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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab339, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive therapies proposed for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management may predispose to secondary infections. We evaluated the association of immunosuppressive therapies with bloodstream-infections (BSIs) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 over a 5-month period. We obtained clinical, microbiologic and laboratory data from electronic medical records. Propensity-score-matching helped create balanced exposure groups. Demographic characteristics were compared across outcome groups (BSI/no BSI) using two-sample t-test and Chi-Square test for continuous and categorical variables respectively, while immunosuppressive therapy use was compared using McNemar's test. Conditional logistic regression helped assess the association between immunosuppressive therapies and BSIs. RESULTS: 13,007 patients were originally included, with propensity-score-matching producing a sample of 6,520 patients. 3.74% and 3.97% were diagnosed with clinically significant BSIs in the original and propensity-score-matched populations respectively. COVID-19 patients with BSIs had significantly longer hospitalizations, higher intensive care unit admission and mortality rates compared to those without BSIs. On univariable analysis, combinations of corticosteroids/anakinra [odds-ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) 1.05-3.80, P value.0342] and corticosteroids/tocilizumab [OR 2.13, 95% C.I. 1.16-3.94, P value .0155] were significantly associated with BSIs. On multivariable analysis (adjusting for confounders), combination corticosteroids/tocilizumab were significantly associated with any BSI [OR 1.97, 95% C.I. 1.04-3.73, P value.0386] and with bacterial BSIs [OR 2.13, 95% C.I. 1.12-4.05, p-value 0.0217]. CONCLUSIONS: Combination immunosuppressive therapies were significantly associated with BSI occurrence in COVID-19 patients; their use warrants increased BSI surveillance. Further studies are needed to establish their causative role.

3.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101125, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164245

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection (IFI) due to several species of saprophytic fungi, occurring in patients with underlying co-morbidities (including organ transplantation). During the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there have been increasing reports of bacterial and fungal co-infections occurring in COVID-19 patients, including COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We describe a case of mucormycosis occurring after COVID-19, in an individual who received a recent heart transplant for severe heart failure. Two months after heart transplant, our patient developed upper respiratory and systemic symptoms and was diagnosed with COVID-19. He was managed with convalescent plasma therapy and supportive care. Approximately three months after COVID-19 diagnosis, he developed cutaneous mucormycosis at an old intravascular device site. He underwent extensive surgical interventions, combined with broad-spectrum antifungal therapy. Despite the aggressive therapeutic measures, he died after a prolonged hospital stay. In this case report, we also review the prior well-reported cases of mucormycosis occurring in COVID-19 patients and discuss potential mechanisms by which COVID-19 may predispose to IFIs. Similar to CAPA, mucormycosis with COVID-19 may need to be evaluated as an emerging disease association. Clinicians should be vigilant to evaluate for invasive fungal infections such as mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Transplantation , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Rhizopus/isolation & purification , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , COVID-19/therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Debridement , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/etiology , Disease Susceptibility , Fatal Outcome , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping/instrumentation , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Surgical Wound Infection/complications , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Surgical Wound Infection/surgery
4.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2522-2531, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029528

ABSTRACT

We compared the outcome of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) patients to a transplant naïve population. In total, 10 356 adult hospital admissions for COVID-19 from March 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020 were analyzed. Data were collected on demographics, baseline clinical conditions, medications, immunosuppression, and COVID-19 course. Primary outcome was combined death or mechanical ventilation. We assessed the association between primary outcome and prognostic variables using bivariate and multivariate regression models. We also compared the primary endpoint in SOT patients to an age, gender, and comorbidity-matched control group. Bivariate analysis found transplant status, age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, COPD, and GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 to be significant predictors of combined death or mechanical ventilation. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, SOT status had a trend toward significance (odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% CI 0.99-1.69, p = .06). Compared to an age, gender, and comorbidity-matched control group, SOT patients had a higher combined risk of death or mechanical ventilation (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03-1.74, p = .027).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
5.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1819-1825, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642184

ABSTRACT

There is minimal information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in immunocompromised individuals. We have studied 10 patients treated at 12 adult care hospitals. Ten kidney transplant recipients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction, and 9 were admitted. The median age was 57 (interquartile range [IQR] 47-67), 60% were male, 40% Caucasian, and 30% Black/African American. Median time from transplant to COVID-19 testing was 2822 days (IQR 1272-4592). The most common symptom was fever, followed by cough, myalgia, chills, and fatigue. The most common chest X-ray and computed tomography abnormality was multifocal patchy opacities. Three patients had no abnormal findings. Leukopenia was seen in 20% of patients, and allograft function was stable in 50% of patients. Nine patients were on tacrolimus and a mycophenolic antimetabolite, and 70% were on prednisone. Hospitalized patients had their antimetabolite agent stopped. All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Three patients died (30%), and 5 (50%) developed acute kidney injury. Kidney transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be monitored closely in the setting of lowered immunosuppression. Most individuals required hospitalization and presenting symptoms were similar to those of nontransplant individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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