillance system SmartVax is feasible in Switzerland. We observed a high acceptance in the diverse study population, including healthcare workers and IMID patients. High response rates in the elderly and reliable monitoring almost in real-time make SmartVax a promising tool for COVID-19 vaccine safety monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vaccination
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30084, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573820

ABSTRACT

We report the occurrence of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in a 77-year-old man a few days after receiving the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine tozinameran (Comirnaty®). The patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and eltrombopag. He elected to proceed with the second dose of tozinameran 14 weeks after the first and his platelet count remained stable under a tapered eltrombopag dose. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a second tozinameran dose has been administered to a patient who developed presumed secondary ITP after the first vaccination. We also report global pharmacovigilance data for the occurrence of ITP after vaccination with tozinameran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294009

ABSTRACT

Determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in the context of pre-existing immunity to circulating human coronavirus (HCoV) is critical to understanding protective immunity. Here we perform a multifactorial analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV antibody responses in pre-pandemic (N=825) and SARS-CoV-2-infected donors (N=389) using a custom-designed multiplex ABCORA assay. ABCORA seroprofiling, when combined with computational modeling, enables accurate definition of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and prediction of neutralization activity, and reveals intriguing interrelations with HCoV immunity. Specifically, higher HCoV antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2-negative donors suggest that preexisting HCoV immunity may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. In those infected, higher HCoV activity is associated with elevated SARS-CoV-2 responses, indicating cross-stimulation. Most importantly, HCoV immunity may impact disease severity, as patients with high HCoV reactivity are less likely to require hospitalization. Collectively, this evidence points to HCoV immunity promoting the rapid development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity, underscoring the importance of exploring cross-protective responses for comprehensive coronavirus prevention.

13.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30092, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in schools in 2021, with the advent of variants of concern. We aimed to examine the evolution of the proportion of seropositive children at schools from June-July 2020 to March-April 2021. We also examined symptoms, under-detection of infections, potential preventive effect of face masks, and reasons for non-participation in the study. METHODS: Children in lower (7­10 years), middle (8­13 years) and upper (12­17 years) school levels in randomly selected schools and classes in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, were invited to participate in the prospective cohort study Ciao Corona. Three testing rounds were completed in June-July 2020, October-November 2020 and March-April 2021. From 5230 invited, 2974 children from 275 classes in in 55 schools participated in at least one testing round. We measured SARS-CoV-2 serology in venous blood, and parents filled in questionnaires on sociodemographic information and symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of children seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 increased from 1.5% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.6­2.6%) by June-July 2020, to 6.6% (4.0­8.9%) by October-November, and to 16.4% (12.1­19.5%) by March-April 2021. By March-April 2021, children in upper school level (12.4%; 7.3­16.7%) were less likely to be seropositive than those in middle (19.5%; 14.2­24.4%) or lower school levels (16.0%; 11.0­20.4%). The ratio of PCR-diagnosed to all seropositive children changed from one to 21.7 (by June-July 2020) to one to 3.5 (by March-April 2021). Potential clusters of three or more newly seropositive children were detected in 24 of 119 (20%) classes, 17 from which could be expected by chance. Clustering was not higher than expected by chance in middle and upper school levels. Children in the upper school level, who were wearing face masks at school from November 2020, had a 5.1% (95% confidence interval 9.4% to 0.7%) lower than expected seroprevalence by March-April 2021 than those in middle school level, based on difference-in-differences analysis. Symptoms were reported by 37% of newly seropositive and 16% seronegative children. Fear of blood sampling (64%) was the most frequently reported reason for non-participation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of seropositive children increased from 1.5% in June-July 2020 to 16.4% in March-April 2021, few infections were likely associated with potential spread within schools. In March-April 2021, significant clustering of seropositive children within classes was observed only in the lower school level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Prospective Studies , Schools , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6703, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526075

ABSTRACT

Determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in the context of pre-existing immunity to circulating human coronavirus (HCoV) is critical for understanding protective immunity. Here we perform a multifactorial analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV antibody responses in pre-pandemic (N = 825) and SARS-CoV-2-infected donors (N = 389) using a custom-designed multiplex ABCORA assay. ABCORA seroprofiling, when combined with computational modeling, enables accurate definition of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and prediction of neutralization activity, and reveals intriguing interrelations with HCoV immunity. Specifically, higher HCoV antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2-negative donors suggest that pre-existing HCoV immunity may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. In those infected, higher HCoV activity is associated with elevated SARS-CoV-2 responses, indicating cross-stimulation. Most importantly, HCoV immunity may impact disease severity, as patients with high HCoV reactivity are less likely to require hospitalization. Collectively, our results suggest that HCoV immunity may promote rapid development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity, thereby underscoring the importance of exploring cross-protective responses for comprehensive coronavirus prevention.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism
15.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30057, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403974

ABSTRACT

In anticipation of an interseasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic, a clinician-led reporting system was rapidly established to capture RSV infections in Swiss hospitals, starting in January 2021. Here, we present details of the reporting system and first results to June 2021. An unusual epidemiology was observed with an interseasonal surge of RSV infections associated with COVID-19-related non-pharmacological interventions. These data allowed real-time adjustment of RSV prophylaxis guidelines and consequently underscore the need for and continuation of systematic nationwide RSV surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
16.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348674

ABSTRACT

Early identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is central to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) serve as a specimen for detection by RT-PCR and rapid antigen screening tests. Saliva has been confirmed as a reliable alternative specimen for RT-PCR and has been shown to be valuable for diagnosing children and in repetitive mass testing due to its non-invasive collection. Combining the advantages of saliva with those of antigen tests would be highly attractive to further increase test capacities. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 Antigen assay (Roche) in RT-PCR-positive paired NPS and saliva samples (N = 87) and unpaired NPS (N = 100) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (Roche cobas SARS-CoV-2 IVD test). We observed a high positive percent agreement (PPA) of the antigen assay with RT-PCR in NPS, reaching 87.2% across the entire cohort, whereas the overall PPA for saliva was insufficient (40.2%). At Ct values ≤ 28, PPA were 100% and 91.2% for NPS and saliva, respectively. At lower viral loads, the sensitivity loss of the antigen assay in saliva was striking. At Ct values ≤ 35, the PPA for NPS remained satisfactory (91.5%), whereas the PPA for saliva dropped to 46.6%. In conclusion, saliva cannot be recommended as a reliable alternative to NPS for testing with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antigen assay. As saliva is successfully used broadly in combination with RT-PCR testing, it is critical to create awareness that suitability for RT-PCR cannot be translated to implementation in antigen assays without thorough evaluation of each individual test system.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047483, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in school children and the relationship with self-reported symptoms. DESIGN: Baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study (Ciao Corona) from June to July 2020. SETTING: 55 schools stratified by district in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: 2585 children (1339 girls; median age: 11 years, age range: 6-16 years), attending grades 1-2, 4-5 and 7-8. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variation in seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in children across 12 cantonal districts, schools and grades, assessed using Luminex-based test of four epitopes for IgG, IgA and IgM (Antibody Coronavirus Assay,ABCORA 2.0). Clustering of cases within classes. Association of seropositivity and symptoms. Comparison with seroprevalence in adult population, assessed using Luminex-based test of IgG and IgA (Sensitive Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike Trimer Immunoglobulin Serological test). RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.5% to 4.1%), ranging from 1.0% to 4.5% across districts. Seroprevalence in grades 1-2 was 3.8% (95% CI 2.0% to 6.1%), in grades 4-5 was 2.4% (95% CI 1.1% to 4.2%) and in grades 7-8 was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.0%). At least one seropositive child was present in 36 of 55 (65%) schools and in 44 (34%) of 131 classes where ≥5 children and ≥50% of children within the class were tested. 73% of children reported COVID-19-compatible symptoms since January 2020, with the same frequency in seropositive and seronegative children for all symptoms. Seroprevalence of children and adults was similar (3.2%, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 5.0% vs 3.6%, 95% CrI 1.7% to 5.4%). The ratio of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence-to-seropositive cases was 1:89 in children and 1:12 in adults. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was low in children and similar to that in adults by the end of June 2020. Very low ratio of diagnosed-to-seropositive children was observed. We did not detect clustering of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive children within classes, but the follow-up of this study will shed more light on transmission within schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04448717.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Schools , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
18.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(7): 002617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is limited experience regarding the meaning of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after vaccination in patients with naturally acquired immunity. METHODS: We describe the case of a patient who received the first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine 6 months after his recovery from moderately severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Our patient had a positive nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM titre with 78.7 multiple of cut-off indicating persistent humoral immune response 6 months after infection. After vaccination, he developed prolonged systemic symptoms (fever, fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea and myalgia) for a duration of 6 days. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies provide information about naturally acquired immunity. For the assessment of immune response to vaccination, measurement of the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titre before and after vaccination is essential. Patients with naturally acquired immunity might develop a prolonged systemic reaction to the first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. LEARNING POINTS: Patients with naturally acquired immunity might develop a prolonged systemic reaction after receiving an mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.Depending on the clinical situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination, different antibody titres should be determined.The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies provide information on whether or not natural immunization has taken place. To quantify the immune response induced by vaccination, the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titre before and after vaccination has to be measured.

19.
Eur Radiol ; 32(1): 508-516, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, intensity, and clinical impact of [18F]FDG-avidity of axillary lymph nodes after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in patients referred for oncological FDG PET/CT. METHODS: One hundred forty patients referred for FDG PET/CT during February and March 2021 after first or second vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna were retrospectively included. FDG-avidity of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes was measured and compared. Assuming no knowledge of prior vaccination, metastatic risk was analyzed by two readers and the clinical impact was evaluated. RESULTS: FDG PET/CT showed FDG-avid lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccine injection in 75/140 (54%) patients with a mean SUVmax of 5.1 (range 2.0 - 17.3). FDG-avid lymph nodes were more frequent in patients vaccinated with Moderna than Pfizer-BioNTech (36/50 [72%] vs. 39/90 [43%] cases, p < 0.001). Metastatic risk of unilateral FDG-avid axillary lymph nodes was rated unlikely in 52/140 (37%), potential in 15/140 (11%), and likely in 8/140 (6%) cases. Clinical management was affected in 17/140 (12%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-avid axillary lymph nodes are common after COVID-19 vaccination. The avidity of lymph nodes is more frequent in Moderna compared to that in Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines. To avoid relatively frequent clinical dilemmas, we recommend carefully taking the history for prior vaccination in patients undergoing FDG PET/CT and administering the vaccine contralateral to primary cancer. KEY POINTS: • PET/CT showed FDG-avid axillary lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site in 54% of 140 oncological patients after COVID-19 vaccination. • FDG-avid lymphadenopathy was observed significantly more frequently in Moderna compared to patients receiving Pfizer-BioNTech-vaccines. • Patients should be screened for prior COVID-19 vaccination before undergoing PET/CT to enable individually tailored recommendations for clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 667507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268270

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a new disease entity emerged, defined as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In the absence of trials, evidence for treatment remains scarce. Purpose: To develop best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PIMS-TS in Switzerland. It is acknowledged that the field is changing rapidly, and regular revisions in the coming months are pre-planned as evidence is increasing. Methods: Consensus guidelines for best practice were established by a multidisciplinary group of Swiss pediatric clinicians with expertise in intensive care, immunology/rheumatology, infectious diseases, hematology, and cardiology. Subsequent to literature review, four working groups established draft recommendations which were subsequently adapted in a modified Delphi process. Recommendations had to reach >80% agreement for acceptance. Results: The group achieved agreement on 26 recommendations, which specify diagnostic approaches and interventions across anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and support therapies, and follow-up for children with suspected PIMS-TS. A management algorithm was derived to guide treatment depending on the phenotype of presentation, categorized into PIMS-TS with (a) shock, (b) Kawasaki-disease like, and (c) undifferentiated inflammatory presentation. Conclusion: Available literature on PIMS-TS is limited to retrospective or prospective observational studies. Informed by these cohort studies and indirect evidence from other inflammatory conditions in children and adults, as well as guidelines from international health authorities, the Swiss PIMS-TS recommendations represent best practice guidelines based on currently available knowledge to standardize treatment of children with suspected PIMS-TS. Given the absence of high-grade evidence, regular updates of the recommendations will be warranted, and participation of patients in trials should be encouraged.

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