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1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(3): 100158, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382172

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
AJOG Glob Rep ; 1(4): 100016, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330117

ABSTRACT

This survey study was conducted to better consider ways that the Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) can increase their international outreach. Most survey respondents indicated that international representation could be improved and cited barriers of cost and physical distance to annual meetings. This study highlights support for continuation of virtual conferencing to improve international representation and proposes a hybrid model of scientific engagement moving forward.

4.
AJOG Glob Rep ; 2(1): 100046, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy have demonstrated a range of neutralizing activity, but little has been published on the full profile of SARS CoV-2 related antibodies in maternal and cordblood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the profile and specificity of maternal and neonatal cord blood antibody profiles in response to SARS-CoV-2 virus exposure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of delivering patients at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital from April 2020 to February 2021. The primary objective was to describe unique maternal and fetal antibody epitope titers and specificity in patients with COVID-19 history. Serologic profile was assessed with a multiplex platform. Antigens used were hemagglutinin trimer influenza A (Hong Kong H3); spike trimers for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and betacoronaviruses HKU-1 and OC43; and spike N-terminal domain, spike receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein (full length) for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Here, 112 maternal samples and 101 maternal and cord blood pairs were analyzed. Of note, 37 patients had a known history of COVID-19 (positive polymerase chain reaction test) during pregnancy. Of 36 patients, 16 (44%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 7 days of delivery. Moreover, 15 of the remaining 76 patients (20%) without a known diagnosis had positive maternal serology. For those with a history of COVID-19, we identified robust immunoglobulin G response in maternal blood to CoV-2 nucleocapsid, spike (full length), and spike (receptor-binding domain) antigens with more modest responses to the spike (N-terminal domain) antigen. In contrast, the maternal blood immunoglobulin M response seemed more specific to spike (full length) epitopes than nucleocapsid, spike (receptor-binding domain), or spike (N-terminal domain) epitopes. There were significantly higher maternal and cord blood immunoglobulin G responses not only to CoV-2 spike (127.1-fold; standard deviation, 2.0; P<.00001) but also to CoV-1 spike (21.1-fold higher; standard deviation, 1.8; P<.00001) and Middle East respiratory syndrome spike (6.9-fold higher; standard deviation, 2.5; P<.00001). In contrast, maternal immunoglobulin M responses were more specific to CoV-2 spike (15.8-fold; standard deviation, 2.1; P<.00001) but less specific to CoV-1 (2.5-fold higher; standard deviation, 0.71; P<.00001) and no significant difference for Middle East respiratory syndrome. Maternal and cord blood immunoglobulin G antibodies were highly correlated for both spike and nucleocapsid (R2=0.96 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: Placental transfer was efficient, with robust nucleocapsid and spike responses. Both nucleocapsid and spike antibody responses should be studied for a better understanding of COVID-19 immunity. Immunoglobulin G antibodies were cross-reactive with related CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome spike epitopes, whereas immunoglobulin M antibodies, which cannot cross the placenta to provide neonatal passive immunity, were more SARS-CoV-2 specific. Neonatal cord blood may have significantly different fine specificity than maternal blood, despite the high efficiency of immunoglobulin G transfer.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2810-e2813, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501000

ABSTRACT

Infant outcomes after maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well described. In a prospective US registry of 263 infants, maternal SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea, or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
6.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2):S496-S497, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1384869

ABSTRACT

Objective: We sought to compare adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes between individuals who delivered with and without laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Study Design: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Ovid, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Library was performed on July 17, 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42020203475). Two additional eligible articles published on or before September 12, 2020 were included in the analysis. Two independent reviewers identified publications that directly compared outcomes among pregnant individuals with positive versus negative SARS-CoV-2 tests. We excluded publications with fewer than twenty gravid individuals in either cohort, review articles, or no data on primary outcomes (intrauterine fetal demise [IUFD] and neonatal death). Study effects were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Result(s): Of the 911 abstracts identified, 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Among these studies, 3553 individuals who delivered were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 14.8% (527) were positive. IUFD and neonatal death occurred at similar rates between the two groups (Table 1). Maternal outcomes including cesarean delivery and maternal death did not significantly differ between groups. However, rates of preterm birth, postpartum fever, maternal respiratory support, and maternal ICU admission were significantly greater in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group (Table 2). Conclusion(s): Current literature supports no observed difference in rates of IUFD, neonatal death, or maternal death between individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our conclusion may warrant revision as additional studies are published. [Formula presented] [Formula presented]Copyright © 2020

7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 585-596, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of intrauterine fetal death (20 weeks of gestation or later) and neonatal death among individuals who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared with those who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on admission for delivery. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Ovid, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until July 17, 2020. Hand search for additional articles continued through September 24, 2020. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched on October 21, 2020. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: The inclusion criteria were publications that compared at least 20 cases of both pregnant patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on admission to labor and delivery and those who tested negative. Exclusion criteria were publications with fewer than 20 individuals in either category or those lacking data on primary outcomes. A systematic search of the selected databases was performed, with co-primary outcomes being rates of intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death. Secondary outcomes included rates of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of the 941 articles and completed trials identified, six studies met criteria. Our analysis included 728 deliveries to patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 3,836 contemporaneous deliveries to patients who tested negative. Intrauterine fetal death occurred in 8 of 728 (1.1%) patients who tested positive and 44 of 3,836 (1.1%) who tested negative (P=.60). Neonatal death occurred in 0 of 432 (0.0%) patients who tested positive and 5 of 2,400 (0.2%) who tested negative (P=.90). Preterm birth occurred in 95 of 714 (13.3%) patients who tested positive and 446 of 3,759 (11.9%) who tested negative (P=.31). Maternal death occurred in 3 of 559 (0.5%) patients who tested positive and 8 of 3,155 (0.3%) who tested negative (P=.23). CONCLUSION: The incidences of intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death were similar among individuals who tested positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2 when admitted to labor and delivery. Other immediate outcomes of the newborns were also similar among those born to individuals who tested positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42020203475.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Mortality , Maternal Mortality , Perinatal Mortality , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Admission , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100109, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617896
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(3): 100134, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064735

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had an impact on healthcare systems around the world with 3 million people contracting the disease and 208,000 cases resulting in death as of this writing. Information regarding coronavirus infection in pregnancy is still limited. Objective: This study aimed to describe the clinical course of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitalized pregnant women with positive laboratory testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Study Design: This is a cohort study of pregnant women with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized at 12 US institutions between March 5, 2020, and April 20, 2020. Severe disease was defined according to published criteria as patient-reported dyspnea, respiratory rate >30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air, ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen <300 mm Hg, or lung infiltrates >50% within 24-48 hours on chest imaging. Critical disease was defined as respiratory failure, septic shock, or multiple organ dysfunction or failure. Women were excluded from the study if they had presumed coronavirus disease 2019, but laboratory testing was negative. The primary outcome was median duration from hospital admission to discharge. Secondary outcomes included need for supplemental oxygen, intubation, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, death, and timing of delivery. The clinical courses are described by the median disease day on which these outcomes occurred after the onset of symptoms. Treatment and neonatal outcomes are also reported. Results: Of 64 hospitalized pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019, 44 (69%) had severe disease, and 20 (31%) had critical disease. The following preexisting comorbidities were observed: 25% had a pulmonary condition, 17% had cardiac disease, and the mean body mass index was 34 kg/m2. Gestational age was at a mean of 29±6 weeks at symptom onset and a mean of 30±6 weeks at hospital admission, with a median disease day 7 since first symptoms. Most women (81%) were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 7% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir. All women with critical disease received either prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation during their admission. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (6 days [severe group] and 10.5 days [critical group]; P=.01). Intubation was usually performed around day 9 on patients who required it, and peak respiratory support for women with severe disease was performed on day 8. In women with critical disease, prone positioning was required in 20% of cases, the rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome was 70%, and reintubation was necessary in 20%. There was 1 case of maternal cardiac arrest, but there were no cases of cardiomyopathy or maternal death. Thirty-two of 64 (50%) women with coronavirus disease 2019 in this cohort delivered during their hospitalization (34% [severe group] and 85% [critical group]). Furthermore, 15 of 17 (88%) pregnant women with critical coronavirus disease 2019 delivered preterm during their disease course, with 16 of 17 (94%) pregnant women giving birth through cesarean delivery; overall, 15 of 20 (75%) women with critical disease delivered preterm. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths or cases of vertical transmission. Conclusion: In pregnant women with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, admission into the hospital typically occurred about 7 days after symptom onset, and the duration of hospitalization was 6 days (6 [severe group] vs 12 [critical group]). Women with critical disease had a high rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and there was 1 case of cardiac arrest, but there were no cases of cardiomyopathy or maternal mortality. Hospitalization of pregnant women with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 resulted in delivery during the clinical course of the disease in 50% of this cohort, usually in the third trimester. There were no perinatal deaths in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section/methods , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100119, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064730
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100107, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064726

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to report pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus spectrum infections, and particularly coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease because of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection during pregnancy. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched electronically utilizing combinations of word variants for coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome or MERS or COVID-19 and pregnancy. The search and selection criteria were restricted to English language. Study Eligibility Criteria: Inclusion criteria were hospitalized pregnant women with a confirmed coronavirus related-illness, defined as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or COVID-19. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods: We used meta-analyses of proportions to combine data and reported pooled proportions, so that a pooled proportion may not coincide with the actual raw proportion in the results. The pregnancy outcomes observed included miscarriage, preterm birth, preeclampsia, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, fetal growth restriction, and mode of delivery. The perinatal outcomes observed were fetal distress, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, neonatal asphyxia, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, perinatal death, and evidence of vertical transmission. Results: Nineteen studies including 79 hospitalized women were eligible for this systematic review: 41 pregnancies (51.9%) affected by COVID-19, 12 (15.2%) by MERS, and 26 (32.9%) by SARS. An overt diagnosis of pneumonia was made in 91.8%, and the most common symptoms were fever (82.6%), cough (57.1%), and dyspnea (27.0%). For all coronavirus infections, the pooled proportion of miscarriage was 64.7% (8/12; 95% confidence interval, 37.9-87.3), although reported only for women affected by SARS in two studies with no control group; the pooled proportion of preterm birth <37 weeks was 24.3% (14/56; 95% confidence interval, 12.5-38.6); premature prelabor rupture of membranes occurred in 20.7% (6/34; 95% confidence interval, 9.5-34.9), preeclampsia in 16.2% (2/19; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-34.1), and fetal growth restriction in 11.7% (2/29; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-24.4), although reported only for women affected by SARS; 84% (50/58) were delivered by cesarean; the pooled proportion of perinatal death was 11.1% (5/60; 95% confidence interval, 84.8-19.6), and 57.2% of newborns (3/12; 95% confidence interval, 3.6-99.8) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. When focusing on COVID-19, the most common adverse pregnancy outcome was preterm birth <37 weeks, occurring in 41.1% of cases (14/32; 95% confidence interval, 25.6-57.6), while the pooled proportion of perinatal death was 7.0% (2/41; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-16.3). None of the 41 newborns assessed showed clinical signs of vertical transmission. Conclusion: In hospitalized mothers infected with coronavirus infections, including COVID-19, >90% of whom also had pneumonia, preterm birth is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. COVID-19 infection was associated with higher rate (and pooled proportions) of preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death. There have been no published cases of clinical evidence of vertical transmission. Evidence is accumulating rapidly, so these data may need to be updated soon. The findings from this study can guide and enhance prenatal counseling of women with COVID-19 infection occurring during pregnancy, although they should be interpreted with caution in view of the very small number of included cases.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2, Supplement):S496-S497, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1056202
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(5): 510.e1-510.e12, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, as community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 became increasingly prevalent, pregnant women seemed to be equally susceptible to developing coronavirus disease 2019. Although the disease course usually appears mild, severe and critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019 seem to lead to substantial morbidity, including intensive care unit admission with prolonged hospital stay, intubation, mechanical ventilation, and even death. Although there are recent reports regarding the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy, there is a lack of information regarding the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant vs nonpregnant women. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the outcomes of severe and critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant vs nonpregnant, reproductive-aged women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter, retrospective, case-control study of women with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection hospitalized with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in 4 academic medical centers in New York City and 1 in Philadelphia between March 12, 2020, and May 5, 2020. The cases consisted of pregnant women admitted specifically for severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 and not for obstetrical indications. The controls consisted of reproductive-aged, nonpregnant women admitted for severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity that includes the following: death, a need for intubation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, or a need for high-flow nasal cannula O2 supplementation. The secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admission, length of stay, a need for discharge to long-term acute care facilities, and discharge with a home O2 requirement. RESULTS: A total of 38 pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infections were admitted to 5 institutions specifically for coronavirus disease 2019, 29 (76.3%) meeting the criteria for severe disease status and 9 (23.7%) meeting the criteria for critical disease status. The mean age and body mass index were markedly higher in the nonpregnant control group. The nonpregnant cohort also had an increased frequency of preexisting medical comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The pregnant women were more likely to experience the primary outcome when compared with the nonpregnant control group (34.2% vs 14.9%; P=.03; adjusted odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-18.2). The pregnant patients experienced higher rates of intensive care unit admission (39.5% vs 17.0%; P<.01; adjusted odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-17.5). Among the pregnant women who underwent delivery, 72.7% occurred through cesarean delivery and the mean gestational age at delivery was 33.8±5.5 weeks in patients with severe disease status and 35±3.5 weeks in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 status. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 are at an increased risk for certain morbidities when compared with nonpregnant controls. Despite the higher comorbidities of diabetes and hypertension in the nonpregnant controls, the pregnant cases were at an increased risk for composite morbidity, intubation, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. These findings suggest that pregnancy may be associated with a worse outcome in women with severe and critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019. Our study suggests that similar to other viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, pregnant women may be at risk for greater morbidity and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1117-1125, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, symptomology, and disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: The PRIORITY (Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY) study is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of people in the United States who are pregnant or up to 6 weeks postpregnancy with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We analyzed the clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19 in participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reported symptoms at the time of testing. RESULTS: Of 991 participants enrolled from March 22, 2020, until July 10, 2020, 736 had symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing; 594 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 142 tested negative in this symptomatic group. Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.1), and 37% will nulliparous. Ninety-five percent were outpatients. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-infection were a geographically diverse cohort: 34% from the Northeast, 25% from the West, 21% from the South, and 18% from the Midwest. Thirty-one percent of study participants were Latina, and 9% were Black. The average gestational age at enrollment was 24.1 weeks, and 13% of participants were enrolled after pregnancy. The most prevalent first symptoms in the cohort of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were cough (20%), sore throat (16%), body aches (12%), and fever (12%). Median time to symptom resolution was 37 days (95% CI 35-39). One quarter (25%) of participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection had persistent symptoms 8 or more weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a prolonged and nonspecific disease course during pregnancy and in the 6 weeks after pregnancy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04323839.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(6): 151295, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005616

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to review key areas that should be considered and modified in our obstetric protocols, specifically: 1) Patient triage, 2) Labor and delivery unit policies, 3) Special considerations for personal protective equipment (PPE) needs in obstetrics, 4) Intrapartum management, and 5) Postpartum care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obstetrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Humans , Labor, Obstetric , Personal Protective Equipment , Postnatal Care/methods , Pregnancy , Triage/methods
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 303-312, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency of maternal and neonatal complications, as well as maternal disease severity, in pregnancies affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Ovid, ClinicalTrials.gov, MedRxiv, and Scopus were searched from their inception until April 29, 2020. The analysis was limited to reports with at least 10 pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that reported on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A systematic search of the selected databases was performed by implementing a strategy that included the MeSH terms, key words, and word variants for "coronavirus," "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "pregnancy.r The primary outcomes were maternal admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), critical disease, and death. Secondary outcomes included rate of preterm birth, cesarean delivery, vertical transmission, and neonatal death. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages with number of cases and 95% CIs. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of the 99 articles identified, 13 included 538 pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, with reported outcomes on 435 (80.9%) deliveries. Maternal ICU admission occurred in 3.0% of cases (8/263, 95% CI 1.6-5.9) and maternal critical disease in 1.4% (3/209, 95% CI 0.5-4.1). No maternal deaths were reported (0/348, 95% CI 0.0-1.1). The preterm birth rate was 20.1% (57/284, 95% CI 15.8-25.1), the cesarean delivery rate was 84.7% (332/392, 95% CI 80.8-87.9), the vertical transmission rate was 0.0% (0/310, 95% CI 0.0-1.2), and the neonatal death rate was 0.3% (1/313, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). CONCLUSION: With data from early in the pandemic, it is reassuring that there are low rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and vertical transmission with SARS-CoV-2. The preterm birth rate of 20% and the cesarean delivery rate exceeding 80% seems related to geographic practice patterns. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42020181497.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Mortality , Perinatal Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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