Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
1.
Immunity ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936566

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Many immunocompromised patients mount suboptimal humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Here, we assessed the single-cell profile of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells post-mRNA vaccination in healthy individuals and patients with various forms of immunodeficiencies. Impaired vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity was observed in many immunocompromised patients, particularly in solid organ transplant and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Notably, individuals with an inherited lack of mature B cells (X-linked agammaglobulinemia;XLA) displayed highly functional spike-specific T cell responses. Single-cell RNA-sequencing further revealed that mRNA vaccination induced a broad functional spectrum of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in healthy individuals and patients with XLA. These responses were founded on polyclonal repertoires of CD4+ T cells and robust expansions of oligoclonal effector memory CD45RA+ CD8+ T cells with stem-like characteristics. Collectively, our data provide the functional continuum of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses post-mRNA vaccination, highlighting that cell-mediated immunity is of variable functional quality across immunodeficiency syndromes.

2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(7): 941-950, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890190

ABSTRACT

School closures occurred extensively during the COVID-19 pandemic, and occur in other settings, such as teacher strikes and natural disasters. The cost of school closures has proven to be substantial, particularly for households of lower socioeconomic status, but little evidence exists on how to mitigate these learning losses. This paper provides experimental evidence on strategies to support learning when schools close. We conduct a large-scale randomized trial testing two low-technology interventions-SMS messages and phone calls-with parents to support their child in Botswana. The combined treatment improves learning by 0.12 standard deviations, which translates to 0.89 standard deviations of learning per US$100, ranking among the most cost-effective interventions to improve learning. We develop remote assessment innovations, which show robust learning outcomes. Our findings have immediate policy relevance and long-run implications for the role of technology and parents to support education provision during school disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Learning , Parents , Schools
3.
J Exp Med ; 219(7)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878728

ABSTRACT

Autosomal recessive IRF7 deficiency was previously reported in three patients with single critical influenza or COVID-19 pneumonia episodes. The patients' fibroblasts and plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced no detectable type I and III IFNs, except IFN-ß. Having discovered four new patients, we describe the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of seven IRF7-deficient patients from six families and five ancestries. Five were homozygous and two were compound heterozygous for IRF7 variants. Patients typically had one episode of pulmonary viral disease. Age at onset was surprisingly broad, from 6 mo to 50 yr (mean age 29 yr). The respiratory viruses implicated included SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. Serological analyses indicated previous infections with many common viruses. Cellular analyses revealed strong antiviral immunity and expanded populations of influenza- and SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IRF7-deficient individuals are prone to viral infections of the respiratory tract but are otherwise healthy, potentially due to residual IFN-ß and compensatory adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Whether pre-infection use of immunosuppressant drugs is associated with COVID-19 severity remains unclear. The study was aimed to determine the association between pre-infection use of immunosuppressant drugs with COVID-19 outcomes within one month after COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: This cohort study included ≥18 years-old individuals with underlying conditions associated with an immunocompromised state and diagnosed with COVID-19 between February-2020 and January-2021 at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm. Exposure to immunosuppressant drugs was defined based on dose and duration of drugs (glucocorticoids, and drugs included in L01 or L04 chapter of ATC-classification) before COVID-19 diagnosis. Outcomes included hospital admission, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, mortality, renal failure, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac event. Odds ratios(OR) were calculated using logistic regression and baseline covariate adjustment for confounding with inverse probability of treatment weights. RESULTS: Of 1067 included individuals, 444 were pre-exposed to immunosuppressive treatments before COVID-19 diagnosis (72 high-dose glucocorticoids, 255 L01 drugs(antineoplastics), 198 L04(other immunosuppressants) and 78 to multiple drugs). There was no association between pre-exposure and hospital admission (OR 0.83,[95%CI 0.64-1.09]) due to COVID-19. Pre-exposure to L01 or L04 drugs were not associated with hospital admission (aORs: 1.23[0.86-1.76] and 1.31[0.77-2.21) or other outcomes. High-dose glucocorticoids (≥20mg/day prednisolone equivalent) were associated with hospital admission (aOR 2.50[1.26-4.96]), cardiac events (aOR 1.93,[1.08-3.46]),pulmonary embolism (aOR 2.78[1.08-7.15]) and mortality (aOR 3.48,[1.77-6.86]) due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Antineoplastic and other immunosuppressants drugs were not associated with COVID-19 severity whereas high-dose glucocorticoids were associated. Further studies should evaluate the effect of pre-exposure of different dose of glucocorticoids on COVID-19 prognosis.

5.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 54, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846787

ABSTRACT

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional T cells with innate-like capacity to rapidly respond to microbial infection via MR1-restricted antigen recognition. Emerging evidence indicate that they can also act as rapid sensors of viral infection via innate cytokine activation. However, their possible role in the immune response to mRNA vaccination is unknown. Here, we evaluated the involvement of MAIT cells in individuals vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. MAIT cell levels, phenotype and function in circulation were preserved and unperturbed through day 35 post-vaccination in healthy donor (HD) vaccinees, as well as people living with HIV (PLWH) or with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Unexpectedly, pre-vaccination and post-vaccination levels of MAIT cells correlated positively with the magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses in the HD vaccinees. This pattern was largely preserved in the PID group, but less so in the PLWH group. Furthermore, in the HD vaccinees levels of MAIT cell activation and cytolytic potential correlated negatively to the adaptive antigen-specific immune responses. These findings indicate an unexpected association between MAIT cell compartment characteristics and the immune response magnitude to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826681

ABSTRACT

Immunodeficient individuals often rely on donor-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy (IGRT) to prevent infections. The passive immunity obtained by IGRT is limited and reflects the state of immunity in the plasma donor population at the time of donation. The objective of the current study was to describe how the potential of passive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in commercial off-the-shelf Ig products used for IGRT has evolved during the pandemic. Samples were collected from all consecutive Ig batches (n = 60) from three Ig producers used at the Immunodeficiency Unit at Karolinska University Hospital from the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic until January 2022. SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations and neutralizing capacity were assessed in all samples. In vivo relevance was assessed by sampling patients with XLA (n = 4), lacking endogenous immunoglobulin synthesis and on continuous Ig substitution, for plasma SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentration. SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations in commercial Ig products increased over time but remained inconsistently present. Moreover, Ig batches with high neutralizing capacity towards the Wuhan-strain of SARS-CoV-2 had 32-fold lower activity against the Omicron variant. Despite increasing SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations in commercial Ig products, four XLA patients on IGRT had relatively low plasma concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with no potential to neutralize the Omicron variant in vitro. In line with this observation, three out the four XLA patients had symptomatic COVID-19 during the Omicron wave. In conclusion, 2 years into the pandemic the amounts of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 vary considerably among commercial Ig batches obtained from three commercial producers. Importantly, in batches with high concentrations of antibodies directed against the original virus strain, protective passive immunity to the Omicron variant appears to be insufficient.

7.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(4): e13153, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784739

ABSTRACT

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have been unduly severe in patients with haematological malignancies, in particular in those with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Based on a series of observations, we propose that an underlying mechanism for the aggressive clinical course of COVID-19 in CLL is a paucity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in these patients. Indeed, pDCs express Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which together with interferon-regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), enables pDCs to produce large amounts of type I interferons, essential for combating COVID-19. Treatment of CLL with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors increased the number of pDCs, likely secondarily to the reduction in the tumour burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , COVID-19/complications , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(4): 716-727, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739383

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Limited data is available on the effect of COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised individuals. Here, we provide the results from vaccinating a single-center cohort of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). METHODS: In a prospective, open-label clinical trial, 50 patients with CVID and 90 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody (Ab) production after one or two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Additionally, in selected patients, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T-cells were assessed. RESULTS: A potent vaccine-induced anti-spike-specific IgG Ab response was observed in all the HC. In contrast, only 68.3% of the CVID patients seroconverted, with median titers of specific Ab being 83-fold lower than in HC. In fact, only 4/46 patients (8.6%) of patients who were seronegative at baseline reached the threshold for an optimal response (250 U/mL). Using the EUROclass definition, patients with either a reduced proportion, but not absolute counts, of switched memory B-cells or having an increased frequency of CD21low B-cells generally generated poor vaccine responses. Overall, CVID-patients had reduced spike-specific IFN-γ positive CD4+ T cell responses 2 weeks after the second dose, compared to HC. The total CD4 and CD4 central memory cell counts correlated with humoral immunity to the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: CVID patients with low frequency of switched memory B-cells or an increased frequency of CD21low B-cells according to the EUROclass definition demonstrated poor responses to Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Cellular immune responses were significantly affected, affirming that the defect in CVID is not limited to humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 20, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707603

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune responses have been studied extensively in the course of mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Considerably fewer studies have assessed the effects on innate immune cells. Here, we characterized NK cells in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients in the course of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA prospective, open-label clinical vaccine trial. See trial registration description in notes. Results revealed preserved NK cell numbers, frequencies, subsets, phenotypes, and function as assessed through consecutive peripheral blood samplings at 0, 10, 21, and 35 days following vaccination. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of NKG2C+ NK cells at baseline (Day 0) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab titers following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination at Day 35. The present results provide basic insights in regards to NK cells in the context of mRNA vaccination, and have relevance for future mRNA-based vaccinations against COVID-19, other viral infections, and cancer.Trial registration: The current study is based on clinical material from the COVAXID open-label, non-randomized prospective clinical trial registered at EudraCT and clinicaltrials.gov (no. 2021-000175-37). Description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04780659?term=2021-000175-37&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
Med (N Y) ; 3(2): 137-153.e3, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised individuals are highly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Whether vaccine-induced immunity in these individuals involves oral cavity, a primary site of infection, is presently unknown. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients (n = 404) and healthy controls (n = 82) participated in a prospective clinical trial (NCT04780659) encompassing two doses of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. Primary immunodeficiency (PID), secondary immunodeficiencies caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)/chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T), solid organ transplantation (SOT), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients were included. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to SARS-CoV-2 spike were measured by multiplex bead-based assays and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay. FINDINGS: IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in saliva in HIV and HSCT/CAR-T groups were comparable to those of healthy controls after vaccination. The PID, SOT, and CLL patients had weaker responses, influenced mainly by disease parameters or immunosuppressants. Salivary responses correlated remarkably well with specific IgG titers and the neutralizing capacity in serum. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the predictive power of salivary IgG yielded area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95 and positive predictive value (PPV) = 90.7% for the entire cohort after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva conveys vaccine responses induced by mRNA BNT162b2. The predictive power of salivary spike IgG makes it highly suitable for screening vulnerable groups for revaccination. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Erling Perssons family foundation, Region Stockholm, Swedish Research Council, Karolinska Institutet, Swedish Blood Cancer Foundation, PID patient organization of Sweden, Nordstjernan AB, Center for Medical Innovation (CIMED), Swedish Medical Research Council, and Stockholm County Council (ALF).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 472-476, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632511

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern (VOC) has destabilized global efforts to control the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent data have suggested that B.1.1.529 can readily infect people with naturally acquired or vaccine-induced immunity, facilitated in some cases by viral escape from antibodies that neutralize ancestral SARS-CoV-2. However, severe disease appears to be relatively uncommon in such individuals, highlighting a potential role for other components of the adaptive immune system. We report here that SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells induced by prior infection or BNT162b2 vaccination provide extensive immune coverage against B.1.1.529. The median relative frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognized B.1.1.529 in previously infected or BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were 84% and 91%, respectively, and the corresponding median relative frequencies for SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells were 70% and 92%, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across groups further revealed that SARS-CoV-2 spike-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were functionally and phenotypically similar in response to the ancestral strain or B.1.1.529. Collectively, our data indicate that established SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, especially after BNT162b2 vaccination, remain largely intact against B.1.1.529.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294107

ABSTRACT

Schools closed extensively during the COVID-19 pandemic and occur in other settings, such as teacher strikes and natural disasters. This paper provides some of the first experimental evidence on strategies to minimize learning loss when schools close. We run a randomized trial of low-technology interventions – SMS messages and phone calls – with parents to support their child. The combined treatment cost-effectively improves learning by 0.12 standard deviations. We develop remote assessment innovations, which show robust learning outcomes. Our findings have immediate policy relevance and long-run implications for the role of technology and parents as partial educational substitutes when schooling is disrupted.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103705, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with immunocompromised disorders have mainly been excluded from clinical trials of vaccination against COVID-19. Thus, the aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate safety and efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in five selected groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 539 study subjects (449 patients and 90 controls) were included. The patients had either primary (n=90), or secondary immunodeficiency disorders due to human immunodeficiency virus infection (n=90), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation/CAR T cell therapy (n=90), solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n=89), or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n=90). The primary endpoint was seroconversion rate two weeks after the second dose. The secondary endpoints were safety and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: Adverse events were generally mild, but one case of fatal suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction occurred. 72.2% of the immunocompromised patients seroconverted compared to 100% of the controls (p=0.004). Lowest seroconversion rates were found in the SOT (43.4%) and CLL (63.3%) patient groups with observed negative impact of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ibrutinib, respectively. INTERPRETATION: The results showed that the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine was safe in immunocompromised patients. Rate of seroconversion was substantially lower than in healthy controls, with a wide range of rates and antibody titres among predefined patient groups and subgroups. This clinical trial highlights the need for additional vaccine doses in certain immunocompromised patient groups to improve immunity. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, Nordstjernan AB, Region Stockholm, Karolinska Institutet, and organizations for PID/CLL-patients in Sweden.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 276-292, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry for studies listed from database inception to May 1, 2020. Double-blind RCTs of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation for any duration, with a placebo or low-dose vitamin D control, were eligible if they had been approved by a research ethics committee, and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Studies reporting results of long-term follow-up of primary RCTs were excluded. Aggregated study-level data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration and age, were obtained from study authors. Using the proportion of participants in each trial who had one or more ARIs, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs (primary outcome) compared with placebo. Subgroup analyses were done to estimate whether the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25(OH)D concentration (<25 nmol/L vs 25·0-49·9 nmol/L vs 50·0-74·9 nmol/L vs >75·0 nmol/L), vitamin D dose (daily equivalent of <400 international units [IU] vs 400-1000 IU vs 1001-2000 IU vs >2000 IU), dosing frequency (daily vs weekly vs once per month to once every 3 months), trial duration (≤12 months vs >12 months), age at enrolment (<1·00 years vs 1·00-15·99 years vs 16·00-64·99 years vs ≥65·00 years), and presence versus absence of airway disease (ie, asthma only, COPD only, or unrestricted). Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190633. FINDINGS: We identified 1528 articles, of which 46 RCTs (75 541 participants) were eligible. Data for the primary outcome were obtained for 48 488 (98·1%) of 49 419 participants (aged 0-95 years) in 43 studies. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the vitamin D supplementation group had one or more ARIs (14 332 [61·3%] of 23 364 participants) than in the placebo group (14 217 [62·3%] of 22 802 participants), with an OR of 0·92 (95% CI 0·86-0·99; 37 studies; I2=35·6%, pheterogeneity=0·018). No significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs was observed for any of the subgroups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects of supplementation were observed in trials in which vitamin D was given in a daily dosing regimen (OR 0·78 [95% CI 0·65-0·94]; 19 studies; I2=53·5%, pheterogeneity=0·003), at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (0·70 [0·55-0·89]; ten studies; I2=31·2%, pheterogeneity=0·16), for a duration of 12 months or less (0·82 [0·72-0·93]; 29 studies; I2=38·1%, pheterogeneity=0·021), and to participants aged 1·00-15·99 years at enrolment (0·71 [0·57-0·90]; 15 studies; I2=46·0%, pheterogeneity=0·027). No significant interaction between allocation to the vitamin D supplementation group versus the placebo group and dose, dose frequency, study duration, or age was observed. In addition, no significant difference in the proportion of participants who had at least one serious adverse event in the vitamin supplementation group compared with the placebo group was observed (0·97 [0·86-1·07]; 36 studies; I2=0·0%, pheterogeneity=0·99). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. INTERPRETATION: Despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials, vitamin D supplementation was safe and overall reduced the risk of ARI compared with placebo, although the risk reduction was small. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU for up to 12 months, and age at enrolment of 1·00-15·99 years. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires further investigation. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/diet therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
15.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 28205, 2020.
Article in English | NBER, Grey literature | ID: grc-748566

ABSTRACT

Schools closed extensively during the COVID-19 pandemic and occur in other settings, such as teacher strikes and natural disasters. This paper provides some of the first experimental evidence on strategies to minimize learning loss when schools close. We run a randomized trial of low-technology interventions – SMS messages and phone calls – with parents to support their child. The combined treatment cost-effectively improves learning by 0.12 standard deviations. We develop remote assessment innovations, which show robust learning outcomes. Our findings have immediate policy relevance and long-run implications for the role of technology and parents as partial educational substitutes when schooling is disrupted.

16.
Clinical Immunology Communications ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458692

ABSTRACT

Antibody deficiencies constitute the majority of primary immunodeficiencies in adults. These patients have a well-established increased risk of bacterial infections but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative risks upon contracting COVID-19. In this monocentric study the disease course of COVID-19 in 1 patient with Good's syndrome and 13 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is described. The severity of disease ranged from very mild to severe. Several patients required hospitalization and immunomodulatory treatment but all survived. Although viral infections are not a typical feature of humoral immunodeficiencies we recommend that vigilance is increased in the management of patients with Good's syndrome and CVID during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
J Immunol Methods ; 499: 113159, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440195

ABSTRACT

In general, the method of choice for evaluating immunity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is detection of antibodies against the virus in patient sera. However, this is not feasible in patients who do not produce antibodies, either due to a primary immunodeficiency or secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Assessment of the antiviral T cell response is an alternative to serological tests, but most T cell assays are labor-intensive and unsuitable for a clinical routine laboratory. We developed a flow cytometry-based assay for T cell proliferative responses against SARS-CoV-2, based on the detection of blast transformation of activated cells. The assay was validated on previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and healthy seronegative blood donors, displaying 74% sensitivity and 96% specificity for previous infection with SARS-CoV-2. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency with a history of COVID-19. The described T-cell assay is a clinically relevant complement to serology in the evaluation of cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2, which can be emulated by any routine lab with flow cytometric competence.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e046738, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 may cause severe pneumonitis and trigger a massive inflammatory response that requires ventilatory support. The intensive care unit (ICU)-mortality has been reported to be as high as 62%. Dexamethasone is the only of all anti-inflammatory drugs that have been tested to date that has shown a positive effect on mortality. We aim to explore if treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is safe and effective for patients with severe COVID-19. Our hypothesis is that HBO can prevent ICU admission, morbidity and mortality by attenuating the inflammatory response. The primary objective is to evaluate if HBO reduces the number of ICU admissions compared with best practice treatment for COVID-19, main secondary objectives are to evaluate if HBO reduces the load on ICU resources, morbidity and mortality and to evaluate if HBO mitigates the inflammatory reaction in COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised, controlled, phase II, open label, multicentre trial. 200 subjects with severe COVID-19 and at least two risk factors for mortality will be included. Baseline clinical data and blood samples will be collected before randomisation and repeated daily for 7 days, at days 14 and 30. Subjects will be randomised with a computer-based system to HBO, maximum five times during the first 7 days plus best practice treatment or only best practice treatment. The primary endpoint, ICU admission, is defined by criteria for selection for ICU. We will evaluate if HBO mitigates the inflammatory reaction in COVID-19 using molecular analyses. All parameters are recorded in an electronic case report form. An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board will review the safety parameters. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial is approved by The National Institutional Review Board in Sweden (2020-01705) and the Swedish Medical Product Agency (5.1-2020-36673). Positive, negative and any inconclusive results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals with open access. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04327505. EudraCT number: 2020-001349-37.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden , Treatment Outcome
20.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections revealed a protective effect of the intervention. Since then, 20 new RCTs have been completed. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D for ARI prevention using a random effects model. Pre-specified sub-group analyses were done to determine whether effects of vitamin D on risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration or dosing regimen. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry from inception to 1st May 2020. Double-blind RCTs of supplementation with vitamin D or calcidiol, of any duration, were eligible if they were approved by a Research Ethics Committee and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and pre-specified as an efficacy outcome. Aggregate data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration, were obtained from study authors. The study was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42020190633). FINDINGS: We identified 45 eligible RCTs (total 73,384 participants). Data were obtained for 46,331 (98.0%) of 47,262 participants in 42 studies, aged 0 to 95 years. For the primary comparison of vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo, the intervention reduced risk of ARI overall (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99; P for heterogeneity 0.01). No statistically significant effect of vitamin D was seen for any of the sub-groups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects were seen for trials in which vitamin D was given using a daily dosing regimen (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93); at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89); and for a duration of ≤12 months (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.93). No significant interaction was seen between allocation to vitamin D vs. placebo and dose frequency, dose size, or study duration. Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.09). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. A funnel plot showed left-sided asymmetry (P=0.008, Egger's test). INTERPRETATION: Vitamin D supplementation was safe and reduced risk of ARI, despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU vitamin D for up to 12 months. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires investigation. FUNDING: None.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL